Реферат: Scotland (Шотландия)
Moscow State Pedagogical University
thedepartment of sociology,
economics and law
chair of English languageCourse paper on the topic
by Gribacheva Alexandra,
a student of the 3rd year
I. A few words about this work.
II. Scotland – how does it looklike?
3.Plant& animal life.
I. Early peoples of Scotland& their relations.
II. “… we will never consent tosubject ourselves to the dominion
III. Scotland’s beautifulcapital.
6.Wherelife is one long festival.
3.Afew words about tartan.
4.Thenational musical instrument of the Scots.
5.Highland’sdances and games.
6.The famous Loch Ness.
II.Scotland for every season.
I.A few words about this work.
Though Scotland is a part of TheUnited Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland it still remains anindividual country with its own traditions, customs, history and the way oflife. In one word, Scotland is not England at all. It is a country with aunique culture full of ancient legends, bright contrasts and mysterious castles. Secrets and mysteryalways appear immediately when you open a book about Scotland.
But unfortunately you can comeacross such a problem as lack of literature on this topic. I was lucky to findseveral books that gave exhaustive information about this magic country. I wasso exited by the Scottish national heroes and by this independent nation that Idecided to find out more information about them.
Somepeople say that if you haven’t been in Venice you haven’t seen Italy at all. Ican say that if you haven’t been in Scotland you haven’t seen Britain at all. Asfor me I was lucky to visit the capital of England London. But alas! I didn’thave any opportunity to visit or just to have a glimpse of Scotland, a land offestivals, kilts and bagpipes.
Itseemed to me that after visiting London I know everything about Britain. And onlyafter reading several books about Scotland I realized how wrong I had been. NowI can just say: “I wish I were in Scotland!”
Iwas seized with an idea of studying more about it and that is why I decided totake this topic for my course paper. I am not sure that I will be able to telleverything that I found out about this country and its people. But I promise todepict all unforgettable events and traditions of the Scottish people thatimpressed me most of all.
II.Scotland –what does it look like?
Scotland,administrative division of the kingdom of Great Britain, occupying the northernthird of the island of Great Britain. Scotland is
bounded on the north by theAtlantic Ocean; on the east by the North Sea; on the southeast by England; on the south by Solway Firth, which
partly separates it from England,and by the Irish Sea; and on the west by
North Channel, which separates itfrom Ireland, and by the Atlantic Ocean.
As a geopolitical entity Scotlandincludes 186 nearby islands, the majority of which are contained in threegroups-namely, the Hebrides, also known as the Western Islands, situated offthe western coast; the Orkney Islands, situated off the northeastern coast; andthe Shetland Islands, situated northeast of the Orkney Islands. The largest ofthe other islands is the Island of Arran. The area, including the islands, is78,772 sq km (30,414 sqmi).
Scotlandhas a very irregular coastline. The western coast in particular is deeplypenetrated by numerous arms of the sea, most of which are narrow submergedvalleys, known locally as sea lochs, and by a number of broadindentations, generally called firths. The principal firths are the Firth ofLorne, the Firth of Clyde, and Solway Firth.
Scotland is characterized by anabundance of streams and lakes (lochs). Notable among the lakes, which areespecially numerous in the central and northern regions, are Loch Lomond (thelargest), Loch Ness, Loch Tay, and Loch Katrine.
Manyof the rivers of Scotland, in particular the rivers in the west, are short,torrential streams, generally of little commercial importance. The longestriver of Scotland is the Tay; the Clyde, however, is the principal navigationalstream, site of the port of Glasgow. Other chief rivers include the Forth,Tweed, Dee, and Spey.
Likethe climate of the rest of Great Britain, that of Scotland is subject to themoderating influences of the surrounding seas. As a result of these influences,extreme seasonal variations are rare, and temperate winters and cool summersare the outstanding climatic features. Low temperatures however, are commonduring the winter season in the mountainous districts of the interior. In thewestern coastal region, which is subject to the moderating effects of the GulfStream, conditions are somewhat milder than in the east.
3.Plantand Animal Life
Themost common species of trees indigenous to Scotland are oak andconifers-chiefly fir, pine, and larch. Large forested areas, however, are rare,and the only important woodlands are in the southern and eastern Highlands.Except in these wooded areas, vegetation in the elevated regions consistslargely of heather, ferns, mosses, and grasses. Saxifrage, mountain willow, andother types of alpine and arctic flora occur at elevations above 610 m (2000ft). Practically all of the cultivated plants of Scotland were imported fromAmerica and the European continent.
Theonly large indigenous mammal in Scotland is the deer. Both the red deer and theroe deer are found, but the red deer, whose habitat is the Highlands, is by farthe more abundant of the two species. Other indigenous mammals are the hare,rabbit, otter, ermine, pine marten, and
wildcat. Game birds includegrouse, blackcock, ptarmigan, and waterfowl. The few predatory birds includethe kite, osprey, and golden eagle. Scotland is famous for the salmon and troutthat abound in its streams and lakes. Many species of fish, including cod,haddock, herring, and various types of shellfish, are found in the coastalwaters.
Scotland,like the rest of the island of Great Britain, has significant reserves of coal.It also possesses large deposits of zinc, chiefly in the south. The soil isgenerally rocky and infertile, except for that of the Central Lowlands.Northern Scotland has great hydroelectric power potential and contains GreatBritain's largest hydroelectric generating stations. Beginning in the late1970s, offshore oil deposits in the North Sea became an important part of theScottish economy. The most important city here is Aberdeen which is the oilcentre of the country. Ships and helicopters travel from Aberdeen to the NorthSea oil rigs. Therefore, Scotland is rather rich in natural resources and sometimescan even condition to England.
Thepeople of Scotland, like those of Great Britain in general, are descendants ofvarious racial stocks, including the Picts, Celts, Scandinavians, and Romans.Scotland is a mixed rural-industrial society. Scots divide themselves intoHighlanders, who consider themselves of purer Celtic blood and retain astronger feeling of the clan, and Lowlanders, who are largely of Teutonicblood.
Governmentin Scotland is in four tiers. A new Scottish Parliament was elected in1999, following devolution of powers from the United Kingdom Parliament inLondon. This is the first time Scotland has had its own parliament in 300years. The Scottish Parliament, which sits in Edinburgh, is responsible formost aspects of Scottish life. The national parliament in Westminster (London)retains responsibility for areas such as defence, foreign affairs and taxation.The European Parliament in Brussels (Belgium) exercises certain powers vestedin the European Union.
TheScottish Parliament is supported by the Scottish Executive also based inEdinburgh. The Scottish Government is led by a First Minister. A Secretary ofState for Scotland remains part of the UK Cabinet, and is supported by theScotland Office (previously the Scottish Office) based in Glasgow, with officesin Edinburgh and London.
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Local governmentis divided into 29 unitary authorities and three island authorities, havingbeen subject to a major reorganization in 1995.
Scotland has its own legalsystem, judiciary and an education system which, at all levels, differsfrom that found «south of the border» in England and Wales.
Scotlandalso has its own banking system and its own banknotes. Edinburgh is the secondfinancial centre of the UK and one of the major financial centres of the world.
The main part.
I.Early peoples of Scotland and theirrelations.
(see Appendices, page 23)
Mosthistorians agree that the first man appeared in Scotland as long ago as 6,000BC. Bone and antler fishing spears and other rudimentary implements found alongthe western part of the country serve as evidence to support this theory. TheBeaker civilization arrivedthree thousand years later, and is notable for its henges (of which Stonehengeis one of the most famous). The Beaker people eventually spread as far north asOrkney.
Asa result of its geography, Scotland has two different societies. In the centerof Scotland mountains stretch to the far north and across to the west, beyondwhich lie many islands. To the east and to the south the lowland hills aregentler, and much of the countryside is like England, rich, welcoming and easyto farm. North of the “Highland Line”people stayed tied to their own family groups. South and east of this line societywas more easily influenced by the changes taking place in England.
Scotlandwas populated by four separate groups of people. The main group, the Picts,lived mostly in the north and northeast. They spoke Celtic as well as another,probably older, language completely unconnected with any known language today,and they seem to have been the earliest inhabitants of the land.
Thenon-Pictish inhabitants were mainly Scots. The Scots were Celtic settlers whostarted to move into the western Highlands from Ireland in the fourth century.
In843 the Pictish and Scottish kingdoms were united under a Scottish king, whocould also probably claim the Picts throne through his mother, in this wayobeying both Scottish and Pictish rules of kingship.
Thethird inhabitants were the Britons, who inhabited the Lowlands, and had beenpart of the Romano-British world. They had probably given up their old tribalway of life by the sixth century.
Finally,there were Angels from Nothambria who had pushed northwards into the ScottishLowlands.
Unitybetween Picts, Scots and Britons was achieved for several reasons. They shareda common Celtic culture, language and background. Their economy mainly dependedon keeping animals. These animals were owned by the tribe as a hole, and forthis reason land was also held by tribes, not by individual people. The commoneconomic system increased their feeling of belonging to the same kind ofsociety and the difference from the agricultural Lowlands. The sense of commonculture may have been increased by marriage alliances between tribes. This ideaof common landholding remained strong until the tribes of Scotland, called“clans”,collapsed in the eighteenth century.
Thespread of Celtic Christianity also helped to unite the people. The firstChristian mission to Scotland had come to southwest Scotland in about AD 400.Later, in 563, Columba, known as the “Dove of the Church”, came from Ireland.Through his work both Highland Scots and Picts were brought to Christianity. Heeven, so it is said, defeated a monster in Loch Ness, the first mention of thisfamous creature. By the time of the Synod of Whitby in 663, the Picts, Scots and Britons had all been brought closertogether by Christianity.
TheAngles were very different from the Celts. They had arrived in Britain infamily groups, but they soon began to accept the authority from people outsidetheir own family. This was partly due to their way of life. Although they keptsome animals, they spent more time growing crops. This meant that land was heldby individual people, each man working in his own field. Land was distributedfor farming by the local lord. This system encouraged the Angles of Scotland todevelop a non-tribal system of control, as the people of England further south weredoing. This increased their feeling of difference from the Celtic tribalHighlanders further north.
Finally,as in Ireland and in Wales, foreigninvaders increased the speed of political change. Vikings attacked the coastalareas of Scotland, and they settled on many of the islands, Shetland, theOrkneys, the Hebrides, and the Isle of Man southwest of Scotland. In order toresist them, Picts and Scots fought together against the enemy raiders andsettles. When they couldn’t push them out of the islands and coastal areas,they had to deal with them politically. At first the Vikings, or “Norsemen”,still served the King of Norway. But communications with Norway were difficult.Slowly the earls of Orkney and other areas found it easier to accept the kingof Scots as their overlord, rather than the more distant king of Norway.
However,as the Welsh had also discovered, the English were a greater danger than theVikings. In 934 the Scots were seriouslydefeated by a Wessex army pushing northwards. The Scots decided to seek thefriendship of the English, because of the likely losses from war. England wasobviously stronger than Scotland but, luckily for the Scots, both the north ofEngland and Scotland were difficult to control from London. The Scots hopedthat if they were reasonably peaceful the Sassenachswould leave them along.
Scotlandremained a difficult country to rule even from its capital, Edinburgh. Anyonelooking at a map of Scotland can see that control of the Highlands and islandswas a great problem. Travel was often impossible in winter, and slow anddifficult in summer. It was easy for a clan chief or noble to throw off therule of the king.
II. “…we willnever consent to subject ourselves to the dominion of the English.”
England,Wales, Scotland and Ireland were once known as the British Isles. Nowadays thisterm is normally used only in Geography. In fact, the people of these isleshave seldom been politically or culturally united. English kings started warsto unite the British Isles from the 12th century. These wars werewars of conquest and only the Welsh war was a success.
Atthat time England was ruled by several ambitious kings, who wanted to conquermore countries for themselves and to add more titles to their names. They had, asa rule, absolutely no interest in the people of the countries that they wishedto conquer. It did not concern them that these wars brought misery to thepeople in whose land they fought. The result was generally to create a strong,national, patriotic feeling in the invaded country, and a great hatred of theinvader.
Idon’t have much space here to speak about the history of Scotland in detailsthat is why I’d like to mention one historical episode which shows the Scottishattitude towards freedom and independence. (For the chronology of the events inthe history of Scotland see Appendices,
AlthoughScottish kings had sometimes accepted the English king as their “overlord”,they were much stronger than the many Welsh kings had been. Scotland owes itsclan system partly to an Englishwoman, Margaret, the Saxon Queen of MalcolmIII. After their marriage in 1069, she introduced new fashions and new ideas tothe Scottish court – and among the new ideas was the feudal system of landtenure. Until that time, most of the country had been divided into sevensemi-independent tribal provinces. Under the feudal system, all land belongedto the king, who distributed it among his followers in exchange for allegianceand service. But a Highland chieftain could easily ignore a far-off Lowland king and, as time went by, the clanchiefs became minor kings themselves. They made alliances with other clans, hadthe power of life and death over their followers.
By the 11th century there was onlyone king of Scots, and he ruled over all the south and east of Scotland. InIreland and Wales Norman knights were strong enough to fight local chiefs ontheir own. But only the English king with a large army could hope to defeat theScots. Most English kings did not even try, but Edward I was different.
TheScottish kings were closely connected with England. Since Saxon times marriageshad frequently taken place between the Scottish and English royal families. Atthe same time the Scottish kings wanted to establish strong government and sothey offered land to Norman knights from England in return for their loyalty.
In1290 a crises took place over the succession to the Scottish throne. On astormy night in 1286 King Alexander of Scotland was riding home along a path bythe sea in the dark. His horse took a false step, and the king was thrown fromthe top of a cliff.
Disputesarose at once among all those who had any claim at all to the Scottish throne.Finally two of the claimants, John de Balliol and Robert Bruce, were left.Scottish nobles wanted to avoid civil war and invited Edward I to settle thematter. Edward had already shown interest in joining Scotland to his kingdom.He wanted his son to marry Margaret, the heir to the Scottish throne, but shehad died in a shipwreck. Now he had another chance. He told both men that theymust do homage to him, and so accept his overlordship, before he would helpsettle the question. He then invaded Scotland and put one of them, John deBalliol, on the Scottish throne.
DeBalliol’s four years as a king were not a success. First Edward made himprovide money and troops for the English army and the Scottish nobles rebelled.They felt that Edward was ruining their country.
ThenEdward invaded Scotland again, and captured all the main Scottish castles.During this invasion he stole the sacred Stone of Destiny from Scone Abbey. Thelegend said that all Scottish kings must sit on it. Edward believed thatwithout the Stone, any Scottish coronation would be meaningless, and that hisown possession of the Stone would persuade the Scots to accept him as king.However, neither he nor his successors became kings of Scots, and the Scottishkings managed perfectly well without the stone.
Allthis led to the creation a popular resistance movement. At first it was led byWilliam Wallace, a Norman-Scottish knight. But after one victory againstEnglish army, Wallace’s “people’s army” was itself destroyed by Edward in 1297.
Itseemed that Edward had won after all. Wallace was captured and executed. Hishead was put on a pole on London Bridge. Edward tried to make Scotland a partof England as he had already done with Wales. Some Scottish nobles acceptedhim, but the people refused to be ruled by the English king. Scottishnationalism was born on the day Wallace died.
Anew leader took up the struggle. This was Robert Bruce, who had competed withJohn de Balliol for the throne. He was able to raise an army and defeat theEnglish army in Scotland. Edward the I gathered another great army and marchedagainst Robert Bruce, but he died on the way north in 1327. On Edward’s gravewere written the words “Edward, the Hammer of the Scots”. He had intended tohammer them into the ground and destroy them, but in fact he had hammered theminto a nation.
AfterEdward’s death Bruce had enough time to defeat his Scottish enemies, and makehimself accepted as king of the Scots. He then began to win back the castlesstill held by the English. When the son of his old enemy Edward II invadedScotland in 1314 Bruce destroyed his army at Bannockburn, near Stirling. Sixyears later, in 1320, the Scots clergy meeting in Arbroath wrote to the Pope inRome to tell him that they would never accept English authority: “for as longas even one hundred of us remain alive, we will never consent to subjectourselves to the dominion of the English.”
Inthe long, bitter struggle for independence, Scotland never capitulated, andwhen at last it became part of the United Kingdom in 1707 it was by treaty,even if many Scots regarded the Act of Unionas a piece of treachery. It is still a land apart, with a very separateculture. Scotland retained its separate legal and ecclesiastical systems, anduntil well into the 20th century its separate system of freeeducation was the most advanced and generous in Britain. Nowadays, it has itsown Parliament.
III. Scotland’s beautiful capital.
Edinburgh, the capital ofScotland, is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. This distinction ispartly an accident of Nature, for the city is built upon jumble of hills and valleys;however, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the natural geographywas enhanced by the works of a succession of distinguished Georgian andVictorian architects.
Evidence that Stone Ages settlerslived in Edinburgh has been found on Calton Hill,Arthur’s Seat andCastlehill, and the town’s early history centres around Castlehill. Somehistorians believe that this volcanic hill was a tribal stronghold as early as600 BC.
One tribe who definitely madetheir mark were a group of Nothumbrians, whose 7th-century kingEdwin,is thought to have given his name to the castle and town. “Burgh” is a Scottishword for borough (a small town).
2. Edinburgh’s Castle
The Royal Castle of Edinburgh isthe most powerful symbol of Scotland. For centuries, this mighty fortress hasdominated its surroundings with a majesty, which has deeply impressed manygenerations.
The volcanic castle rock inEdinburgh was born over 340 million years ago following a violent eruption deepin the earth’s crust. Its story as a place of human habitation stretches back amere 3,000 years, to the late Bronze Age. It was evidently a thriving hill-topsettlement when Roman soldiers marched by in the first century AD.
The place had become an importantroyal fortress by the time of Queen Margaret’sdeath there in November 1093. Throughout the Middle Ages Edinburgh Castleranked as one of the major castles of the kingdom and its story is very muchthe story of Scotland. But within the building of the Palace of Holyroodhousein the early 16th century, the castle was used less and less as aroyal residence, though it remained symbolically the heart of the kingdom.
Edinburgh Castle is the home ofthe Scottish Crown Jewels, the oldest Royal Regalia in Britain. The Honours ofScotland – the Crown, Sword and Sceptre – were shaped in Italy and Scotlandduring the reigns of King James IV and king James V and were first usedtogether as coronation regalia in 1543.
After the 1707 Treaty of Unionbetween Scotland and England, the Honours were locked away in the Crown Roomand the doors were walled up. 111 years later, the Honours were rediscoveredand immediately displayed to the public. Displayed with the Crown Jewels is theStone of Destiny, returned to Scotland after 700 years in England.
Edinburgh Castle boasts having thegiant siege gun Mons Meg in its military collection. Mons Meg (or simply “Mons”) was made at Mons (inpresent-day Belgium) in 1449. It was at the leading edge of artillerytechnology at the time: it weighs 6040 kilogrammes and its firing gunstonesweigh 150 kilogrammes. It soon saw action against the English. But it greatweigh made it ponderously slow to drag around – it could only make 5 kilometresa day. By the middle of the 16th century it was retired frommilitary service and restricted to firing salutes from the castle ramparts. Itwas returned to the castle in 1829.
3. The Military Tattoo
For many visitors the castle meansnothing without the Edinburgh Military Tattoowhich is taking place at the Castle Esplanade. The esplanade had been a narrowrocky ridge until the middle of the 18th century when the presentplatform was created as a parade ground.
The signal (Tattoo) indicated thatsoldiers should return to their quarters and that the beer in the tavernsshould be turned off. This signal was transmitted by drum beat each evening.Eventually this developed into a ceremonial performance of military music bymassed bands.
It began when the city held itsfirst International Festival in the summer of 1947. The Army staged an eveningmilitary display on the Esplanade. The march and counter-march of the pipes anddrums which was held near one of the most dramatic places anywhere in the worldmade it an immediate success. The Tattoo has been repeated every summer sinceon the same site. Each Tattoo closes with another “tradition”- the appearanceof the lone piper on the battlements of the castle.
4. St. Giles’ Cathedral
If Edinburgh Castle has been atthe centre of Scottish life for 9 centuries, St. Giles’ Cathedral, the HighKirk of Edinburgh, has been the religious heart of Scotland for even longer.
In 854 there was a church. Itbelonged to Lindisfarne, where Columba’s monks first brought the Gospel fromIona. In 1150, the monks of St. Giles’ were farming lands round about and abigger church was built by the end of the century. The first parish church ofEdinburgh was dedicated to St. Giles, a saint popular in France. It wasprobably due to the Auld Alliance of Scotland and France against the commonenemy of England.
St Giles’Cathedral is one of the most historic and romantic buildings inScotland. Founded in 1100s, this church has witnessed executions, riots andcelebrations. Its famous crown spire has dominated Edinburgh’s skyline for over500 years. Scotland was a Catholic nation until the Reformation in the mid-16thcentury.
John Knox,the fiery “Trumpeter of God”, who preached against Popery, brought St. Gilesinto great prominence. Knox’s aim was to create a reformed Church of Scotland,to banish “popery”, to strengthen democracy and to set up a system ofcomprehensive education. The religious transition was to take 130 years ofstruggle to achieve.
Many of the famous Scots arecommemorated in the church, including R. Burns and R. L. Stevenson.
The Giles is famous for itsThistle Chapel, which is home to the Order of the Thistleand honours some of the greatest Scots of the last 300 years. This exquisitelittle room will take one’s breath away. Its magnificent carvings and stoneworkevoke the ancient origins of the order and will amaze anyone with a wealth ofdetails associated with Scotland, for example, the angel that plays thebagpipe.
5. Edinburgh’s museums.
In the field of arts, Edinburgh has ahost of outstanding attractions for different tastes and interests. TheScottish National Portrait Gallery provides a unique visual history ofScotland, told through portraits of the figures who shaped it: royals andrebels, poets and philosophers, heroes and villains. All the portraits are ofScots, but not all are by Scots. The collection also holds works by greatEnglish, European and American masters. Since the Gallery first opened itsdoors, the collection has grown steadily to form a kaleidoscope of Scottishlife and history. Among the most famous portraits are Mary, Queen of Scots,Ramsay’s portrait of philosopher David Hume, Nasmyth’s portrait of RobertBurns, and Raeburn’s Sir Walter Scott. In addition to paintings, it displayssculptures, miniatures, coins, medallions, drawings, watercolours andphotographs.
The Royal Museum and the Museum ofScotland are two museums under one roof. The Royal Museum is Scotland’s premiermuseum and international treasure-house. It contains material from all over theworld. A vast and varied range of objects are on display – from the endangeredGiant Panda to working scale models of British steam engines. The Museum ofScotland tells the remarkable story of a remarkable country from the geologicaldawn of time to modern-day life in Scotland. The variety and richness ofScotland’s long and vibrant history, is brought to life by the fascinatingstories each object and every gallery has to tell.
At the heart of the museum is theKingdom of the Scots. This is the story of Scotland’s emergence as adistinctive nation able to take its place on the European stage. Here are theicons of Scotland’s past – objects connected with some of the most famousevents and best-known figures in Scottish history, from the Declaration ofArbroath toMary, Queen of Scots.
Described as “the noisiest museum inthe world”, the Museum of Childhood is a favourite with adults and childrenalike. It is a treasure house, full of objects telling of childhood, past andpresent. The museum has five public galleries. A list of their contents makesit sound like a magical department store. There are riding toys, push and pulltoys, doll’s prams, yachts and boats, slot machines, a punch and judy, anickelodeon, a carousel horse, dolls’ houses, toy animals, zoos, farms andcircuses, trains, soldiers, optical toys, marionettes, soft toys, games andmuch, much more.
In addition, the museum features atime tunnel (with reconstructions of a school room, street scene, fancy dressparty and nursery from the days of our grandparents) an activity area, andvideo presentations. The museum opened in 1955 was the first museum in theworld to specialize in the history of childhood. It also helps to find out howchildren have been brought up, dressed and educated in decades gone by.
“The People’s Story” is a museum witha difference. As the name implies, it uses oral history, reminiscence, andwritten sources to tell the story of the lives, work and leisure of te ordinarypeople of Edinburgh, from the late 18th century to the present day.The museum is filled with the sounds, sights and smells of the past – a prisoncell, town crier, reform parade, cooper’s workshop, fishwife, servant at work,dressmaker, 1940s kitchen, a wash-house, pub and tea-room.
These reconstructions are complimentedby displays of photographs, everyday objects and rare artifacts, such as themuseum’s outstanding collections of trade union banners and friendly societyregalia.
6. Where life is one long festival.
Edinburgh may be called the Athens of the North, but from mid-Augustto early September that’s probably because it’s hot, noisy and overpriced – andcrawling with foreign students.
Over the next three weeks thepopulation will double as half a million visitors invade Britain’s mostmajestic city.
If you are a theatre buff or a comedyfan, Edinburgh at Festival timewill be your idea of heaven. But the city is a centre for culture all yearround.
In the run-up to Christmas there arehundreds of shows, including Noel Coward’s Relative Values at the King’sTheatre and the Anatomy Performance Company’s dance theatre at the Traverse.Romeo and Juliet is at the Traverse, Les Miserables at the Playhouse and TheRecruiting Officer at the Lyceum. And outside Festival time, you’ll find it alot easier to get tickets.
As for the visual arts, Edinburgh’smuseums more than match any of the special exhibitions mounted during theFestival.
Most attractive is the ScottishNational Gallery of Modern Art, in a stately home on the outskirts of the city.Here you can find unbeatable masterpieces created by Picasso, Matisse andHockney.
If shopping is more your stile,Jenners,on Princes Street, is Edinburgh’s answer to Harrods. And the Scottish Galleryon George Street is a happy hunting ground for collectors of fine art.Edinburgh is full of good hotels but its dramatic sky-line is dominated by twoenormous hostelries at either end of Princes Street. The Caledonian and theBalmoral (formerly the North British) were built by rival railway companies inthe days when competing steam trains raced from London.
You can also have a look at the Gothicmonument to Sir Walter Scott, which stands in East Princes Street Gardens andwas begun in 1840. It is rather high, and narrow staircase (a total of 287 stepsin several stages) offers spectacular views of the city. Not far from themonument in Princes Street Gardens one can find the oldest Floral Clock in theworld, built in 1903, consisting of about 25,000 flowers and plants.
Like all the best capitals,Edinburgh boasts cosmopolitan influences. Asian shopkeepers sell Samosas andScotch (mutton) pies in the same thick Scots brogue, and the city is litteredwith Italian restaurants.
The city has three universities:the University of Edinburgh (1583), Herriot-Watt(established in 1885; received university status in 1966) and NapierUniversity.
Edinburgh is also an industrialcentre. Its industries include printing, publishing, banking, insurance,chemical manufacture, electronics, distilling, brewing.
I.“Scottishness”.Oh Scotia! My dear, my native soil!Robert Burns
Scotland is a country of greatvariety with its own unique character and strong tradition. Its cities offer amixture of designer lifestyle and age old tradition, while the countrysideranges from Britain’s highest mountains and waterfalls to the most stunning gorgesand glens.
Scotland’s national tradition israther intense and much alive even now and is rather rare in the modern world.Scotland is part of Britain. But it is not England. The Scottishness is a realthing, not an imaginary feeling, kind of picturesque survival of the past. Itis based on Scot’s law which is different from the English. Scotland has its own national heroes foughtin endless battles against the English ( William Wallace, Sir John the Grahame, Robert Bruce and others).
1.'A wee dram'
Scots have their own nationaldrink, and you need only ask for Scotch,and that’s quite enough, you get what you wanted. More than half of Scotland'smalt whisky distilleries are in the Grampian Highlands, and thus a third of theworld's malt whisky is distilled here. A combination of fertile agriculturalland, a sheltered, wet climate and the unpolluted waters of the River Spey andits tributaries, combined with the obvious enthusiasm of the locals for thework (and the product!) mean it is an ideal place to produce malt whisky. Manydistilleries are open to visitors, and often offer samples!
The Scots are fond of thefollowing joke about scotch:
A youngman arrives in a small village situated near Loch Ness. There he meets an oldman and asks him:
- When does the Loch Ness Monsterusually appear?
- Usually it appears after thethird glass of Scotch, — answered the
2.Scottish national dress.
There is also a distinctivenational dress, the kilt. Strictly speaking it should be warn only by men; itis made of wool and looks like a pleated skirt. The kilt is a relic of the timewhen the clan system existed in the Highlands. But its origin is very ancient.The Celtic tribes who fought Ceasar wore kilts. When the Celts moved north upthrough Cornwall, and Wales, and Ireland, and eventually to Scotland, theybrought the kilt with them. A thousand years ago, there was nothing speciallyScottish about it. Now it has become the Highland’s national dress and is wornin many parts of Scotland. It is probably the best walking-dress yet inventedby man: there is up to 5 metres of material in it; it is thickly pleated st theback and sides; it is warm, it is airly, leaves the legs free for climbing; itstands the rain for hours before it gets wet through; it hangs well above themud and the wet grass; briefly it is warm for a cold day, and cool for a warmone. And, what is more, if a Highlander is caught in the mountains by thenight, he has but to unfasten his kilt and wrap it around him – 5 metres ofwarm wool – he’ll sleep comfortably enough the night through.
3.A few words about tartan.
Every Scottish clan had its owntartan.People in Highlands were very good weavers. They died their wool before weavingit; the dyes were made from various roots and plants which grew in this or thatbit of land. Therefore one clan dyed its wool in reddish colours, another ingreen, and so on. And they decorated them differently so as to distinguish theclansmen in battle (especially between neighboring clans which happened ratheroften).
On the subject of shopping fortartan, the choice is wide. Some designs are associated with particular clansand retailers will be happy to help you find “your” own pattern. By no meansall tartans belong to specific clans – several are “district” tartans,representing particular areas. The fascinating story of the tartan itself istold at the Museum of Scottish Tartans.
The museum possesses lots of rareexhibits. One of them is the remarkable woman’s Plaid or Arisaid, the oldestdated in the world: 1726. The Arisaid, worn only by women, reached from head toheels, belted at the waist and pinned at the breast.
The oldest piece of Tartan foundin Scotland dates back from about 325 AD. The cloth was found in a pot nearFalkirk,a simple check in two shades of brown, a long way from the checked and colouredtartans that came to be worn in the Highlands of Scotland in the 1550s. Thereare now over 2,500 tartan designs, many of them are no more than 20 years old.
4.The national musical instrument of the Scots.
Scotland has its own typicalmusical instrument, the pipes (sometimes called the bagpipes). The bagpipe wasknown to the ancient civilizations of the Near East. It was probably introducedinto Britain by the Romans. Carvings of bagpipe players on churches and a fewwords about them in the works of Chaucer and other writers show that it waspopular all over the country in the Middle Ages.
In Scotland the bagpipe was firstrecorded in the 16th century during the reign of James I, who was avery good player, and probably did much to make it popular. For long it hasbeen considered a national Scottish instrument. Even now it is still associatedwith Scotland.
The sound of the bagpipes is verystirring. The old Highland clans and later the Highland regiments used to gointo battle to the sound of the bagpipes.
The bagpipe consists of a reedpipe, the “chanter”, and a wind bag which provides a regular supply of air tothe pipe. The wind pipe is filled either from the mouth or by a bellows whichthe player works with his arm. The chanter has a number of holes or keys bymeans of which the tune is played.
5.Highland’s dances and games.
You can also find in Scotland itsown national dances, Highland dances and Scottish country dances; its own songs(some of which are very popular all aver Britain), its poetry (some of which isfamous throughout the English-speaking world), traditions, food and sports,even education, and manners.
Speaking about sports I can’t butmention Highland Gatherings or Games held in Braemar. They have been held theresince 1832, and since Queen Victoria visited them in 1848 the games haveenjoyed royal patronage. The Games consist of piping competitions, tugs-of-war(a test of strength in which two teams pull against other on a rope, eachtrying to pull the other over the winning line), highland wrestling anddancing, and tossing the caber.
6.The famous Loch Ness.
Fact or fiction, the Loch Ness monster is part of Loch Ness’smagnetic appeal to visitors. But there is much more to do and see around theshores of this famous waterway than just monster-spotting, and a pleasant day,or even longer, can be spent exploring the many activities. 24 miles long, amile wide and up to 700 feet deep Loch Ness is a land-locked fresh water lake lyingat the eastern end of the Great Glen,a natural geological fault which stretches across the width of Scotland. Theloch forms part of the Caledonian Canal completed by the celebrated civilengineer Thomas Telford (1757 – 1841), in 1822. Telford took 19 years to buildthe canal, which spared coastal shipping and fishing vessels a voyage throughthe waters of the Pentland Firth.
The story of Nessiterras Rhombopteryxor Nessie for short in Loch Ness has persistent down the centuries. The monsterwas first mentioned in AD 565 when St Columba allegedly persuaded it not to eatsomeone. Since records began, in 1933, more than 3000 people have claimed tohave seen it, but others are skeptical. They point out that no good photographsexist of the monster, that there have been no eggs found, no dead monsters (canit really be 2563 years old?) nor any other compelling evidence. Believersthink the monster is a plesiosaur, an otherwise extinct sea-dwelling reptile.Anyone who did prove conclusively the monster's existence would be hailed as apioneer, so it is no surprise to learn that monster-spotting is a popularpastime!
The Official Loch Ness Monster Centre isopened all year round and has exhibits showing geology, prehistory and historyof Scotland, along with SONAR records and underwater photography relating tothe monster.
TheOriginal Visitor Centre offers ahalf hour video of the monster detailing the research that has taken place,along with a video about Bonnie Prince Charlie.
The loch has been surveyed fordecades, by the RAF,eminent scientists, cranks, crackpots, mini-submarines and millions of poundsworth of high technology, including NASAcomputers. And still there is no proof…
7. Saint Andrew’s cross.
The Church of Scotland, aPresbyteriandenomination, is the official state church. The Roman Catholic church is secondin importance. Other leading denominations are the Episcopal Church inScotland, Congregationalist, Baptist, Methodist, and Unitarian. Jews are asmall minority.
St. Andrew’s cross is the nationalflag of Scotland. It consists of two diagonal white stripes crossing on a bluebackground. The flag forms part of the British national flag (Union Jack).
The flag of Presbyterian Churchdiffers a little bit from that of Scotland. It is also St. Andrew’s cross butwith a little addition: it has a burning bush centered, which signifiespresbyterianism.
The symbol comes from the motto of thePresbyterian Church, nec tamen consumebatur (neither wasit consumed) referring the bush that burnt, but was not consumed, so will bethe church that will last for ever.
St. Andrew is the patron saint ofScotland. He was a New Testament apostle who was martyred on an X-shaped cross.He was said to have given the Pictish army a vision of this cross at the battleof Athenstoneford between King Angus ofthe Picts and King Authelstan of the Angles. St. Andrew was foisted uponScotland as its patron when the old Celtic and Culdee centres were supersededby the new bishopric of St. Andrew’s. His feast-day is 30 November. On this daysome Scotsmen wear a thistlein the buttonhole.
One of the greatest treasures ofHuntly House Museum (Edinburgh) is the national Covenant, signed by Scotland’sPresbyterian leadership in 1638. Covenanters are 17th-century ScottishPresbyterians who bound themselves by covenants to maintain Presbyterianism asthe sole religion of Scotland and helped to establish the supremacy ofParliament over the monarch in Scotland and England. Early covenants supportingProtestantism were signed in 1557 and in 1581. In 1638 the covenant of 1581 wasrevived, and its signatories added a vow to establish Presbyterianism as thestate religion of Scotland.
II.Scotland for every season.
Ifyou hunt for the real Scotland, there will be many times when you know you havefound it: when you hear your first Highland Piper with the backdrop ofEdinburgh Castle; on some late, late evening on a far northern beach as the sunsets into a midsummer sea; or with your first taste of a malt whisky,peat-smoked and tangy; or when you sit in a café with the real Scots. Bythe way, the Scots are very sociable people. They like to spend their free timetogether, drinking coffee or scotch and talking. Scottish people are fond ofsinging at the national music festivals in chorus, at the fairs and in theparks. Most of Scotsmen are optimists. They don’t lose their heart and smile inspite of all difficulties.
The real Scotland is not found ina single moment – nor is it contained in a single season. Though the moorlandsturn purple in summer, Scotland in spring is famed for its clear light anddistant horizons, while autumn’s colours transform the woodlands… and whatcould be more picturesque than snow-capped hills seen from the warmth of yourhotel room?
Scenery, history, hospitality,humour, climate, traditions are offered throughout the year.
Even if you can feel it now youshould visit Scotland all the same, and see and enjoy this magic country withyour own eyes!
Scotland:its early peoples.
The chronology of the main events in thehistory of Scotland.
1st century Pictsprevented Romans from penetrating far into Scotland.
5th – 6th centuries Christianity was introduced into Scotland from Ireland.
9th century KennethMacAlpin united kingdoms of Scotland.
1263 Haakon, King of Norway, wasdefeated by Scots at Battle of Largs.
1292 –1306 Englishdomination:
in 1292 – 1296 Scotland was ruled by John Baliol;
in 1296 – 1306 Scotland was annexedto England.
1314 Robert Bruce defeated Englishat Bannockburn.
1328 Englandrecognized Scottish independence.
1603 JamesVI became James I of England.
1638 Scottishrebellion against England.
1651 Cromwellconquered Scotland.
1689 Jacobites were defeated at Killiecrankie.
1707 Act of Union withEngland.
1715, 1745 Failed Jacobites risingsagainst Britain.
1945 First Scottish nationalistmember of British Parliament was elected
1. Who in Scotland considerthemselves of purer Celtic blood?
2. When was a new ScottishParliament elected?
3. What was the Beakercivilization famous for?
4. Why was it so difficult tocontrol the Highlands and islands?
5. To whom does Scotland owe itsclan system?
6. Why did Edward I stole theStone of Destiny?
7. What do the words written onEdward’s grave mean?
8. Can you explain the name ofScotland’s capital, Edinburgh?
9. What giant thing can EdinburghCastle boast?
10. What did the Military Tattoooriginally mean?
11. Who brought St. Giles’ Cathedralinto great prominence?
12. What is the emblem of Scotland?Where can it be seen?
13. Why are the Royal Museum andthe Museum of Scotland worth visiting?
14. Which museum in Scotland is the“noisiest” in the world? Why?
15. Why do they call Edinburgh “theAthens of the North”?
16. What is Edinburgh’s answer toLondon’s Oxford Street?
17. Where did the national Scottishdress come from?
18. Why was it so important todecorate wool differently?
19. What is the real origin of thebagpipe?
20. What does the motto of thePresbyterian Church mean?
1. “Discovering Britain” PavlozkyV. M., St Petersburg, 2000.
2. “Britain in brief” Oshepkova V.V., Shustilova I. I., Moscow, 1997.
3. “Across England to Scotland”Markova N. N., Moscow, 1971.
4. “Pages of Britain’s history”Kaufman K. I., Kaufman M. U., Obninsk,
5. “An illustrated history ofBritain” McDowall D., Edinburgh, 1996.
6. “Robert Burns country”Swinglehurst E., Edinburgh, 1996.
7. “English for intermediate level”Part I, Moscow, 1995.
8. “Welcome to Edinburgh”,guide-book 1998/99.
In Scottish “loch”means “lake”.
Beaker civilization – prehistoric people thought to have been of Iberianorigin, who spread out over Europe from the 3rd millennium BC. Theywere skilled in metalworking, and are identified by their use of distinctiveearthenware drinking vessels with various design.
“Highland Line” – the division between highland and lowland
Everybody in the clan had the same family name, like MacDonald or MacGregor(mac means “son of”). The clan had its own territory and was ruled by achieftain.
so they called the Saxons (and still call the English)
Act of Union – 1707 act of Parliament that brought about the union of Englandand Scotland
Calton Hill – overlooks Central Edinburgh from the east.
Arthur’s Seat – hill of volcanic origin to the east of the centre of Edinburgh.It forms the core of Holyrood Park and is a dominant landmark: Castlehill isthe rock of volcanic origin on which Edinburgh Castle is situated.
Edwin (c585 – 633) – king of Nothumbria from 617. He captured and fortifiedEdinburgh, which was named after him.
St. Margaret ( c1045 – 1093 ) – Queen of Scotland. She was canonized in 1251 inrecognition of her benefactions to the church.
Tattoo – the word derives from the Dutch word “tap-toe”, which means “turn offthe taps”.
Knox, John (1513 (1514) – 1572) – Scottish reformer, founder of the Church ofScotland
The Order of the Thistle – Scotland’s highest order
Declaration of Arbroath – Declaration 26 April 1320 by Scottish nobles to theirloyalty to King Robert I and of Scotland’s identity as a kingdom independent ofEngland.
Edinburgh Festival has annually been held since 1947. It takes place fromAugust to September and includes music, drama, opera and art exhibition.
Jenners – the oldest independent department store in the world.
Heriot, Jeorge (1563 – 1624) – Scottish goldsmith and philanthropist; Watt,James (1736 – 1819) – Scottish engineer who developed the steam engine in 1760.
Napier, John (1550 – 1617) – Scottish mathematician who invented logarithms in1614.
Tartan – it is traditional Scottish drawing which consists of wide and narrowcross stripes of different colour and size; the softest wool of vividcolouring.
Falkirk – unitary authority, Scotland, 37 kilometres west of Edinburgh.
Tossing the caber – Scottish athletic sport. The caber (a tapered tree trunkabout 6 metres long, weighing about 100 kilograms) is held in the palms of thecupped hands and rests on the shoulder. The thrower runs forward and tosses thecaber, rotating it through 180 degrees so that it lands on its opposite end andfalls forward. The best competitors toss the caber about 12 metres.
Great Glen – valley in Scotland following coast-to-coast geological fault line,which stretches over 100 kilometres south-west from Inverness on the North Seato Fort William on the Atlantic coast.
Pentland Firth – channel separated the Orkney Islands from the northernmainland of Scotland.
RAF – Royal Air Force, the British airforce.
NASA – National Aeronautics and Space Administration, a US governmentorganization that controls space travel and the scientific study of space.
Presbyterianism – a religion close to Protestantism
Thistle is also the emblem of the whole Scotland.