Реферат: Сохранение национальной окраски при переводе художественных произведенийPlan.
Dialectics of national coloring in the translation. P.5
Coloring and erasure of coloring. P.13
Analogisms and anachronisms. P.22
Translationis a mean of interlingual communication. The translator makespossible an exchange of information between users of different languages byproducing in the target language a text which has an identical communicativevalue with the source text. This target text is not fully identical with the source textas to its form originality content due to the limitations imposed by the formaland semantic differences between the source language and target text.
National coloring of the work is one of examples of thesedifferences. Now it is one of important themes to be studied/ During many yearsthe USSR’s confines were closed and we had not much opportunity to interactwith many foreign countries. Of course, we had a great number of foreign booksbut most of them were either classic books or books of working class. So we hadnot opportunity to value all the literature of foreign countries. the same casewas in the foreign countries when they could not get all the variety of Russianliterature. They also preferred to read our classics. The result of it was thatthey could know only archaic coloring of the works and they had littleinformation about national coloring of Russia. And now then USSR does not existany more every state that was a part of the USSR can perform its own literatureand hence national coloring.
The author of this course paper considers that everyliterature work has its own national coloring. Every work is written in theconditions of the country where the author lives. Therefore the country withits language, mode of life, political, historical, economical atmosphere andmany other factors influence on the work and it acquires the national coloringof the country even if the author does not think of creating of any work thatwould be nationally colored.
The author of this course paper considers the preservation of nationalcoloring to be one of the most difficult tasks for translator. Nationalcoloring is the property of the country or its part. Every nation is proud ofits history; traditions and it would consider an offence if the translator doesnot manage to convey the national coloring or if he conveys it wrong. That iswhy the translator must be very attentive and careful with any kind of literarywork.Dialecticsof national coloring
Any literary work appears on the national ground, reflectsnational problems, features and at the same time the problems common to allmankind. Passing from one nation toanother literature enriches and extends the notion of peoples about each other.
It is one of the most difficult cases to convey nationalcoloring. Owing to the translation very important literary works were able toappear in many other countries and became available for people speaking otherlanguages. The translation helps mutual knowing and peoples' enrichment.
National coloring must be reflected adequately in thetranslation.
Dialectics of national coloring reveals itself specifically indifferent fields of spiritual culture of people and thus in various types oftranslation.
In the scientific and technique literature the nationalpsychological categories are less expressed. The contents of such translationsis valuable for all nations in spite of their national specific.
Thus, for example, concerning natural sciences Darwin's theoryor classic physics of Newton or modern physics of Einstein or Bore have thesame meaning for all the countries and nations. The original texts ofnatural-scientific works and their translations do not differ much from thispoint of view.
Here there is another case in the field of social-politicalliterature. It is closely connected with the ideological society of the countrywith its history and its historical specifics and it can never be separatedfrom country peculiarities and demands, political conditions, the events of itstime and it is changed by the factors that reflect the notion development.National peculiarities, problems and interests put impress both on the contentsand style of any author. In general the translation of social-politicalliterature is more similar with scientific literature.
Comparing the works of J. Steinbeck, J. Austin and others weshall see the specific of author's personality and country specific.
The national beginning of one or another country reflected in its literature culture and inwritten culture that is especially interesting for us from the translationpoint of view is the aggregate of characteristic peculiarities and featuresthat are specific for this nation and the constant historical development ofthis nation.
It alsohas common to all mankind, international character to which historicalconditions give its own national coloring, its self-expression. That is why wespeak about national specific character that was formed in the certainhistorical, social, geographic and other conditions of this country. Thisspecific character has enough concrete expression where one or another sign ispredominant and that is seen in one or another nation form. There is nationaloriginality reflected in the literature and other fields of social science andit has the more significance the more it is rich in content, progressiveness,brightness: other nations are enriched meeting with it discovering somethingnew, interesting, useful and important for them in this specific character.
The difficulties while translating are connected most of allwith conveyance of national character of one or another work: the brighter it reflects national life the moreilluminate characteristic situations the more difficult for the translator tofind adequate functional figurative means.
It will be enough to recollect the difficulties that the translator faced with translating wonderfulworks of outstanding American writer John Steinbeck. Steinbeck is not only adeeply national, original writer but also a modern writer. His creative workcould appear only in our days. Many translators mark out originality of hisfeature world and that is why the originality of his language and style and thespecific usage of popular speech and dialectisms. For example: It’sthe grapes! – Вот это жизнь! Got to blow town. – Mне пора сматываться из города. Steinbeck often usesparallel literary words and its dialect synonyms. For example: dish alsotranslated into Russian as красотка, деваха, jazzis translated as болтовня, брехня,болтология.Therefore, the translator must determinenational peculiarities of the contents and the form (that is languagepeculiarities, melodies, rhyme and so on) and substitute national figurativemeans (realias, poetic images) for others that are equivalents to the firsts intheir national determination to convey its national contents. The task of thetranslator is to find and rail the essence of national peculiarities andspecific character. Correct conveying of these nationality elements opens theway to reveal internationality in the work. The popular speech, dialectisms,social coloring, realias in Steinbeck’s works do not only total the basing ofhis original stylistics but also express certain over-text or behind-the-textpeculiarities of his work, modern feelings system, the exclusive rich fantasy,deep thoughts, piercing visible and spiritual words, plastic gift and abilityof transformation. All of these are united into complete combination oforiginal artistic picture of life together with unique intellectualforeshortening of views on it. For example: Don’t you have a silly bone inyour body? — Неужели у вас нет ни капли юмора?
Therefore it is not possible to create onlyconveying realias, social coloring and so on to display of national characterwhile translating. It can be got only if the translator is able to create thecombination of varied forms of national character in the creative work of oneauthor or another in his works. National coloring is not an appendix in thework but it is one of its main parts that total the work structure.
Originality and specific character do not show that the workcannot be translated but they show the creative character of the translationprocess. World literature knows many examples when translators managed to conveyall the originality of works and these translations became masterpieces astheir originals. Originality, national coloring of the work is not lost in thesucceed translations and that is one of the main principals of creativetranslation activity. National coloring like everything in the world is in theconstant movement. Here the translation ‘s role is enriched with one positivemoment. His task is to carry this constantly changing stability to readers ofother nations. It is interesting that for some works this process lasts morethan ten years till the form is adopted and reconstructed.
Reconstruction of national coloring in the translation veryoften depends on the prevailing methods used in different literary schools.
The volume of the translation is not underlining of nationalspecifics of origin text but it is the creation of its truly wholeness, findingof adequate concrete form that is to help to show the unity of national andcommon to all mankind coloring in the origin.
Translator must convey adequately the national characterconnected with the real representation of life. It means that he must knowsocial conditions and nation development whose literature he translates, hemust know and understand the specific spiritual way of life, find explanationsof problems caused with peculiarities of this nation and originality of hisdevelopment. For example, the figure of Marullo in John Steinbeck’s novel The winter of our discontent is acollective figure of one of the representatives of Italian emigrant in Americawho became rich in the period of 20-s years. Such figures were in many otherworks of that period and like them Marullo is the bearer of common for nativeAmericans problems but at Steinbeck’s work this figure differs with hisnational and artistic originality, caused by peculiarities of Americanemigrants development at that period.
What does every translator imply and what kind of tasks are infront of him? Why does he begin to translate works from another nationalliterature?
At first he must know and understand the individuality, uniqueof figures. Every artistic figure is unique according to its nature andirrespective of its national origin.
Secondly he must know and understand the essence of figuresand ideas of works of social class.
Thirdly he must take into account the national originalityreflected in the work: its plot, form, images, style, language etc.
Fourthly he must reveal international coloring of the workthat is significant for different countries, states and nations elements.
Fifthly he must reveal elements common to all mankindirrespective of their belonging to any country, epoch, and nation.
National and international, folk and common to all mankindactivities are tightly connected with each other and perform the complicatedialectic unity.
Translation is not only outward form of these mutualrelations; it is also dialectic unity of the national and internationalcoloring of its essence.
The point of the translation is a bridge between national andinternational coloring. That is why its main function is the turning ofspiritual values of one nation into the property of other nations; translationis transmission assisting to mutual penetration and influence of nationalcultures. In our days we can be witnesses of the powerful aspiration to mutualknowing, intellectual and spiritual communication. Every nation culture goesout the limits of its own country. Its relations with cultures of other nationsdevelopment on multilateral basis, they become more and more all embracing,acquiring bigger significance.
It is easy to note that major part of themes and problems inthe different national literature coincide. But treatment to these themes andsolutions of these problems are various and original in the works of differentcultures. For example the theme of Motherland in three poems of A. Block, R.Burns and I. R. Beher.
Common to all mankind theme of Motherland these three poetsexpress in different ways: their lyrical characters express their feelingsdifferently and have different notions of Motherland. Ideal of Motherland inthese poets' minds was formed in the different nations and spiritualenvironment. Originality of their attitude and artistic representation,originality of expressive means are the result of environment and otherfactors.
For Russian poet Alexander Block his Motherland is the mostdesirable dream, hope that it will bethe place of his last rest. In his poem Russia embodies its beautiful nature;for Robert Burns Motherland is associated with the figure of the mother's sadness missing her sons whofight for the freedom and will never come back; in Beher's poem we do not hearcry but anger and appeal to revenge for the outraged and ashamed Motherland. Grief,ache, anger and love are lyrical moods common to these three poets.
But for this specific feature in the expression of common toall people feeling of love to Motherland these poems would lose their concretecharacter.
International character in spiritual literature does not existabstractly; in every national culture it acquires concrete forms. It is thisdialect that must become ruling principle in the translating activity. Thetranslator must convey truly both components on this unity keeping in his mindthe frequent absence of confines between national and international coloringbecause they interlace with each other.
The translator only conventionally finds and marks outnational, social, individual, international, common to all mankind coloring.
They cannot be separated in any artistic work. Theirseparating leads to the art destroying. if the translator does not manage toconvey this floating it means that he has not able to create high-qualityauthentic translation.
Coloring and erasure ofcoloring.
The notion ofcoloring appeared in the literary criticism terminology and meant a specialquality of literary work, speech characteristic of personage, a specialemotional or linguistic look of separate literary work or an writer’s works,that is all peculiarities and originalities. Coloring of a word shows itsbelonging to a certain people, country, concrete historical epoch.
National (local) and historical coloring of realia is a newadditional meaning to its main signification. A.S. Pushkin uses realias евнух, гарем, гяур, чубук, щербет in Bahchisaray’sfountain; their specific coloring gives an oriental coloring to the poem.According to dictionaries щербет is an oriental fruit soft drink and it differs from lemonadeby its regional belonging and it is considered as a coloring. This neutral wordturns into realia owing to relation with this region. But if an inhabitant ofthis region who works in the West faces with this word it gives him anassociation connected with his motherland, his recollections and feelings.
Itmakes us consider coloring a part of connotative meaning of a realia.
It is appropriate to compare realias – words with specificnational and historical coloring – connotativelexis – with words deprived of such coloring. We may use two words – bird cherry and rook. They are only details of nature: bird cherry is a tree thatgrows in Northern America, Europe and Asia; and rook is specie of birds fromcrown family. These words are not realias because of their wide-spreadness andthey are not connected with people or country. However associations connectedwith bird cherry (the height ofspring) and rook (expectation ofspring) make a heart of Russian man quicken. He connects their connotativelywith realia not turning them into realia.
Another example touches up some difficulties translating ofthe title of famous Russian film Летят журавли into the Frenchlanguage: the French word grue alsomeans silly girl and a woman of easy virtue.
Sothey had to substitute the word “crane” for the word “stork”.
Inthese examples connotative words in contradiction to realia have full andsignificant equivalents.
“Inconvenient” word is often substituted for its functionalanalogies. Foe example, bird cherrycan be substituted for early blooming tree or bush – for England it can besubstituted for plum or cherry-tree or even for lilac; instead of rook they can use any convenient bird.The main idea is to evoke a reader of translated text the same associationsthat has a reader of origin text.
Thetransmission of connotative word by means of devices that are characteristicfeature for the transmission of realia usually leads to an undesirable results:a corresponding word must evoke a definite reaction.
Classifying the realia we noted that realias were allocatedaccording to their place or/and time. It is often happens that realia thatmeans the same or close material notions can be from different places andhistorical rubric: that is, they differ from each other according toconnotative meaning, coloring. For example, supreme organ is called seim in Poland, Supreme Court in Russia, cortesin Spain and Portugal, Public Meetingin Bulgaria, bundestag in Germany, rikstaf in Swiss, storting in Norway, folketingin Denmark, knesset in Israel. Allthese words mean Parliament and they do not differ much from each other buttheir traditional names represent characteristic national realia. Each of themhas its own features that belong only to it. However, but for thesedistinctions, national and historical coloring would not allow substitution foranother word in translation. Such substitution would destroy all coloring, tobe more exact; it would lead to anachronisms and analogisms that can destroythe harmony, so called truth of life.
It is clearly seen when such close in meaning word like хайдутин and клефт are compared. Both ofthem mean peasant-partisans who fought against Turkish ruling; both of themmainly attacked local Turkish feudalists and representatives of TurkishAdministration, and also their landowners who called them “thieves” or“bandits”; both of them acted in the same historical epoch (the time of OsmanDominion on the Balkans). These dates about клефт are related with хайдутин; the only difference is that хайдутинis Bulgarian and клефт is Greek. But it is enough to be impossible to translate хайдутин as клефт.
Connotations and coloring are part of meaning that means theycan be translated equal with semantic content of a word. If a translatormanaged to convey only a semantic lexical unit the translated text lost itscoloring for the reader.
But there are cases when connotation of a realia dies down,erasures. Such erasure logically leads to the turning of realia into common,uncolored word.
To distinguish this phenomenon from loss of coloring in atranslation we use a term “erasure”of coloring or connotation (erasedreality).
Some exotic words can be adopted by language and lose theirexotic character.
To lose its status realia must lose quality that differs itfrom a common word, that is loss of coloring. Here are some examples.
1. It will take much time to turn proper realia such as Russian пирожок into national uncolored, neutral word entered in the kitchensand languages of many countries and to make people forget its strange origin.
Related to a strangerealia it will also take much time to adopt it into a language. It can turninto usual borrowing in the result of intensive usage of this object in privatelife depriving it both original national coloring and a kind of alliance.
It seems that international and regional realias are to losetheir status of realia at first owing to their wide-spreadness. Many international realias go around the world without losing their nationaloriginality. For example, the names of money. There is another case with regional realias. Their national coloring is almost equal to national but itis limited by its regional belonging. For example, “the eastern coloring” isclose to Syrian, Turkish and Egyptian etc. All above-mentioned regarding toproper realias is equal for national and regional realias.
2.These are the general considerations about coloring erasure or color keepingthat depends on peoples and countries. But there are positions where colorerasure depends on proper realia and its function in speech.
Often the realias can have anextended meaning in the context.
3. Sometimes a realia can be used in a text not in the directbut in the figurative meaning. For example щербетcan be used in Bulgarian language as an adjective in the meaning of somethingoversweet and it is almost similar with Russian сироп.
In general we may say about realia using in the figurativemeaning in all cases of their usage as tropes, metaphor and comparison. When anauthor says about mushroom’s cap “abouttwo kopecks size” he does not mean a kopeck as a kind of money but only itstwo signs: its size and its round form, so the kopeck here has only word cover.
For example, when an author describes land that is flat like a pan-cake he takes only onecharacteristics of a pan-cake: its flatness and plane and Russian reader evendoes not think about pan-cake as a food but it is only an image that authorpromoted with the help of trope.
The same with “stonejungles” and “cowboys of cold war”etc.
Some adjectives derived from mentioned realias can be literarycomparisons and metaphors. Using such words as богатырский, стопудовый, аршинный, саженный at first we look at their figurative meaning, certainsigns but not on their sign as a realia: for example, пудовый means very heavy, грошовыйmeans very unimportant, cheap.
4. Among these examples there were phraseological units andset expressions as well, where realias lose their status more often than in thementioned cases.
In these four cases realias are to lose their coloring that isthe status of ralia is to turn into common language unit. However, if we lookmore attentively we shall see that a total erasure is not possible. If ithappens it will be an exception.
For example, macaroni(international realia) and tyubeteyka (regionalrealia). Macaroni, also spaghettientered in the languages by way of transcription. These words appeared in thelanguages having kept the meaning of national Italian dish. The best example isItalian scornful nickname baked macaronipudding. Tyubeteyka also did notlose its oriental coloring in spite of its wide-spreadness in the USSR and evenon Gorky’s and Kuprin’s heads reminds East.
One should take into account all above-mentioned choosing atranslation style in these cases.
The transcription is usual way of translation of such words. Ruble, macaroni, tyubeteyka keep theirform after translation.
Another case when realia is wrong used or when it is a part ofphraseologism. Right translation is stipulated with finding the most concordantand equivalent words that is usually deprived of coloring in the translation asa usual lexical unit. For example, вершок in Goncharov’s storyis translated into the English language as a miserable part. Дюйм translated from English inch is a realia but it also may havean extended meaning.
Realia preservation in trope function (comparison,juxtaposition, metaphor etc.) could mean the volume definition of one thingunknown by author. If, for example, an English faces with two kopecks coin with the help of that wedefine a size of mushroom cap in Russian translation he would never know themushroom size. Here a realia almost totally lost its natural coloring: in onelanguage a reader almost does not understand its meaning, seeing only the givenquality indicator. Transcription is possible in two languages only as anexception, for example, international realia that indicator is known in bothlanguages. But it is easier to translate a realia as a neutral functionequivalent because in the original text realia is used without connotativemeaning.
But even in the thirdand fourth positions realia is kept. For example, translating comparison weusually substitute a strange realia for ours: it is not always convenient touse such phrases as как блин. The same is with arealia that forms phraseologism.
Inconclusion one should notice that translating a realia in one or another meansit is wanted to lose a trope and accordingly phraseologism. Trope should betransferred by tropes, phraseologism by phraseologism; only “fulling” willdiffer from origin one.
5. There are many cases of realia translation in thecomparison when the realia not only loses its coloring but also receivesexcessive connotation and they are wide-spread. An author compares the contentsof strange realia with his own realia. And in a translation one notion ishappened to be denoted with the two realias: internal and external. What shoulda translator do to convey the content of realia without coloring losing?
There are some theoretical variants.
At first a translator should transcribe each separate realia.For example, we can face with such translation from the Czech language: “In theevening a young teacher couple … invited us for barbecue. It reminded us ourevening by the camp fire where we did not do shpekachkis.” These two words: barbecue and shpekachkis are explanations of one unknown word by another.
At second place a translator can substitute an internal realiafor his proper realia. For example, he should substitute shpekachkis — for a regional realia – Caucasus shashlik. As aresult a reader would be able to get more clear notion about Australian dish(barbecue is a Haitian word that was taken by the English language from Spanish and then was borrowed by Australian).But a reader would be astonished hearing from Czech about “evenings withshashlik”. Theoretically this variant is more vicious because it leads tomixture of different realias that belong to different nations.
The third possibility is to refuse transcription of bothrealias and to convey their contents with the help of descriptive translationthat approximately can sound so: “… in the evening we were invited for a picnicthat reminded us our evenings by a camp fire and we ate meat grilled on a spit.”But this translation deprives the text of Australian coloring.
And, at last, the fourth variant consists in transcription ofexternal realia and conveying internal realia with its functional equivalent.And we shall have the next sentence: “In the evening … a young teacher pairinvited us for barbecue. It reminded us our evenings by camp fire when we atemeat grilled on a spit.”
The last variant is considered to be more successful becausethe translation is true and the translator managed to keep coloring havingtranscribed main realia.
In Margaret Aliger’s notes “Chilean summer” we face with moredifficult case: “… it is possible to eat here, one woman bakes pies – empanados. Empanados is something similar with chebureks, they are very hot, tasty and big.” Here we have threerealias: the main external Spanish — empanados that is explained as Russiannational pies and one regional Caucasus – chebureks.In the translation one should keep the main realia because it stands in thecenter of the author’s attention and other realias should be substituted forneutral.
Let’ssuggest that a translator working at a novel about Indian life decides to useonly means of his own language, without admitting strange realias and hesubstitutes pagoda for temple, sari for dress or national suit, akhoby he substitutes for man-launder,etc. As a result of such national coloring extermination specific Indianfeatures of the novel will vanish: it will be possible to consider any place asa place of act or this place is neutral, uncolored, nameless country. Thismethod leads to coloring losing that spoils very much any translation. The markof this translation is bad.
Butit is worse when a translator substitutes origin realias for realias from hisown language. Doing it he also substitutes coloring of the translated work fora strange coloring. If we wear a Kazak in Bulgarian aba or anteria, tsarvulis, iamurluk, if we make himdrink a wine from buklista and to eatbanitsa, a reader will recognize aSofian shope but not a Kazak.
Andit will be the worst translation when a translator conveys original means ofmotley words of different coloring and when a mixture of realias takes place.For example, translated into Russia novel ForFreedom by St. Dichev. A redactor substitutes Bulgarian, Turkish, Greek andother realias for regional and national realias of Soviet Union. Historicalrealias he substitutes for modern words. Therefore Bulgarian gadulka was turned into Ukraine bandura, gamurluk was turned into Caucasus burka, pastarma wasdescribed as dried meat and Bulgarianbanitsa was conveyed as Russian pie. Several historical notions closelytied up with Bulgarian culture have totally lost their national content. As aresult of such vicious attitude to the realias translation a reader getsunclear, contradictory notions about described reality; the novel loses itscognitive meaning and bright national coloring and considerable part of itsliterary merits. Here we speak about distortion of original images in theresult of substitution of national and historical realias for notcharacteristic to it realias, in other words, about leading to analogisms andanachronisms in a text. Analogisms and anachronisms are realias that do notcorrespond to local and time surrounding of origin text.
Forexample, we face with the word guillotinein the Bulgarian translation of Sheakspear’s work: “Essex slowly mounted theguillotine.” The mistake is not very grave from temporal point of view. Therealready existed the machine for execution in XVI – XVII centuries in Italy andScotland and also in France where Duke de Monmorancy was beheaded with the helpof such machine. The mistake is that famous doctor Josef Ignak Giyoten inventedhis machine that got his name only 200 years later. Here we see thetranslator’s history unknowing. Of course, the word scaffold should be used there. We can see it from the context: “ Heslowly mounted…” One can never mount the guillotine but only scaffold.
Thereason of such mistakes regarding national and historical coloring is connectedwith author’s or translator’s personality, his unknowing of real facts andhistorical situation and sometimes their unknowing of some principal positionsof theory translation, for example, about bad results of strange realiasubstitution for a realia from translator’s native language.
In 1827 Goethe wrote that translating labor was and remainsone of the most important and worthy matters connecting the entire universetogether. These words characterize translator as creative person who carriesworks beyond the limits of one national culture and who serves to people givingthese fruits of this culture, created in new language form or vice versa,including achievements of other nations in his national science and culture. Itis one of the evidences of the huge human role of translation in the history ofhuman civilization.
Every national culture solving its problems carries itscontribution in treasuring house of literature creating something that belongsonly to it, has significance for all nations and proves that there are notsmall or big nations or inferior languages.
Extending of national culture confines with the help oftranslation has a great positive and enriching influence on the language. It istrue that together with the translation many new ideas, discoveries, notionsand so on penetrate in the language and it leads to the appearance of newlanguage elements and figurative meanings. This fact is very important whiletranslating from literary language that is not fully developed. Therefore theliterary language enriches figurative possibilities, national culture, andspiritual development of this nation. Creative beginning of translation ispremise of creative attitude to native language, its source of faith in itspossibilities and beauty. Concerning this point the translator also has anothertask to defend his native speech from borrowings-parasites that clog and makeit ugly, from strange forms that artificially could crowd out its own nationalcoloring.
The task and mission of the translator especially thetranslator of feature literature is defense of the riches and beauty of thenative language, its unlimited abilities to convey all that is kept in thegreatest masterpieces of world literature.
Translated literature can also be the indicator of condition,degree of development of national language. Poetical translation ofShakespeare’s works by Boris Pasternak that are very rich, refined andexpressive in language might not appear if Russian language of his timeremained on the same level of development. In this case concrete condition ofour national language at the times of B. Pasternak can be put as condition andfactor of development of poetical and translating talent and vice versaPasternak's works are great contribution in the development of Russianlanguage.
The level of translated literature, the quality of translationalso assists to the development of national beginning in the literature ofnation.
«National beginning of literature, — I. R. Beher wrote, — is defined with thefact of preservation, proceeding and creative development of other literatures.The choice of elements that adopt it from literature of other nations shows itsown character and is judged if its indeed national originality no.»
1. Влахов С., ФлоринС. Непереводимоев переводе. Реалии. «Министерство Перевода». Сборникстатей. 1969. М., «Советский писатель», 1970.
2. Лилова А. Введениев общую теорию перевода. «Высшая школа» М., 1985.
3. Бархударов Я. С.,Рецкер Я. И. Курс лекций по теории перевода. М., Изд-во IМГПИПЯ, 1968.
4. Комиссаров В. Н. Слово о переводе. М.,«Международные отношнния». 1973.
5. Комиссаров В.,Рецкер Я., Тархов В. Пособие по переводу с английского языка нарусский. Часть I М., Изд-волитературы на иностранных языках, 1960; Часть II М., «Высшаяшкола», 1965.
6. Левицкая Т.Р.,Фитермян А. М. Пособие по переводу санглийского языка на русский. М., «Высшая школа», 1973.
7. Толстой С.С, Основы перевода английского языка на русский,М., 2957.
8. Фёдоров А.В. Русские писатели и проблемы перевода.Л., 1960.
9. Левик В.«Мастерство перевода», М., 1959.
10. ГачечиладзеТ. Художественныйперевод и литературные взаимосвязи. М., «Советский писатель»,1972.
11. Бархударов Л. С. Язык и перевод. М., 1975.
12. Комиссаров В.Н. Теорияперевода. М., «Высшая школа», 1990.
13. Фёдоров А. В. Основы общей теории перевода. – М.,1983.
14. Швейцер А.Д. Теорияперевода. – М., 1988.
15. Латышев Л.К. Курс перевода (эквивалентность перевода испособы её достижения). – М., 1981.
In the appendix the author of this course paper analyses thepreservation of national coloring in the English novelwritten by Jane Austen Price andPrejudice translated into Russian and stories Chameleon and Yonichwritten by Anton Chekhov translaten into English. These both books are not thebest example swhere the national colorin gexists. But it is possible to judgeabout the preservation of national coloring even basing on these books.
Thepreservation of English national coloring will be given at first.
1. ‘He came down on Mondayin a chaise and four to see the place, and was so much delighted with it thathe agreed with Mr Morris immediately; that he is to take possession before Michaelmas, and some of his servantsare to be in the house by the end of next week.’
В понедельник он приезжалтуда в карете, запряжённой четвёркой лошадей, осмотрел поместье и пришёл втакой восторг, что тут же условился обо всём с мистером Моррисом. Он приезжаетк михайлову дню, и уже в концебудущей недели туда приедет кое-кто из его прислуги.
Here the English wordMichaelmas means 29 September the feast of St. Michael and corresponds to “михайлов день” in Russian with only onedifference that “михайлов день” is celebratedlater in Russia because of difference in the calendars. It is possible to say that the nationalcoloring is preserved because in English and Russian text there was not saidthe date but the name of the feast.
2. The ladies were somewhat more fortunate, for they hadthe advantage of ascertaining from an upper window, that he wore a blue coat and rode a black horse.
Дамы были несколько удачливей его: им посчастливилось увидеть изверхнего окна, что на нём был синий сюртуки что он приехал на вороной лошади.
Here the Englishword coat means outer garment with sleeves, buttoned in the front andcorresponds to the Russian word сюртук that is alsoouter garment with sleeves, buttoned in the front and in Russian it has longlaps. It is possible for the Russian reader to imagine what kind of garment Mr.Bingley wore.
3. Sir William Lucas hadbeen formerly in trade in Meryton, where he had made a tolerable fortune andrisen to the honor of knighthood by an address to the King, during his mayoralty.
Сэр Уильям Лукас ранеезанимался торговлей в Меритоне, где приобрёл некоторое состояние, а также титулбаронета, благодаря специальному обращению к королю, когда он был мэром там.
Here the English word mayoralty preserved itsmeaning and even form in the Russian translation. In the Russian language theword мэр does not exist that is whythe translator used this word. But the author of this course paper considersthat the Russian word мэр should beexplained in Russian translation because only a few people of 19-th centurycould know the exact meaning of the word мэр.
4. I flattermyself that my present overtures ofgood will are highly
Commendable, and that the circumstance of my being next in the
entail of Longborn estate, will be kindly overlookedon your side, and
not lead you to reject the offered olivebranch.
По этой причине я льщусебя надеждой, что вы благожелательно отнесётесь к моему настоящему изъявлениюдоброй воли и не отвергнете протянутую мной оливковую ветвь.
Here the phrase olive branchin English corresponds to Russian phrase оливковаяветвь becausein both languages this phrase means the symbol of peace.
5. ‘Pray, my dear aunt, what is thedifference in matrimonial
affairs, between themercenary and the prudent motive?’
- в матримониальных делах найти точную грань между расчётливостью иблагоразумием?
Here the English phrase matrimonial affairsfully correspond to the Russian phrase матримониальныеделаbecause the word matrimonial has Latin origin. Therefore it is possible to sayabout preservation of coloring in spite of its Latin origin.
6. It was two ladiesstopping in a low phaeton at the garden gate.
Ониувидели двух дам, сидевших в низеньком фаэтоне, который остановился у садовойкалитки.
Here the Englishword phaeton corresponds to the Russian word фаэтон in the meaning and form as well. In English and Russianphaeton means a vessel for noble people.Now the author of this course paper would like to analyze the non-preservation of nationalcoloring.
1. Sir William Lucas had been formerly in trade inMeryton, where he had made a tolerable fortune and risen to the honor of knighthood by an address to the King, during his mayoralty.
Сэр Уильям Лукас ранеезанимался торговлей в Меритоне, где приобрёл некоторое состояние, а также титул баронета, благодаря специальномуобращению к королю.
Here the honor ofknighthood was translated into Russian as титулбаронета. The translator managed to reveal for Russian reader what the honor ofknighthood meant but the national coloring of the phrase was erasured.
2. ‘Yes; these four evenings have enabled themto ascertain that they both like Ving-un better than Commerce.
-Да, эти четыре вечера позволили имустановить, что оба они игру в «двадцатьодно» предпочитают игре в покер.
3. Then,turning to Mr Bennet, he offered himself as his antagonist at backgammon.
И, повернувшись к мистеру Беннету, онпредложил ему сыграть партию в триктрак.
Here the national coloring of English games does not
preservedbecause in the Russian translation theyare only
substituted fortheir Russian equivalents.
4. About a month agoI received this letter.
Около месяца назад я получил вот эту эпистолу.
Here the Englishword letter has not national coloring but in
the Russiantranslation it has historical coloring that is used
to convey theformality of this letter.
Now the authorof this course paper would like to analyzethe preservation of national coloring of Russian book by Anton Chechovtranslated into English. Here two of his stories Chameleon and Yonich areanalyzed.
The author of this course papertook some examples to show where thenational coloring is preserved and where it is not preserved. At first you willsee the examples where the national coloring is preserved.
1. Очумелов пересёк базарную площадь.
Ochumelov crossed the market-place.
2. В этом человеке онузнал Хрюкина.
He recognized in thisindividual Khryukin.
Here the Russian surnames Ochumelov andKhryukin preserved their national coloring owing to footnotes in the Englishtranslation.
3. Доктор Старцев былназначен земским врачом.
Doctor Startsev wasappointed Zemstvo medical officer.
Here the Russian word земский врач preserved its nationalcoloring but the author of this course paperthinks that the translator should add a footnote with the explanation of thisword.
4. Зато он охотно играл в винт.
But he played vint.
Here the national Russian game preserved its national coloringin the translation.
Now the authorof this course paper analyses the non-preservation of national coloring.
1. За ним шагает городовойс решетом.
After him constable carried a sieve.
Here the Russian rank городовой does not preserve its national coloring in the Englishtranslation because городовой is lower rank in thecity police in tsarist Russia and English constable is only a policemen.
2. Я ему покажуКузькину мать!
I’ll show him what’s what!
Here the non-preservation of Russian coloring is clearly seen.The phrase показать Кузькину мать is very often used in the Russian language even now.
3. Сердиться, шельма…
The little rascal’s angry.
Here the Russian word шельмаis translated as little rascal. Шельма inRussian means rascal but in English even using word little the coloring is notcompletely conveyed because here Chekhov uses this word to show Ochumelov’stenderness towards this dog and he does not offence it.
4. Он цигаркой ей в харю…
He burned the end ofhis nose with lifted cigarette.
Here the Russian word цигарка is translated into English as lifted cigarette. Yes, цигарка is lifted cigarette but inthe English translation the Russian historical and national coloring of thisword is lost because now, for example, the word цигаркаis not used any more but it is quite understandable for Russoan reader.
5. Цуцик этакий!
What a pup!
Pup in English is only a small little dog but in Russian цуцик besides these meaning also has a meaning of a personwho feels cold and is affreid. So it is clearly seen that the national coloringwas not preserved.
6. В губернском городе.
In a town.
Here is clearly seen the absence of the word губернский so the nationalcoloring is not preserved and the author of this course paper thinks that thetranslator should explain the meaning of the word.
7. С полверсты он прошёлпешком.
The last part he went on foot.
Here the Russian measure of length верста is not translated at all. The author of this course paperthinks that the translator should use this word in the English translation andgive its meaning in the footnote.