Реферат: The Khabarovsk territory
1. Branches of the Economy
2. Transport and Communication
2.4 Air Transport
2.5 MotorTransport and Roads
BRANCHES of theECONOMY
Fuel and Energy Complex
The Territory produces 9,23 billion kWhrof electric power which
covers 95% of theTerritory's demand.The rest of the electric power
comes from theAmurskaya Region and the Primorski Territory since
the power systemof the Territory is integrated through Power Line
220-500 kW intothe Interconnected Power System of the East.
Practically allthe industrial centers of the Therritori in its southern and
near-northernparts are connected to the power network of the
InterconnectedPower System «Vostok-energo».Only Nikolaevsk heat
electricgeneration plant operates in an isolated mode. Separate
consumers in thenorthern areas of the Territory are supplied with
electric powerfrom the out-of-system small diesel power stations.
The installed power of the 109 powerstation of the Territory are
nearly 2000 MW,95 % of which belongs to heat-electric generation
plants located inindustrial centres.
The largest power stations in theTerritory are the Khabarovsk
Heat-ElectricGenerating Station -3 (HEGS-3) (540 MW), the
Khabarovsk HEGS-1 (462 MW), Amurskaya HEGS (285 MW) and
Komsomolsk-on-AmurHEGS -1 (275 MW) .
At present the Urgal black coal depositis developed in the
Territory. Theproductivity of the Urgal mine amounts to 2,4 mln tons
of coal per year.Because of the specific features of using the coal mined,
and the establishedpractice of fuel supply, 70 % of the Urgal coal
output issupplied to Magadan and Sakhalin Regions. At the same time
up to 7 mln tonsof coal from Yakutiya, Transbaikal, Amurskaya and
other regions ofRussia are imported annually to the Therritory .
Natural gas forenergy needs and ferrous metallurgy of Komso -
molsk-on-Amurindustrial region is delivered by gas pipe line from
Oil processing industry of theFar-Eastern Economic Region is
concentrated inthe Territory and is represented by the Komsomolsk-
on-Amur andKhabarovsk Oil Refineries. These refineries satisfy over
50 % of the FarEast demand and run on the oil imported to the Territory
(9,8 mln tons peryear). About 20 % of the oil comes from Sakhalin oil
fields by oilpipe line, while 80 % is delivered by railway from Siberia.
At present time works on implementationof wind energy
developmentprogramme are under way in the Territory. This is the
only one in theFar East wind energy assembling base for wind energy
installations ofvarious capacity .
Machine-building enterprises manufactureocean and river ves-
sels, aircrafts, diesel engines and diesel generators, metal cutting
tools, powerengineering and casting machines, cable products, electric
travelling cranes, processing equipment for fish industry and consumer
The Khabarovsk Territory accounts for 27% of the gross Russian
output ofelectric travelling cranes, 1,8 % of diesel engines .
Characteristic features of the branchare unsufficient develop -
ment of accessorymanufactures, poor cooperation between the local
producers,orientation of the enterprises to manufacturing products
intended to beused outside the Far-Eastern region. Up to 80 % of
machine-buildingproducts are exported to the European part of the
country andabroad, while the bulk of units, parts and accessory
components areimported from the other areas of the country .
Specificity of the machine-building ofthe Territory consists in its
being a highlydeveloped military-industrial complex comprising large -
scale aircraft — and ship-building works .
New tasks now facing the machine-buildingindustry of the
Territory arenamely those of its re-orientation to satisfy the needs of
local economy andthe people living here .
The only metallurgical work in the FarEast is «Amurstal» Works
(Komsomolsk-on-Amur),with the annual capacity about 2 mln tons of
rolled stock.The main product is steel sheets (57 %). At the same time
the kinds andtype of metal products non-productive in the Territory
are imported fromthe other areas of the country .
The primary material processed at the«Amurstal» Works is scrap
metal which issupplied by the far-eastern enterprises. Other kinds of
raw materials forsteel-making are supplied from Siberia and the Urals .
The Khabarovsk Territory has a developedcivil engineering
which promotesfunctioning and development of indusrial, agricultural
and socialsectors of economy. About 4 % of the fixed assets of the
industrialenterprises are concetrated in civil engineering .
The largest construction associations inthe Therritory are ;
«Dalstroi»(civiland industrial engineering),corporation «Rosenergostroi»,
In addition, industrial and agriculturalenterprises carry out
individually 7 %of all construction work done annually in the Therritory .
Engineering complex has strong enoughproductive capacities
available whichcomprise highly mechanized works producing struc -
tures and partsof dwelling and industrial houses, basic construction
In 1992 over 700,000 cubic metres ofprefabricated reinforced
concretestructures, 113 mln pcs of bricks, 830 thd cu.m of fractionated
road material 218thd cu.m of gravel ,626 thd cu.m of joinery (windows,
doors),98 mlnsq.m of ruberoid and other construction materials were
produced in theTherritory .Capacities of construction industry enter -
prises allow toincrease production output by 25-30 % per year .
Besides traditional types ofconstruction materials highly effec -
tive basalt fibreis being produced ,linoleum production is being
organized inAmursk, the cardboard ruberoid plant is planning to
produce a newkind of roofing material — tile, made of bitumen base ,
for cottagebuilding .
TRANSPORT and COMMUNICATION
Being one of the key branches of theeconomic complex of the
KhabarovskTerritory, transport is represented by all kinds thereof .
There are two railway arteries crossingthe Territory — the Trans -
Siberian Railwayand Baikal-Amur Mainline — which connect the
eastern andwestern parts of the country. The continental network and
that of theisland of Sakhalin are linked by a sea-going ferry Vanino -
Kholmsk (270 kmlong) .
The total railway length, one way approachesto the mainlines
including, is2,3 thd km or over 1/4 of the total Far-Eastern road
network length.Over 80 % of the territorial cargo exchange with the
other regions ofthe country and 72 % of the intraregional cargo freights
are carried outby rail. Every year about 20 mln tons of varios
commercial cargoare delivered and backhauled to the sea ports and the
China borderstations .
modernization of the single railroadbridge across the Amur river
near Khabarovsk(2617 m long), which is the last one way section of
theTrans-Siberian Railway, is under way .
The total length of the navigable innerwaterays in the Territory
is 3,2 thd km(rivers Amur,Ussuri,Amgun,Tungusska,Maya).
The major part of cargo turnover is doneby large ports of
Mixed river-sea-going ships carry cargoby direct waterways
from the Amurriver ports to the north of the Territory and to the
Sakhalin andAmurskaya Regions,and to the seashore destination
points in thePrimorski Territory and the Magadan Region .
The Amur river has also turned out to bea large international
transportationartery. In 1992 the ships of the Amur Shipping Company
carried to andbackhauled from the Japanese ports 314 thd tons of
commercial cargo, to and from the Chinese ports-78 thd tons, and to
and from theKorean ports-40 thd tons.The Company's vessels carry
sand,timber,fertilizersand construction material for export, while
equipment andmachinery,refrigerating chambers,consumer goods
and foodstuffsare brought back as import goods .
The Amur Sipping Company has recentlyexpanded the
geography of itsoutward voyages. The ports of Poyarcovo,Khabarovsk,
Komsomolsk-on-Amurand the port station of Nizhneleninskoye have
been additionallyopened to be visited by the Chinese ships, while the
Chinese side hasopened the ports of Cene,Fuijin,Jiamusi,Harbin .
The mixed river-sea-going shipsbelonging to the Amur Shipping
Company haveblazed new trails to Shanghhai,Singapore,Hong-Kong
as well as to theSouth-Korean ports of Pusan and Inchon.In future it
is planed toarrange through traffic of commercial cargo from Japan
and the Republicof Korea to the North — Eastern China using waterways
of the Amur andSungary to this end.A boat trip for foreign tourists
and businessmenfrom Khabarovsk down to the mouth of the Amur
river (the cityof Nikolaevsk-on-Amur ) is also to be provided for .
The main sea-port of the KhabarovskTerritory is the port of Vanino .
As for the cargoturnover (exceeding annually 10 mln tons) the port
Vanino takes thethird place among the sea-ports of the Russian Far
East. Every year3,5 thd ships and 170 thd railway cars are processed
at the port. Inthe port there is a complex of loading on processing large
capacitycontaners — 500 thd t annually. The sea railway ferry Vanino-
Kholmsk is a partof Vanino port .The year round operation of the port
is ensured by theice-breaker fleet. Construction of the transshipment
centre to handlevessels of Ro-Ro type using horizontal handing
techniques fortranshipping operations is to enable an increased
carrying capacityof Vanino port up to 12 mln tons .
At presentrealization of a large project to significantly expand the ca -
pacities up to 30mln tons and modernize the port as well as to
accelerateeconomic development of the areas adjacent to the port has
been started .
Other ports in the Territory are inNikolaevsk — on — Amur ,Okhotsk ,
Lazarevo andDe-Kastry. A new commercial port has been opened in
Sovetskaya Gavanin 1993 .
There are 38 airports in the Territory,36 whereof being those
of local serviceair lines including 6 airports with paved year round
runways and 31airports with natural serviced runways, 21 airports
thereof areintended to receive only the airplanes of AN — type and
Aircrafts of the Far-Eastern Corporationof Civil Aviation carry
over 2 mlnpassengers and about 30 thd tons of cargo a year .
Air transportation at domestic air-linesis primarily carried out
through the mainairport of the Territory — the Khabarovsk airport
located 10 kmaway from the city. The routes come therefrom to link
the city withmore than 40 cities of Russia and CIS countres. The
KhabarovskAirport is the leading airport of international travel in the
Russian Far East. It is connected by scheduled flights with Harbin
(China),Seoul(Korea),Ancorage and San-Francisco (USA),Niigata
(Japan),Pyongyang(PDRK). At present the opening of a number of
internationalflights is being studied .
Motor Transport and Roads
The general purpose motor transport ofthe Territory carry
annually about13,1 mln tons of cargo and over 260 mln of passengers .
There are 21motor transport enterprises including 6 passenger
enterprisesintegrated into Association «Khabarovskavtotrans.»
The network of motor road is weaklydeveloped and is concen -
trated primarilyin the soutern are of the Territory. The cities
of SovetskayaGavan and Nikolaevsk-on-Amur have no motor road
connection withterritorial centre — Khabarovsk. The total length of
motor roads is12,2 thd km, including 6,6 thd km of inner secondary
The length of general purpose motorroads is 4,3 thd km ,
including 3,2 thdkm of hard-surface roads. Main trunk roads include :
the roads offederalsignificance — «Amur» (Chita-Khabarovsk) and
«Ussuri»(Khabarovsk-Vladivostok) and Khabarovsk-
-Komsomolsk-on-Amurwith bridge crossing Amur river near Komsomolsk,and Khabarovsk-Birobidzhan .
The main types of communication in theKhabarovsk Therritory
are mail,andtelephone communication. Telex and telefax are
now widely used.It is planned to establish a centre of international
communication inKhabarovsk .
Stations of international satellitecommunication: Russian-
American jointventure «Daltelecom-International», Russia — Japan
joint venture«Vostoktelecom» and join-stock company «Vostok-
Infocosmos»with going out for Korea,Japan,China and other countries
have been putinto service .
In1993-1995 an automatic telephone station for 41 thd customer
telephone numbersis to be put into service. The number of telephones
per 100 familiesin cities is 30,2, in the countryside — 23,7 .
TV broadcasting will be furtherdeveloped in the Therritory. TV
broadcasting(three and more) programmes make up 69,6 % .
InternationalInformation Agency «Inform-Ethnos».