Реферат: Развитие мест посещений (дестинации) на примере озера Myvatn


There are many wonderfulplaces in the world. Various attractions make these places potential touristdestinations. Still, it is very seldom that some destinations become popularamong tourists without a lot of planning work behind it. In order to optimisethe benefits of tourism for a destination and prevent or at least mitigate anyproblems that might be generated, good planning and careful management oftourism are essential. (Inskeep 1991:16) To achieve success in destinationdevelopment we should learn to analyse the situation. We should always thinkabout what stage we are on now, where we want to go and how we can get there.

In this paper I willshow the development over time of a small destination in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Iceland</st1:place></st1:country-region>. Myvatnarea is a relatively new tourist destination but it has become successful dueto the introduced innovations.

In the first chapter Iwill review the theory about destination development.

In the next chapters Iwill talk about the planning and development work which stood back Myvatn as adestination. I will also show the result of this development.

2. Destinationdevelopment.2.1 <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Butler</st1:place></st1:City>’s concept

Several researchers havenoticed that destinations go through definite phases in their development. Theidea that destinations experience a process analogous to birth, growth,maturation, and perhaps decline or even death is embodied in the concept of thedestination life cycle, suggested by Butler in 1980. Butler sequence is aS-shaped cycle model, which proposes that tourist destinations tend toexperience five distinct stages of growth under free market andsustained-demand conditions (Weaver 2002:309):

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Figure 1. The <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Butler</st1:place></st1:City> sequence. Source: Weaver 2002:309

According to <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Butler</st1:place></st1:City>, the explorationstage is characterised by very small numbers of visitors. The tourism“industry” as such is non-existent, no specialised services and facilities areestablished, not even accommodation for tourists. The tourists themselves areadventurous types who are drawn by what they perceive to be authentic culturaland natural attractions. These visitors arrive from a wide variety of sources,remain for an extended period of time and are not influenced significantly byany consideration of seasonality. (Weaver2002:310)

In the involvement stagethe visitor numbers begin to increase slowly. The local entrepreneurs begin toprovide services and facilities for tourists. They usually consist of smallaccommodation places, eating places, few small semi-commercial attractions andsome simple guiding service. Still, at this stage the destination maintainslocal control over the situation. The economic status of tourism isinsignificant for the destination. The impacts on the society and theenvironment are little. The area is just beginning to integrate into thetourism system.  The factors that triggera destination into the involvement stage can be either external or internal.Internal forces are the ideas and enthusiasm of the local entrepreneurs whorealising the profit that tourists can bring start building and advertisingfacilities and services. External forces can be travel publications,recommendations of the tourists, who have been to the place, or just thepromotion by tour agencies that for some reason begin to work with this newdestination.

The development stage ischaracterised by rapid tourism growing and dramatic changes in all aspects ofthe tourism sector in the region over a short period of time. Local communityloses control over the situation; larger, non-local companies gain control overthe process, attracting tourists from all over the world. Large-scaleaccommodation places are built, attractions oriented for tourists appear. Thedestination is losing its authenticity and uniqueness.

The consolidation stageis characterised by a decline in the growth of the visitor arrivals and othertourism-related activity. The level of the tourism development begins to exceedthe environmental, social and economic carrying capacities of the destination.The non-authentic attractions dominate, the tourism product is deteriorating.Tourists are losing interests for the destination.

Stagnation ischaracterised by further product deterioration. This stage can theoreticallypersist for an indefinite period, but it is more likely that the destinationwill experience either decline or rejuvenation. Decline happens when touristsare no longer satisfied with the product and the destination stakeholders donot make attempts to attract new groups of tourists or revitalise the product,or do not succeed in this. Besides, new competitors appear in the market.Scenarios of rejuvenation can be different. The most important is to change theproduct or to find other market segments for the existing product.  In this paper I will not discuss the relevanceand applicability of this model but I will use it to show the development overtime of the destination Myvatn.

2.2 Planning process

Independent which stagethe destination has reached, we need to plan thoroughly every next step. Tourismplanning is necessary for the following reasons:

Tourism has both positive and negative impacts on the economy, society and the environment. Tourism involves many other industries and planning is necessary to insure that every industry gets profit of its development. Tourism is still a new type of activity and many entrepreneurs have no experience in how to develop a destination.

In fact, according toHaywood, the evolution of tourist destinations can perhaps be anticipated andthrough planning, marketing and management techniques not necessarily decline.(Inskeep 1991:17)

The strategic planningis a complex process, which explains the steps a company should undertake togain the desirable position. Here is a model illustrating it:

The strategic planning process

<img src="/cache/referats/17268/image001.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1031"><img src="/cache/referats/17268/image002.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1028">The <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Mission</st1:place></st1:City>                              Aims of theorganisation                           What is it we want?

<img src="/cache/referats/17268/image003.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1050"> <img src="/cache/referats/17268/image004.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1053">

<img src="/cache/referats/17268/image005.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1054"><img src="/cache/referats/17268/image006.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1034">      External analysis                                                                                           Where

<img src="/cache/referats/17268/image007.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1036"><img src="/cache/referats/17268/image008.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1035">                                                       Gathering information                                    are

<img src="/cache/referats/17268/image009.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1058"><img src="/cache/referats/17268/image010.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1055">       Internalanalysis                                                                                            we now?

<img src="/cache/referats/17268/image011.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1065"><img src="/cache/referats/17268/image012.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1063"><img src="/cache/referats/17268/image013.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1060"><img src="/cache/referats/17268/image011.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1059"><img src="/cache/referats/17268/image001.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1038"><img src="/cache/referats/17268/image014.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1037">        Strategic analysis and choice                Decisions                       Where do we want to go?

<img src="/cache/referats/17268/image015.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1066"><img src="/cache/referats/17268/image016.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1064"><img src="/cache/referats/17268/image017.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1042">         Short term operatingstrategies                                                    Howdo we get there?

<img src="/cache/referats/17268/image012.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1071"><img src="/cache/referats/17268/image012.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1070"><img src="/cache/referats/17268/image018.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1069"><img src="/cache/referats/17268/image019.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1043">           Implementing of strategies                         Action

<img src="/cache/referats/17268/image020.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1072"><img src="/cache/referats/17268/image009.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1047"><img src="/cache/referats/17268/image021.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1044">                 Control and evaluation                                                          Did we get there?

<img src="/cache/referats/17268/image022.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1048">

Figure 2.Source: Lecture notes from Nordplus course intourism planning, 2003, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Iceland</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

First of all we shouldformulate the aims of the organisation in a mission model. Then we shouldanalyse the situation in the market and the product itself, or the resources wehave if we don’t have any product yet. The following techniques are usuallyused to understand the present situation( lecture notes from NordPlus course intourism planning):

<st1:place w:st=«on»>PEST</st1:place>analysis — political, economical, socio-cultural and technological uncontrollable factors in the macro environment. The analysis of the trends in the market The analysis of our competitors The product analysis with respect to the markets and the competition Consumer analysis- characteristics and behaviour of the customers and consumers. SWOT analysis (strength, weakness, opportunities and threats) –sums up and present the information collected and processed in the analytical process.

I will use these planning processmodels to show how the Sel Myvatn Hotel worked with the development of thedestination Myvatn.

3. Development of the destinationMyvatn3.1 Presentation of thearea

In my paper I want to study thedevelopment of the destination <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>lake</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Myvatn</st1:PlaceName></st1:place> in the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Northern Iceland</st1:place>. We distinguish between pointdestinations, place destinations and region destinations(Sletvold 2000:267).Myvatn is rather a region because there is a lot of unique about the lake aswell as in the surroundings. <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Lake</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Myvatn</st1:PlaceName></st1:place> is the country’sfourth largest natural lake, 36.6 km² (www.goiceland.org). It is renownedfor wildlife.  This area is extremelyvolcanic, which explains the mountain formations around the lake. Nineeruptions took place there during the period 1975-1984; at that period therewere a power station on the volcano. The lake area is known for itsexceptionally many breeding duck species (15); it is thought to nest morespecies of duck than any other place in the world(www.nat.is/travelguideeng/myvatn). The lake’s surroundings show such varietyin landscapes and amazing geological formations, that the visitors have tospend several days to enjoy them fully. Bubbling mud flats, lunaresque volcanic craters, newborn lava fields,and grassy shoals teeming with waterfowl; these are among the sights of Myvatn.Dimmuborgir, on the East side of the lake, is a badlands of lava pillars, someof which reach 65 feet in height. Just north is Hverfjall, a smooth,stadium-shaped volcanic cone that formed during eruptions 2,500 years ago. Oneof the most bizarre attractions in the region is the mud pits of Haverarond,which are so hot that they actually boil. Far cooler are the waters of Viti, anexplosion crater nearby, which was formed in the 1724-1729. Anotherunforgettable sight near Myvatn is Eldhraun (“fire lava”), an absolutely barrenlava field where the Apollo 11 crew came in the late 60’s to train for their impendingmoonwalks. There are also numerous bathing possibilities in Myvatnsveit. Themost interesting ones are the Lagoon, which is similar to the Blue Lagoon near <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Reykjavik</st1:place></st1:City>, and forrinsing off the clay afterwards there is a natural steambath in Jarðbaðshólar(www.nat.is/travelguideeng/myvatn). It is an old site where hot steam rushesout from the core of the earth and has been used for bathing for ages.

Myvatn has about 470inhabitants, of which approximately 200 live in the village Reykjahlið.Before people used to live on the proceeds of the land farming and fishing fortrout in the lake but it has changed radically in the last few decades. Adiatomite factory was established in the late sixties and soon became thebiggest source of employment in Myvatnssveit. The geothermal power plant atKrafla also provides for quite a few positions for the locals and tourism is asteadily growing business.

3.2 Development of thedestination

In 1974 the lake wasdeclared a national conservation area, and since then Icelandic tourists hasbegun to go there.  The period of theexploration started then. The lake is very unique and there are lots of tourismresources. Still, at the beginning the region was not known. The few visitors,drawn to Myvatn by its natural attractions, were mostly geologists, biologistsand other scientists. A number of Icelanders also came to the region to enjoythe nature. But the area was not adjusted for tourism. Accommodation could beonly found in the nearest towns. Tourists had to arrange the trips on their own(from the interview with Sel Myvatn Hotel manager).

In the 1990’s theinvolvement stage began. I could not find any information about the outertrigger factors, like presentation of the area in media in that period. But Ihold to the opinion, that the inner trigger factors were determinant. The localpeople saw the possibilities of tourism and started to build hotels,restaurants, camping sites. There were open car rentals, grocery shops, petrolstations with car washes, swimming pools. Simple sightseeing possibilitiesappeared. These are the first signs of the involvement stage in the destinationdevelopment, according to the <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Butler</st1:place></st1:City>’smodel.

Although there areseveral companies offering accommodation, catering and sightseeing tours aroundMyvatn, I am going to base my study on the Sel-Myvatn Hotel. This company isthe most responsible for the development of tourism in the region. I could saythis company is the most successful one in the region. Their activities allow gettingto know the whole area of Myvatn.  So Ibelieve the activity of this hotel and the statistics of their tourist arrivalsreflect the development of the destination on the whole.

In 1997 the futuremanagement of the Sel-Myvatn Hotel in co-operation with Sport-Tours (Sportuð)in Akureyri, <st1:place w:st=«on»>Northern Iceland</st1:place>, started tobuild the hotel and work with the activities to attract tourists to Myvatn region(from the interview with the hotel manager). From marketing we know the following four strategies:

Ansoff’s model

Existing markets

New markets

Existing products


Market development

New products




Figure 3.Source: Kotler 2003:88    

It is natural to startwith product development if a completely new product is to appear. The work ofMyvatn hotel staff is a part of the destination development because theactivities they have introduced attracted tourists to Myvatn. Their mission wasto attract tourists to Myvatn.

Havinganalysed the situation the company saw the following resources:

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Uniquenature in the Myvatn area

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Snowand ice in winter season

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Aspecial race of horses, Icelandic horses, which look like pony

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Sparesources like silica mud, clean air, <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>hot springs</st1:place></st1:City>.

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Marimo,unique lake balls which can only be found in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Lake</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Myvatn</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>and in   <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region> where they are sacred

As we see one candevelop several tourist products based on these resources. The company’sstrategy is formulated in this slogan “From hotel to activities”. They decidedto become the best company offering activity tourism in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Iceland</st1:place></st1:country-region>. Sincethe year 1998 they have worked with different activities on Myvatn. In 2000 thehotel was open.  The main focus has beenon the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Arctic</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Garden</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. This is a project run jointly bySel-Hotel Myvatn and Sport-Tours. The resources that the project is based onare the nature of the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>lake</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Myvatn</st1:PlaceName></st1:place> as well as thelake itself in wintertime. The aim is to develop some products that are basedon those elements in order to attract tourists to the area during thelow-season. The <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Arctic</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Garden</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> is a collectiveterm which includes the various kinds of winter recreation that Sel-HotelMyvatn offers and that are primarily based on ice and snow (www.myvatn.is). Themain theme for the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Arctic</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Garden</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> is to work with <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Lake</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Myvatn</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>when frozen and therefore bowling, cricket, golf and go-cart have beendeveloped as ice-sports. The location for these activities is a creek atStakholstjorn which is related to <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Lake</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Myvatn</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>. This winter,2003, a restaurant seating 60 guests, will be built, using snow as buildingmaterial. The restaurant will be built in cooperation with Absolut and istherefore called the Absolute Ice Restaurant. At first it will be a cocktailrestaurant and a bar, but in the future it is going to be a restaurant whichoffers a number of specially designed meals.<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;mso-fareast-language:NO-BOK;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">[1]

Myvatnssveit, theneighbourhood of <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Lake</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Myvatn</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>, offers some ofthe most spectacular scenery in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Iceland</st1:place></st1:country-region>which is highlighted even further by its snowy winter appearance.

It is possible to rentice-skates, skis and snowmobiles at the hotel, where the headquarters of the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Arctic</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Garden</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>are. Diverse excursions are available either with jeeps or busses. All thesecurity equipment is available at the hotel. The main emphasis of all theseactivities is recreation on the ice. Every winter weekend there is somearrangement on Myvatn. The main idea is to make people love winter.

3.3 Situation today

During the last 5 yearsthe company has developed a number of tourist products both for the summer andwinter seasons. (see attachment) The number of arrivals has increasedsignificantly. The mission to attract tourists was fulfilled. The destinationMyvatn is becoming popular. 85% of the hotel guests are foreign tourists, whichis due to summer guests. In low season it is mostly Icelandic tourists,although there are coming more and more guests from <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>France</st1:place></st1:country-region> and the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>UK</st1:place></st1:country-region>. The averagelength of staying is 2 nights in summer season and 2.5 nights in winter season.The company has been cooperating with Icelandic travel agencies from the verybeginning. They take also part in travel fairs abroad. Scandic <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Tours</st1:place></st1:City>, the second big tour operator in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>France</st1:place></st1:country-region>, isselling Myvatn tourist products in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>France</st1:place></st1:country-region> ||(from the interview withthe hotel manager).

I presume thatdestination Myvatn is coming through the involvement stage, according to the <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Butler</st1:place></st1:City>’s model. Thefollowing signs of this stage are obvious in the area:

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The rate of growth in visitation isrelatively low for the region. The destination is still not widely-known in theworld

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The attractions are mainly natural,authentic.

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The local actors are controlling thesituation

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The tourism is a supplementaryindustry in the region. The most important industry for the region’s economy isstill the silica fabric, producing silica algae.

I have also noticed some signs of thedevelopment stage, which means that the next stage is not far off.  Although the main emphasis is the naturalattractions of the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>lake</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Myvatn</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>, the activityattractions are commercial. Myvatn is just used as arena for different sportactivities and games. The environmental stress is still low; the tourism actorsdo not have any environmental policy. But the concern for the environment isincreasing. The introduced activities can damage the nature on Myvatn, e.g.jeep driving, snow mobiles, go kart.  Ina short period of time the tourism actors on Myvatn will have to take intoaccount the carrying capacity of the region.

To show the situation today I havemade the SWOT analysis.

The strength of the destination:

Myvatn is a unique area because of its nature and geology. There is a variety of tourism products in the area for different groups of people. The area is safe, quiet and relaxing The weather in summer is very mild The local people have knowledge of the area Myvatn is a new place for most people The service quality is good

The weakness of the destination:

Accessibility: Myvatn is a far away place for foreigners. Lack of efficient transportation to the lake. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Iceland</st1:place></st1:country-region>is an expensive country The activities on Myvatn are not for everyone, because of the weather. This is more tough- guys- holidays than family holidays. The local actors are not well educated in tourism Changing weather in winter There is little cooperation between the local actors. The marketing is left to the travel agencies, lack of promotion from the local actors. There is no environmental policy in the region. The activities depend on snow too much

The opportunities:

People today prefer activity tourism Icelandair is lowing prices for transportation from abroad Co-operation with the bus companies in the neighbouring Akureyri Holidays for Icelanders who are getting tired of the resorts near <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Reykjavik</st1:place></st1:City> Using Icelandic history as a resource for new activities/games <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region>is a potential new market. Marimo are valued a lot in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region>, but today there are few places in that country, where one can see them, and those places are strictly protected.

The threats:

The policy of the Icelandair (cheap packages for foreigners including the flight and staying at a hotel in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Reykjavik</st1:place></st1:City>) Approaching the carrying capacity of the area, what will lead to extra protection in the region Changing weather and global warming. Last winter was almost without snow in the area. The winter activities were not possible. Competition with the destinations in the south <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Iceland</st1:place></st1:country-region>

This is the situation for today. Howthe region will develop in the future is an open question.


I have shown thedevelopment of the destination Myvatn over the time.  The destination has come through definitechanges, from a place known only to specialists to a popular touristdestination, especially in winter season. Still, tourism in the region has someproblems. The competition is growing and the transportation to Myvatn iscomplicated. I think that the next step is to define market segments and offerthem different product ranges. It will be another strategy according to theAnsoff’s model: market penetration. It is also possible to promote the productto new markets (market development), like business people or schoolchildren.Development of new products is an alternative as well. I suppose suchactivities as ice-hockey or curling in the open air would be popular. But howthe destination will be developing depends on the tourism actors.

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The restaurant was almost readybuilt last winter but all the snow melted off in the region due to the mildweather in February-March.
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