Реферат: Проблема наркомании среди британских подростков
1. What did the European survey show?
2. The most spread species of drugs.
f) Hallucinatory drugs
g) Tranquillisers & Sedatives
3. A story about Simon Foster.
4. Report of Institute for the Study of Drug Dependence.
5. A new anti-drug campaign & it's help.
The title of this paper is «The drug problem among the British teenagers». At present there exists a big problem, concerning many teenagers. This is the problem of drug addiction.
The government of many countries takes measures to eliminate this addiction. But even in such developed country as Great Britain these measures aren't very effective. However the police very often arrest 12- & 13-year-old drug users.
The aim of my scientific work is to expose the harm of the drug addiction & to explain it to the Ukrainian youth, because the drug problem is a very big problem. If we don't stop it, the damage to humanity will be irreparable loss. The consequence of the drug-use in many cases is the death.
What did the European survey show?
Nowadays, there many secret groupings devoted to spreading of drugs. There are many kinds of drugs & that's why many teenagers cannot resist the drugs' temptation.
That's why last year, a European survey showed that the number of teenagers who had tried drugs was 6 per cent in Greece, 15 per cent in France and 30 per cent in Britain.
Statistics show that drug use by British teenagers has doubled since 1989. Half teenagers who were interviewed admitted they had tried at least one type of drug. 70 per cent said they had been offered drugs in the past 3 months.
The drugs that the government is most worried about are stimulant drugs such as Speed and Ecstasy (or 'E' as it is commonly known) and hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD. They are worried that many young people believe these drugs to be exciting and fashionable. They think that many of teenagers will be influenced by films such as Transporting and Pulp Fiction, which show attractive people taking drugs.
The most spread species of drugs.
It must be noted that the most spread species of drugs are cannabis, cocaine, heroin & others. The following paragraph deals with the short story about every of them
Cannabis . Commonly found in herbal form, looking like sage or dried herbs, or as a resin, resembling chunks of liquorice or a golden powder. Usually smoked by mixing with tobacco; gives off aromatic, slightly sickly smell. Produces feeling of elation, relaxation. Can cause psychological dependence and short-term memory loss; increases risk of bronchitis and other lung problems.
Cocaine. Fine, white crystalline powder, usually taken by sniffing it up a use or by injection. Produces state of euphoria. Prolonged «snorting» causes ulceration and perforation of the nasal septum. Crack cocaine is a smokable form, varying from yellow/beige «rocks» to white powder. Powerfully psychologically addictive. Produces rush of euphoria followed by rapid depression.
Heroin. White or speckled browns powder; can be sniffed, injected, or heated and the resulting fumes then inhaled. Produces relaxed euphoria, dehydration and lack of appetite. Highly addictive.
Amphetamines. Commonly a powder found in a variety of colours, but may be in pill or capsule form. Taken orally, injected or inhaled, amphetamines cause excitability, talkativeness, feeling of unlimited energy. Regular use can lead to weight loss and psychological dependence.
Ecstasy. Tablet or capsule in a variety of colours and forms. Increases awareness and energy, inhibitions disappear; causes dehydration, increased blood pressure and heart rate; may affect co-ordination. Has been linked with fatalities.
Hallucinatory drugs. LSD—taken by mouth, as tiny coloured tablets, or impregnated in paper or gelatine squares. Effects include heightened awareness of sound and colour, hallucinations; may also cause disorientation, panic, persecution mania and conviction of invincibility. Flashbacks can occur several months after use. Psilocybin is another hallucinogen, found in so-called «magic mushrooms»—certain species of fungi that grow in the wild.
Tranquillisers and Sedatives. Tablets or capsules in various colours and forms available legally on prescription. Usually taken orally; cause drowsiness, light-headedness, feeling of relaxation. May cause psychological dependence.
A story about Simon Foster.
Next is concern with the story about an English teenager, 15-year-old Simon Foster.
At school he felt a misfit, until he fell in with a group of boys with whom he began enjoying something in common: smoking cannabis. «I thought it was really cool, and that I'd found a niche in life.»
An occasional adventure became regular routine. But after 18 months, Simon was caught red-handed. He was expelled from school and, fined £25, acquired a criminal record.
His horrified parents found it hard to talk to him about the problem; their anxiety all too often turned attempts at discussion into shouting matches. They took the view that Simon should face up to life's difficulties as they had done when young.
Simon promised never to touch drugs again—but after he won a place at a London sixth-form college, he soon made contact with local pushers. He did so badly in his A levels that university was out of the question. He began drifting through life, taking short-lived reporting jobs on local newspapers and trying just about every drug, from Valium and amphetamines to LSD and even heroin. But cocaine became the main love of his life. «I never forgot the first 'high' it gave me. From then on it was as if I was forever chasing that wonderful buzz of total euphoria.»
As he came to rely on cocaine, his life spiralled into nightmare. «I kept telling myself that I was just a 'recreational' user. But I spent more and more time behind closed curtains in my flat, gripped by loneliness, fear and paranoia. Yet I was terrified of giving up the drug that seemed to help me cope with those feelings.»
At 25, realizing at last that he could no longer ignore the problem, he sought help from a group therapy programme. Now drug-free and trying to make a living as a freelance writer, he concludes: «My addiction wasted my time, money and opportunities. Understanding that was a major step towards recovery.» Thousands of other young people risk going down the same route as Simon Foster.
Report of Institute for the Study of Drug Dependence.
A 1993 report by the Institute for the Study of Drug Dependence estimated that by the age of 20, up to one person in three has tried drugs, mainly cannabis. About one in ten—around half a million youngsters—are thought to have tried amphetamines; another half-million are believed to use Ecstasy regularly. In 1992, there were 2,754 under-17s convicted for possessing drugs—a 264 per cent increase since 1988.
Children are trying drugs earlier and earlier. An annual countrywide summary of the experience of children aged 11 to 15, by Exeter University, found that in 1992 the percentage at each age that had used drugs had almost doubled since 1990.
In December 1992, Scarborough police charged or cautioned 26 children between 12 and 16 about use of LSD. In Dorset, police arrested children of 12 and 13 for possession of LSD and Ecstasy.
A new anti-drugs compaign.
In connection with this problem the government of Great Britain decided that it needed a new anti-drugs compaign. However, before it did this, it studied young people's attitudes. The survey showed that teenagers knew that drugs were bad for them but they could not actually name any health risk associated with particular drugs. It also showed that 61 per cent of teenage drug-users would consider stopping using drugs if they thought they were a serious danger to their health.
It was also understood that many teenagers ignored drugs warnings in schools because they thought they were childish. In fact, it was proved that in some cases, the reason for taking drugs was to rebel against warnings from adults.
Using the results of the survey, a new campaign has been started. The new campaign hopes to treat teenagers like adults. It informs young people of the health risks associated with particular drugs. It does this with photos of teenagers. On the advertisements, the parts of their bodies which can be damaged by drugs, are indicated by biological diagrams showing the health risks.
Many teenagers try drugs as a 'dare' to show their friends that they are not scared. Often their friends insist until the person says 'yes'. The health authority hope that the advertisements will help teenagers to say 'no' to this and be able to have good reasons to say it. In addition to posters, the health authority has also made radio advertisements and put the number of their drugs helpline (a telephone number that can be called confidentially for help) in a lot of places. The people at the helpline advise people what to do if they have a drug problem or need more information about the dangers of drugs.
In this work the problem of drugs has been disclosed. We see that drug addiction brings incorrigible harm to humanity. Still there is more & more people fall for its temptation. We know that medicine-drugs are given to seriously ill people to alleviate their suffering. But these medicines have one insidious property: organism gets accustomed to them quickly & wants new doses.
Drug addiction is our enemy. And if we don't struggle against it, it'll bring many losses. In addiction I want to say that drug addiction is as a white storm cloud, which isn't seen on the horizon, but unfortunately, many young people have already been caught in its big, terrible rain.
Take care of this white storm cloud!
1. New Anti-drugs Compaign for Young People// Team.
1.a New Anti-drugs Compaign for Young People// English learner's «Digest» – 1998. – №10. – p.7.
2. Kids and Drugs// David Moller.
2.a Kids and Drugs// Readers «Digest» – 1994. – №2 – p. 118-123.