Реферат: Шпаргалки по английскому языку
Learning foreign languages. Somebody said: «English is a language that came from nowhere to conquer the world…» These words are really true and I will prove it. Foreign languages are absolutely necessary for us nowadays because of our growing international contacts with all the countries of the world.
Reading plays a very important role in the life of people. It educates a person, enriches his intellect. Books help to mould a person's character, from his moral values. Besides, books bring pleasure and delight. It's a wonderful way of spending spare time. Sometimes we read the same book again and again. Thanks to books we learn to express our thoughts and feelings more exactly. The book is faithful and understanding friend. It can be put aside and taken up again at any moment. There are books which have been our favorites since childhood. People are fond of reading different kinds of books. Some people enjoy reading detective stories, adventure stories, novels, biographies, other prefer classics. Fairy tales are enjoyed and read by children, books about adventures and journeys are enjoyed by those who are fond of traveling. Legends and myths are read by those who are fond of history. Some people developed much time to reading books and reading becomes their free time occupation, their passion. Through out the centuries books had an enormous influence on the minds and hearts of people. Books bind together ages, personalities. Thanks to books we can talk to people who lived in different countries and ages. Through reading books we hear their voices, thoughts and feelings. The book is the surest way to bring nations together. It helps people achieve understanding, trust, cooperation and friendship. Books awaken the young reader's imagination. They develop literary taste, arouse interest and curiosity, the reader's laugher as well as his tears. They teach the readers to be truthful, friendly, honest decisive, conscientious, frank, firm, fair and serious.
People reflect their life in art. Real, live art appeals to the heart and mind of man, to his feelings and ideals and it proclaims life. Art is truthful only when it serves life, only when the artist hopes to arouse a warm response in the heart of man. Art belongs to the people. The history of art from the Renaissance to our days confirms this. There are nearly a thousand museums in Russia, many of them being world famous. The largest collection of Russian art is the Tretyakov Art Gallery in Moscow. It is a real treasury of canvases by prominent Russian painters. It contains priceless collections of icons, 17-20th centuries paintings and sculptures and contemporary Russian painting and sculpture. One of the largest and most remarkable museums of the world is the Hermitage, more than three hundred halls housing its exhibitions of articles of the greatest artistic value. The museum's collections now comprise work of various periods in the development of art, from ancient times up to the present day. Famous painters from different countries are represented there. The Russian Museum in St. Petersburg is another picture gallery which contains the richest collection of Russian paintings of 18-19th centuries and the best collection of Russian sculpture. In the Pushkin Museum of the Fine Arts in Moscow the art of the Ancient East and Western Europe is represented. This museum possesses a unique collection of copies of the finest sculptures of the old time. It is in this museum that many famous foreign expositions of the Fine Arts are displayed almost every year. Music plays an important role in our life. It was born together with people. It reflects the world around us by means of combination of tones, rhythm and melody. Music can help to relax and to have a rest; it provokes our deepest emotions and fills our hearts with kindness, joy and happiness. First musicians used primitive instruments: whistles, pipes, and drums. Then harps, bagpipes, flutes, and horns appeared. Nowadays modern musicians use various instruments: violin, guitars, saxophones, trumpets and pianos. Some people are fond of classical music, waltz, marches, country-dance, organ, folk, spiritual music. Others are interested in modern music: jazz, blues, rock, hard rock, and rap, rave. I like rap music. I admire it. It enriches me. I hate hard rock. I think it is annoying. I don't understand it. I find it noisy and dreadful. I am impressed by classical music. When I am in bad mood I listen to classical music. When I have free time I like to listen to romantic music. My friends share my tastes in music. I like having background music while I'm working. I often go to concerts, buy records, cassettes and CD's. People are fond of traveling. They spend their holidays traveling. They travel to see other countries and continents, to learn a lot about people's traditions, to enjoy picturesque places. It is interesting for them to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet different people, to try different food. Those who live in the country like to find themselves in large cities with their shops, cinemas, crowds of people. City-dwellers usually like a quiet holiday by the sea or in the mountains with nothing to do but walking and bathing, laying in the sun. Most travelers and holiday makers take a camera with them and take pictures of everything that interests them — beautiful views of waterfalls, forests, unusual plants and animals. These photos will remind them of the happy time of holiday. These are many ways of traveling — by train, by plain, by ship, on foot. Everyone chooses his favourite one. My favourite way is traveling by plain. And not because it is very comfortable. It is exciting. I also like traveling by train. I've traveled this way a lot. When you are in the train you can see the beauty of nature. I envy the tourists because I think that they study geography traveling and visiting different parts of the world. They can tell you many things which you didn't know before. They are interesting people from whom you can learn much new for yourself. Any kind of travel helps you to understand many things that you can never see or learn at home. As for me I'd like to have a coach tour to some foreign country. Coach tours are planned and I'll have a chance to do a lot of sightseeings and have a good rest at the same time.
My future profession. The end of school is the start of our independent life and the beginning of the most serious examination we have passed. In order to do well at this examination it is necessary to choose the right road in life which will help us to do our best and to work for the benefit of our country. Many roads will open before us: technical schools, institutes and universities. Everybody will have a chance to develop and use knowledge and education received during the school years. There are a lot of different trades and professions, and each one must choose the occupation in which he or she can best develop one's own talent and abilities. Our society needs well-educated people. Nowadays the profession of an economist has become one the most useful, modern and interesting. That is because our country is moving towards market economy and different forms of property are being established. There is a place for an economist at every plant and factory. An economist exercises different functions. He or she can determine the structure of an enterprise and calculate costs as well as probable profits. An economist analyses the condition of the market and prospects for its development in the future. His or her practical use of electronic computers is a must. The activities of an economist at an enterprise range from bookkeeper control the financial state of an enterprise and perform a lot of useful calculations. A manager is an actual administrator. Having a good command of the economic situation in the region and the demands of the market a person with an economist's diploma may establish his own business, or he may become a partner of a joint venture. It is very important for an economist to know a foreign language, especially English. That is because contracts between our country and many countries of the world are becoming wider with every coming day. Every economist has a chance to go abroad or to deal with foreign businessmen coming to our country. But to become a good economist one must work hard and get not only theoretical knowledge but also great practical skills.
My school. I had just left school and I would like to tell you a few words about it. I went to school in 1988. This school I studied in is a three stored building. When you enter the school yard you can see poplar trees and beautiful flowers. To the right of the school building there is a big playground. When the weather was fine we had our classes in physical training there. When you enter the school you come in to a large hall and a cloak-room, there we left our coats, rain-coats and jackets. On the ground floor where is also a school library and a gym. The class rooms, the assembly hall, the teachers room and the canteen are on the upper floors. On the walls of the corridors you can see the portraits of famous writers, poets, scientists and our school wall newspaper. It is done by the pupils of our school and has a lot of interesting things to read. I learned different subjects at school: Russian, English, math, physics, chemistry, geography, history and some others. My favorite subjects were Russian and English. I also liked literature. I was good at these subjects and usually got good marks in them. I worked hard at English lessons: read and translated texts, made up dialogues, did a lot of ex, but best of all I liked different tests, I was fond of grammar. But I was poor in chemistry. I always failed to learn formulas and terms properly. I liked my class, everybody was so friendly easy to get along with. I was on good terms with my class maids and we often spend our free time together.
Much was done by people to reach the present state of human development. It is necessary to say that great contribution to the development of the world science and culture, literature, music and painting was made by the Russian people. The names of Russian scientists and writers, poets, composers and painters are world-famous-Pushkin, Lermontov, Chehov, Levitan. This chain can be endless. It is almost impossible to name a branch of science in the development of which the Russian scientists haven't played the greatest role. Lomonosov, the founder of the Moscow University was an outstanding innovator both in the humanities and sciences. Mendeleev's greatest discovery was the Periodic System of Elements. Popov invented radio. Sechenov and Pavlov were the world's greatest physiologists. Russia is rightly called the mother of aviation and cosmounatics. Names of Tsiolkovsky, Korolov and Gagarin are symbols of new space era. People in many countries admire paintings, portraits and landscapes Surikov, Levitan, Repin works of our Russian writes and poets are translated into many languages. I want to tell about one of the greatest Russians. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, an outstanding Russian composer, was born in Votkinsk in 1840. He was fond of music since his early childhood. His mother sang him beautiful songs and taught him to play the piano. He graduated from the Petersburg Conservatoire only in 1866 because of his poor living conditions. He was the best pupil of Anton Rubinstein. Wen the Moscow Conservatoire was founded Pyotr Ilyich became a professor there. He created wonderful music: 10 operas, 3 ballets, 6 symphonies, 7 large symphonic poems and many other musical pieces., a new type of opera, was a great success all over the world. Margaret Thatcher was the longest Prime Minister of the 20th century. Her style and her views appealed to mane British people who had lost confidence in the welfare state and in the direction the nation had taken. In some ways she was the first genuine leader the nation had had since Churchill. Margaret Thatcher began her career in politics, when she became a Conservative Member of Parliament. in 1979 she was elected as Britain's first woman Prime Minister. From the start, her autocratic style earned her the nickname of «The Iron Lady». Her abrasive manner has attracted some criticism. During the Falklands War of 1982, however, Margaret Thatcher's militant patriotism found her many supporters, and she became something of a popular hero-figure, much as Winston Churchill had been in the Second World War. Margaret Thatcher was re-elected Prime Minister in the general elections of 1983 and 1987. Andrew Wyet is one of the prominent living American painters. He was born in 1917. The son of illustrator – Andrew is the leading member of the dynasty of painters that includes his sisters, their husbands and his own two sons. He won fame at the age of 12 for his illustrations of «Robin Hood». He was 20 when he first exhibited his paintings. Andrew studied with his father and was strongly influenced by him. His father's style of illustration expresses sentimentality. But very early the young artist gravitated a way from his teacher. Wyet's style is both precise and minute in detail, he is a realist influenced by photography. He painted portraits, landscapes, seascapes and domestic scenery. His favorite media are tempera and water colors. His works are easily recognized by dimly lit and deserted landscapes in tones of grey and brown which convey the feeling of loveliness and solitude. His most famous works are «Christina's world» and «Inland shell».
Problems of Youth. The age between 14 & 17 is considered to be one of the best periods in people’s life. Grown-ups remind it with excitement & tenderness. But most teens wouldn’t agree with this opinion if they were asked. Youth is the time when a person is trying to find his place in the world. And during this search he or she comes across different problems which are as important as those of the adults. The youth of the 21st century face almost the same problems which were acute to their parents when they were young. These problems are quite serious & they can’t be considered trifles.
One of them is a generation gap. Every generation is unique in its experience. It has its own ideals and a system of values concerning every aspect of human life. Adults always complain that the young people do not blindly accept the ideals of their parents. Different generations take different directions. Grown-ups always teach the young how to live. But the latter want to live their own life. And it generates the conflict of the generations.
Drinking & taking drugs have become the most actual problems of the modern society. As for drinking, teenagers don’t realize the harm it does to their health, they just don’t want it to the privilege of grown-ups but unlike grown-ups they are notable to drink responsibly. They really believe that certain drinks will make them look like they’re accepted. So, we can say that the low level of self-appraisal is the main reason of drinking & drug problem.
In fact, teenagers have got a lot of work. They’re busy with their studies, household chores, some of them have a paid job. But there’s no time for fun & they want to be entertained at least sometimes. This excessive work leads to an inner conflict which’s usually expressed in the form of an open, direct protest against the world of grown-ups.
Our age – is time of making a choice what we will be in future, what we want to do and how. So we have to choose the university to have better education and future profession. If you have a good education you’ll be always perfect at you profession and of course you’ll earn much money, make your life better. And the best way to prepare is to study better at school. The school ages are also very difficult. We do a lot of homework and even have no time to go for a walk or do whatever we want.
And of course, communication can be one of the most important problems of all young people of today. If you don’t like noisy clubs and other places of entertainment, you can make friends without leaving your apartment. The Internet gives such an opportunity. But the problem is that people can sit at the displays for 24 hours without eating, sleeping, having a rest, working or learning properly. I am sure, that it’s a great problem of the present and future.
So as you see it’s very difficult to be young nowadays as indeed it always was. But you only can be young ones and some wonderful things can happen to you only when you’re young. So it’s better to enjoy youth while it lasts.
Holidays. Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions. But there are also international holidays which are celebrated in all countries world-wide. They are: Christmas, New Year, Easter and St. Valentine's day. Christmas comes but once a year. Christmas is a traditional family reunion day. On this day, many people attend a church service, open their presents and eat a Christmas dinner. In Britain, Christmas is the most important public holiday of the year. It combines the custom of giving gifts with the tradition of spending this day with the family. Every year a huge Christmas tree, the gift of the Norwegian people, graces Trafalgar square. In Russia Christmas is celebrated on the 7th of January. On this day people celebrate the birthday of Jesus Christ. New Year is a public holiday but it is not marked with any particular custom in Britain and America, yet it has a joyful celebration in Russia. People stay awake until after midnight on December 31st to watch the Old Year out and the New Year in. Many parties are given on this night. Theatres, night clubs and streets are crowded. Easter is one of the most important Christian holiday. It is traditionally associated with Easter eggs and with the coming of spring, and most churches are specially decorated with flowers for the service held on Easter Day. There are also some special holidays which are usually celebrated in a particular country. Let's start with the traditional British holiday Pancake day. But people don't only eat pancakes on this day, they run with them. In many towns in England pancake races are held every year. These races are run by housewives. The most American holiday is Thanksgiving day. It was first celebrated in early colonial times by Pilgrim Fathers after their first good harvest. Thanksgiving is a day when the family eats a large traditional dinner, usually with turkey and pumpkin pie. In Russia we celebrate Women's day on the 8th of March. On this day men are supposed to do everything about the house and cook all the meals. I think it is very important to follow special traditions, because they untie people. n Britain traditions play more important part in the life of the people than in some other countries. English are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. There is a big difference of people between America and Britain. An Englishman in America is respected, Americans love his accent and his country. An American in England is thought to be a little strange because of his behavior and his language. To the English their private lives are important, their holidays are important, their garden are important, their animals are important. For American the work is the most important thing in life. And in England you can hear the most extraordinary excuse not to go to work, for example «My dog's got a cold». In English houses the fire-place has always been the centre of interest in a room. For many months of the year people like to sit round the fire and watch the dancing flames. Above the fire there is usually a shelf with a clock and some photos. The English are a nation of stay-at-homes. There is no place like home. The Englishman is never tired to say «My house is my castle». The Americans are different. I think they are more open, they speak their minds, so if they don't like something, they actually tell it directly. Not like the British, who might think one thing and say another. Americans start conversations with people in the street, in the subway; they are more enthusiastic. American customs underline independence and freedom of the nation. Russia is the country of the dramatic beauty. To my mind, the main traits of the real Russia character are hospitality, «open heart», «golden hands», wise Russian fairytales reflect their wisdom. The Russians are a very talented nation. Russia gave the world beautiful names of Pushkin and Lermontov, Tchaikovsky and Repin, thousands of names of world famous poets, writers, composers, scientists. Every country is also known for its food. England is noted for its pudding, bacon, marmalade, porridge and five-o'clock-tea. America is the country of Coca-Cola, hamburgers and chewing gum. Traditional Russian cooking is worldfamous for such dishes as okroshka,…
Sports. Sport is probably as old as the humanity itself. It has been developing with the development and growth of the mankind people all over the world. If you want to feel fit you'd better go in for one kind of sport or another. I should admit that everyone must do all he can to be healthy. Good health is better than the best medicine, as the old Latin proverb says. All kinds of physical exercises are very useful to make our bodies strong and to keep ourselves fit and healthy.
Sport not only helps people to become strong and to develop physically but also makes them more organized and better disciplined in their daily activities. It makes for a healthy mind in a healthy body sport helps people to keep in good health. We all need to exercise. Even if you don’t plan to make a career in sport you still have to practice. Regular exercises give you more energy. That is why many people who suffer from general tiredness should take more exercise than more rest. Exercise makes you feel and look better. The best exercise is one, which is involved, in repeated movements: walking, jogging, and swimming. Bending and stretching will add flexibility and feeling of lightness.
As for me I try to take all these things into consideration and as a result of it I go in dancing studio, play badminton and sometimes volleyball, ride bicycle and swim. I think that dancing is better than sport if you just want to keep feet, but not make a sport career. Because sometimes sport is dangerous if you don’t know how to do exercises properly. For example, if you run too much your calves can become too big or you even can get injury. So you better go to a sport clubs where experienced instructor will help you to achieve good results.
I like to dance very much and I think it’s a best way to be healthy and to keep feet for girls. Because dancing develops all groups of muscles and helps to keep good deportment. Besides it makes one feel confident and helps to overcome shyness. So I am in good form and hope to be in future.
My favourite holiday. Many great holidays and anniversaries are celebrated in our country. On the 1st of May there is May Day — the holiday of spring and labour. On the 8th of March there is Women's Day — the holiday of all women and girls. We celebrate Day of Independence of Russia on the 12th June and Day of Russian Constitution on the 12th of December. Now people celebrate some religious holidays such as Christmas and Easter. But my favourite holiday is New Year's Day, of course. It is a really wonderful holiday. People get ready for this holiday long before it. They buy New Year trees and decorate them. Every year a fairy-tale comes to every house and every family on New Year's Eve. Children and even grown-ups wait for this day because they believe that all their wishes and desires come true and different wonderful miracles happen on that day.
Great Britain is situated on the British Isles. It consists of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, and is one thirtieth the size of Europe. Great Britain is surrounded by seas on all sides and is separated from the continent by the North Sea and the English Channel.
The United States of America is another important English-speaking country. It consists of fifty different states and the District of Columbia joined together under one government.
Protection of Environment. It is a small world we live in, and it is high time for all of us to realize it. Since ancient times people have been trying to produce more and more to increase human wealth. Nobody noticed that we were destroying Nature by using it as the source of raw materials, and as the garbage can for our waste. Nature seemed to be boundless and endless… Far from it as it turned out. Millions of cars and smoky factories pollute and spoil the air we breathe in. Pollution is hanging over big cities like an ugly brown cloud. It is hurting our lungs as well as the life of animals, birds and plants. People need wood and paper, so we cut down our forests. We don't know what to do with waste materials of our industry, so we pour them into water, bury them into soil, and shoot them into atmosphere. We pollute the water we drink, and the land we live in. People build nuclear power stations and carry out nuclear tests. As a result, radiation represents one of the main problems nowadays. The rapid growth of population in the world may turn into another grave problem very soon. The speed, with which we are using up our non-renewable resources like oil and gas, is appalling. With the development of our civilization we have become dangerous to the planet and to ourselves. What must we do not to find ourselves in a dirty desert in the near future? This question cannot be ignored. Some scientists are pessimistic about our problems. They suppose that we have already reached the point of no return. Others are more optimistic and believe that our ecological problems are solvable because more and more people begin to understand how dangerous they are. There is increasing awareness of people of the real state of the planet. In many countries environmental protection agencies and research centers are set up. Such organizations as «Green Peace» and «Friends of the Earth» try to put pressure upon those governments that do not care for ecology in their countries. The humankind will be able to survive only if we all understand that environmental protection is our universal concern.
Mass media. The most popular sources of entertainment and information are the press, radio, tv, and movies. The press plays an important part in the life of society. Millions of Americans in their free time read newspapers. The English word ‘newspaper’ does not really describe everything that you can read in this kind of publication. Newspapers include not only stories about recent events (news), but opinions, advertising, and other non-news items. The first American newspaper was called Public Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestic. This paper was first published in Boston in 1690. Now there are about 2,600 newspapers published in the USA. The New York Times, the Washington Post, and the Los Angeles Times are three of the most important daily papers that describe foreign and domestic news. The radio does not interfere with your activities. You can listen to the radio while doing some work about the house, reading a book or driving a car. On the radio one can hear music, plays, news, and different commentary and discussions called ‘forums’. At a forum several authorities exchange views on social, economic and political problems. A peculiar feature of the American radio is soap opera. It is a sentimental serial drama that describes domestic problems and which is for housewives. Soap opera is usually broadcast every day. Most people find soap opera boring. There ate a lot of games on the radio. They are called ‘panel games’. Radio brings also cultural and educational programs. Many programs are made up of classical music. Television is a ‘chewing gum for ears and eyes’. There are many serials on TV in the USA. They appeared in the 1950s. TV games- attract a large audience, too. During TV quiz programs TV viewers answer different questions. There is a lot of education on television. For example, you can take a TV course in history, political economy, management, banking and in many other subjects, or learn a foreign language by TV. Educational TV films and programs are shown in schools and colleges as a part of the curriculum.
Moscow is the capital of Russia. It is one of the biggest and most beautiful cities in the world. Moscow is a modern city now. The population of the city is about 9.8 million people. Moscow is a political centre, where the government of our country works. Moscow was founded in 1147 by Yuri Dolgoruky. The total area of Moscow is about nine hundred square kilometres. We say that Moscow is a port of five seas, as the Moscow—Volga Canal links Moscow with the Baltic, White, Caspian and Black seas and the Sea of Azov. Moscow is an industrial centre too. There are many factories and plants in it. One of the best-known plants produces many lorries, and the other one produces cars. The Bolshoi Theatre is one of the famous theatres all over the world. If you are fond of painting you can go to the Tretyakov Art Gallery or to the Pushkin Fine Arts Museum and see a lot of interesting portraits and landscapes there. We say that the Tretyakov Art Gallery is a treasure-house of Russian art. Young people like to visit the Central Military Museum. There are many tanks, guns and war documents there. One can see the Kremlin and Red Square in the city. There are many fine buildings, wide streets, green parks, large squares, churches and monuments in Moscow. It is necessary to mention such famous monuments as monuments to the great Russian writer Alexander Pushkin and to the first Russian printer Ivan Fedorov. Visiting the capital a lot of foreigners from all over the world come to see these monuments. One of the highest buildings in Moscow is the State Moscow University. It was founded in 1755 by the great scientist Mikhail Lomonosov. Transport. Moscow is a very big city, and its transport must be comfortable and fast. One can see a lot of cars, buses, trolley-buses, trams in the streets of our city. The Moscow metro began its work on the 15th of May, 1935. There were 13 stations at that time. Now it has 190 stations. Our metro is a beautiful and convenient one. There are nine railway stations in Moscow and five airports around the city. There are many stadiums in Moscow. The Central Stadium is in Luzhniki. Many competitions and football matches are held there. The Olympic village was built for the 22nd Olympic Games in Moscow in 1980. It is a big complex for sport games. I live in Moscow and I am proud of this city.
The vast territory of Russia lies in the Eastern part of Europe and in the northern part of Asia. In area, it is one of the largest countries in the world. Airlines service many cities throughout the country. A flight from Moscow to Magadan takes eight hours. Russia is washed by twelwe seas and three oceans. The oceans are: tha Atlantic, the Arctic, the Pacific. The northern and eastern coasts of Russia are washed by the White Sea, the Barents Sea and by the Okhotsk Sea. The land of Russia waries a lot from heavy forests to barren deserts, from high peaked mountains to deep valleys. Russia is located on two plains. They are: the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Plain. There are three main mountain chains in Russia. The Urals, the longest mountain chain, separates Europe from Asia. There are various types of climate on the territory of Russia. But the temperate zone with four distinct seasons prevails. Russia is a land of long rivers and deep lakes. The broad Volga River system has a great historic, economic and cultural importance to Russia. It became the cradle of such ancient towns as Vladimir, Tver, Yaroslavl, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod. Numerous canals join all the rivers in the European part of Russia, making it the largest inland water transportation route in Europe. The Volga River runs into the Caspian Sea, which is in reality, the largest lake in the world. The Baikal is the deepest lake in the world. The European part of Russia is densely populated. There are a lot of cities, towns and villages there. Russia is rich in natural resources. It has deposits of coal, oil, natural gas, iron ore, gold, nickel, etc. Russia borders on fourteen countries, including the former Republics of the USSR, which are now independent states. The history of Russia dates back to the year 862. Now Russia is a Presidental Republic. Russia has always played an important role in the world. It is one of its leading Powers.