Реферат: Шпоры для экзамена по англ. яз.
St-PB is the second largest city in Russia. Its population is about five million people. The city is situated on the east shorn of the golf of Finland of the Baltic Sea. St-PB stands on the river Neva in its delta. The river is seventeen four kilometers long. It is the main waterway of the city. Many centuries ago these lands belong to Novgorod principality, but it the 17-century they were sired by Sweden. When Peter the first came to Russian troun he launched the war against Sweden. This war lasted for 21 years. And known as a north war. After one of the important battles Peter the first ordered to put up the fortress to protect these lands. It was built on the Heir Island and known as Peter and Paul fortress. Soon Peter the first decided build a new big city here. He invited famous architectures to build the city. Now it is one of most big cities in the world. It is famous for its famous museums, parks and cathedrals.
Shopping Shopping has common elements wherewer it takes place. Abuyer looks for a seller who is
Offering something the buyer wants or needs at a price the buyer can afford to pay. Sellers often advertise their wares in newspapers, radio, TV.Sellers usually use a varity of tactics to induce buyers to purchase from them at a price whitch leaves some profit. Shopping is a part of our life. There are people who hate going shopping, So they make a list of what they needed things. And there are people who go from shop to shop looking for goods of better quality and lower price. They don’t worry about the time they spend shopping. But there is a very good service called Postal Market. It helps you to save your time and get goods of high quality.
Sport is very important part of our life in GB. Thousand of people play outdoor and indoor; such as boxing, football, cricket. There are many team games in GB such as cricking and hockey. There are different of football for example: rugby whitch oppered 1859 at rugby school. The players have the oval ball in their hands. Another kind of football is soccer. Soccer watches big crowds. There is another game in GB whitch is known as cricket. It is often could an English national game. There is a fact that they play cricket since 16 centure. This game often play at school and univercities and all towns and willages have there cricket teams. Swiming is also popular in GB. Many children learn to swim at schools or during their holidays at seaside. There are also indoor swiming pools whitch makes swiming posible all the round. Swiming championships are often reported in the press, over the radio, and on the television.
Moscow is one of the oldest cities in Russia. Many centures ago it was a village and in the 15 century it became the capital of Russia. A Kremlin was built for russian czars. Since the16 century the city grow and it was surrounded by a big wall of red stones. But in the 18 century the capital of Russia was St-Pb and all the czars move to the Winter Palace. In 1918 Moscow again became the capital of Russia. This time the city was very big. There were a lot of the new streets, squares, blockhouses and cathedrals. In 1935 the first metro was built in Moscow. The heart of M is Red Square. There are a lot of people there. They come to see Kremlin, Musoleum and the eternal 5 of the unknown soldier. The city has nearly 60 museums. The most famous is a Tretyakovskaya Gallery. The emblem of Moscow you can see on one of the walls of the Gallery. It is George the Winner slaying the dragon. The Gallery was opened in in 1892 by Tretyakov. He was the richest merchant of Moscow and his dream was to open public museum. He began to collect his collection since 1856. And in the 1892 there were 2000 pictures. Now we can see there 55000 pictures. Among them we can see pictures of Rublev, Repin,Serov,Petrov-Vodkin and others.
There are four seasons in the year. They are: winter,spring,summer and autum. The most longest and the coldest is the winter. Our country is situated in the north. So, there are a lot of snow in winter. The weather is cold, the sky is dark and cold wind is blowing. But we have a lot of fun in winter, because we can sky, play snowbals. Then the next season is spring. The sun is shining, the birds are singing, the grass become green, the sky is blue and the weather is warm. Then comes summer. Everything is green, there are a lot of flowers, mushrooms, and berries. All of us have summer holidays. They are lasting 3 month. We like summer because we can swim,bernt, and spend a lot of times out doors. Then comes autum. It is time to go to school. The weather became again cold, there is much rains, the leafs are fall down and soon the winter comes again.
There are a lot of holidays and all of us like them. We live in Russia and it is a country whitch is famous for its holidays. We like to celebrate them. The most favorite holiday in our country is New Year. We celebrate it on the 31th of december. All school children have holidays and they like this holiday very much. We always buy a New Year three and decorate it with bright balls and different toys. In the evening we always cook tosty things. New Year is the largest holiday in the winter. Then come spring with its holidays. They are the 8th of March, it is known as women day. Then comes the day of victory,whitch is on the 9th of May. It is holiday for our grandpaents and also it is a national holiday to all Russian people. We live in St-Pb and 27th of May we celebrate its birthday. All streets and squares are decorated with flags and lights and we can see a bright color solute in the evening.
Education is very important thing in our life. Some people think that an educated person must know a lot of things. But some people think that it is better to know a little about a lot. Our parents afraid that bad education may spoil our chance in future. You must know a lot about your future profession. At first all children go to the kindergarden. Then at the age of 6 or 7 the go to shcool. They study maths, literature,history,foreign languages and other subjects. They finish school at 16 or 17. After school we can go special colleges, where we study for two or three years. And also we can go to high schools and univercities. We study there for 5 years and get high education there.
After 350 years of development the US of A still holds the leading position in the western world. The USA is the most powerful and highly developed country in the world. The USA are situated in central part of North American continent. Its western coast is washed by the Pacific Ocean. Its eastern coast is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.
The USA consists of 3 separate parts. They are the Hawaian Islands, Alaska and the mayor part of the USA. There are 50 states and district of Columbia. The states differ very much in size, population and economical development. The population of the USA is about 250 million people.What makes the USA the leader of the western world is its economical, political and
military dominance over other countries. The US is a federal republic. The flag of USA is called “Stars and Stripes”. The 50 stars-white on a blue field represent the 50 states, 18 stripes represent13 original English colonies, whitch in 1776 became independed of England. The capital of the US is Washington. It was named in honor of the first president whose name was George Washington. The biggest cities of the USA are New York, San Francisco, Los Angeles,Chicago and others.
As well as being the capital of England, London is the capital of the UK. London was founded by the Romans in 43 A.D. and was called Londinium. In 61 A.D. the town was burnt down and when it was rebuilt by the Romans it was surrounded by a wall. That area within the wall is now called the City of London. It is London’s commercial and business centre. It containts the Bank of England, The Stock Exchange and the head offices of numerous companies and corporations. Here is situated the Tower of London. It was built by William the Conqueror who conquered England in 1066. He was crowned at Westminster Abbey. Now most of the Government buildings are located there.During the Victorian period (19 century) London was one of the most important centres of Industrial Revolution and the centre of the British Empire.Today London is a great political centre, a great commercial centre, a paradisw for theatre-goers and tourists. City famous for its ancient buildings, museums and libraries.
Mass media are one of the most characteristic features of modern civilization. People are united into one global community with the help of mass media. People can learn about what is happening in the world very fast using mass media. The mass media include newspapers, magazines,radio and television. The earliest kind of mass media was newspapers. The first newspaper was Roman handwritten newssheet called “Acta Diurna” started in 59 B.C. Magazines appeared in 1700’s. They developed from newspapers and bookseller’s catalogs. Radio and TV appeared only in this century. The most exciting and entertaining kind of mass media is TV. It brings moving pictures and sounds directly to people’s homes. Radio is widespread for its portablility. It means that radios can easily be carried around. People like listening to the radio on the beach or picnic, while driving a car or just walking down the street. Newspapers can present and comment on the news in much detail in comparison to radio or TV. Magazines don’t focus on daily, rapidly changing events. They provide more profound analysis of events of week.
The UK of GB and Northen(?) Island are situated on the British Isles, whitch are separated from the European Continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. British population is over 56 million. The largest cities of the country are London, Liverpool and Glazgo. There are other famous and interesting cities such Bermingem, Manchester, Chester (in the past it was a Roman fort), York, Oxford and Cambrige. This city is famous for it’s Britain’s second oldest university. The UK is the monarchy. The head of state is a king or a queen. The territory of GB is small. The heart of Britan is England. It is the reachest and the most populated country. The north and west of England are mountains, but all the rest of the territory is the Vast(?) Plain. The smallest of Britain’s countries is Wales. The largest part of Wales is covered with rocky mountains. The capital of GB is London. It stands on the Thames, the most important river in GB.
Stonehenge is one of the most famous prehistoric places in the world. This ancient circle of stones stands in Southwest England. It made with massive blocks of stone up to 4 metres high. Why it was built is mistery.
People have always polluted their surroundings. But untill now pollution was not such a serious problem. People lived in uncrowed areas and did not have pollution-causing machines. With the development of crowded industrial cities whitch put huge amounts of pollutans into small areas, the problem has become more important. Automobiles and other new inventions make pollution steadily worse. Since the late 1960’s people have become alarmed with the danger of pollution. Air,water,and soil are necessary for existance of all living things. But polluted air can cause illness, and even death. Polluted water kills fish and other marine life. On polluted soil, food can not be grown. In addition environmental pollution spoils the natural beauty of our planet Government can pass the laws that would make enterprises take measures for reducing of pollution. Individuals and groups of people can work together to persuade enterprises to stop polluting activities.
There are many languages in the world:Franch,Doytch,Spanish,Russian and many other. But most important language is English. “Do you speak English?”-with this phrase begins the conversation between two people, that speak different languages and want to find a common language. It’s very good when you hear: “Yes, I do”, and start talking. People of different countries and nations have to get along well with the progress in world trade and technology as well as with each other. So it is very useful to learn foreign languages. Knowledge of foreign language helps us to develop friendship and understanding among people. English is very popular now. It’s the language of computers, scince, business, sport and politics. It’s spoken all over the world. It’s the official language of The USA, UK, Ireland, Canada and Australia.There are more than 1 billion speakers of English in the world. Speaking a foreign language you can read papers, magazines and original books by great writers. If you like travelling you can go any where without being afraid that other people will not understand you. English is too important to find a good job.