Реферат: Food

Theme:        “Food”

Student: Sophy (IX form)

Teacher:Smirnova T. V.

Kostanai, 2002


1.<span Times New Roman"">    

Food celebrates life.

2.<span Times New Roman"">    

Food nourishes language.

3.<span Times New Roman"">    

Food for different cultures:

a.<span Times New Roman"">    

From land and sea

b.<span Times New Roman"">    

From high in the mountains

c.<span Times New Roman"">     

Meals in Britain

d.<span Times New Roman"">    

American food and drink

e.<span Times New Roman"">     

Kazakh traditional dishes

4.<span Times New Roman"">    

 Food is symbolic.

5.<span Times New Roman"">    

Food as a fad or cult.

6.<span Times New Roman"">    

Plan a healthful diet.

7.<span Times New Roman"">    

Food is the staff of life.“Every man is the builder of a temple calledhis body (1817-1862) ”

Thoreau, Henry Davia

   English will have become an important toolfor communication and discovery rather than just another class to attend. Andwe would like to look at the all-important topic, Food.

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   Have you ever noticed how much of our lifeis centered on food? Look at all the meetings held, decisions made, and mergersconsummated over a meal: power breakfast, power lunch, dinners, banquets,receptions, and those endless toasts. Consider all the celebrations where foodis all-important: weddings, birthdays, religious feast days, national holidays,etc. Food is the great icebreaker when people meet for pleasure or business.Food is at the center of many of our important activities.

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   Because of this importance, much of ourlanguage (regardless of the language) contains references to food. Thesereferences conjure up images worth a thousand words each. The idiom pagecontains several references to food and shows how these are used in anon-food-related discussion. Think about the idioms and expressions in yournative language related to food and how and when you use them. Do you use foodexpressions to describe someone’s physical characteristics (e.g., He’s asskinny as a string bean; his belly shakes like a bowl full of jelly.); or, todescribe someone’s personality (e.g., Harry is a cre3am puff; she’s as sweet assugar.) or, to describe a situation or activity (e.g., Something is fishy here;That crossword puzzle is a piece of cake.). How we use food expressions dependson how we perceive the food, or the culture associated with the food.

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   Have you  ever  stopped to  really think  about what  you and your family eat

everyday and why? Have youever stopped to think what other people eat? In the movie Indiana Jones and Temple ofDoom, there are two scenes in which the two characters are offered mealsfrom a different culture. One meal, meant to break the ice, consisted ofinsects. The second meal was a lavish banquet that featured such delicacies asroasted beetles, live snakes, eyeball soup, and chilled monkey brains fordessert. Some cultures eat such things as vipers and rattlesnakes, bush rats,dog meat, horsemeat, bats, animal heart, liver, eyes, and insects of all sorts.

   Often the differences among cultures in thefoods they eat are related to the differences in geography and local resources.People who live near water ( the sea, lakes, and rivers) tend to eat more fishand crustaceans. People who live in colder climates tend to eat heavier, fattyfoods. However, with the development of a global economy, food boundaries anddifferences are beginning to dissipate: McDonalds is now on every continentexpect Antarctica, and tofu and yogurt are served all over the world.

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Corn tortillas (2 servings)

Black beans (2 servings)

Rice (2 servings)    


Morocco: Couscous4

Couscous (wheat pasta)






India:Sag paneer4

Indian cheese (2 servings)





Rice (2 servings)

Chapati (wheat bread)

Italy: Spaghetti<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:RU;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">[5]

Spaghetti (2 servings)

Tomato sauce (2 servings)

Parmesan cheese

Chicken breasts, baked








Egg white

Rice (2 servings)

USA:Barbecue chicken and potato salad5

Chicken breast, barbecue





Corn (1 ear)

What do people eat?

   Many factors determine thefoods that people eat. Geography and climate, tradition and history: They allgo into our meals. In European country of Spain and the Asian country of Nepal,different cultures and customs affect what people eat.

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   Spain occupies most of the IberianPeninsula, on the western edge of Europe. It is nearly surrounded by theAtlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

   Spain’s dry climate and poor soil makefarming difficult. Extensive irrigation allows farmers to raise strawberriesand rice in dry areas. Vegetables and citrus trees grow on the coastal plains,and olives and grapes grow in the river valleys.

   The grasslands of the large dry centralplateau are used for grazing sheep, goats, and cattle. People in this regioneat roasted and boiled meats. They also raise pigs for ham and spicy sausagecalled chorizo. And people all overthe country eat lots of seafood from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean.

   One classic Spanish dish, paella, includes sausage, mussels,lobster, or chicken, plus red pepper, peas, tomatoes, and saffron rice. Peasantswere the first to make paella, using whatever food was available. But this dishand others also reflect Spain’s history of traders, conquerors, and explorerswho brought a variety of food by land and by sea.

   Phoenicians from the Middle East introducedgrapes to Spain in about 1100B.C. Hundreds of years later, Romans broughtolives from what is now Italy. In the 8th century A.D., Moors(Muslim Arabs and Berbers from Africa) introduced shortgrain rice and za faran, or saffron – the spice thatcolors rice yellow. And in the 1400s, 1500s, and 1600s, Spanish explorers andtraders returned home with nutmeg and cloves from the East Indies: and peppers,tomatoes, potatoes, and chocolate from the Americas.   

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   Nepal is alandlocked country in the Himalayas, the highest mountain range in the world.Nepal has three distinct geographical zones – lowlands; hills, mountains, andvalleys; and the Great Himalayan Range – with subtropical to alpine-arctictemperatures and wide variations in vegetation and animal life.

   Most people in Nepal are farmers. They growfruits, fruits, and other crops in the lowlands, where temperatures are thewarmest. Rice and corn grow in terraced, or stairlike, fields in the coolerhill regions. And potatoes and barley are the staple, or chief, crops at higherelevations, where temperatures are the coolest.

   The Nepal raise goats, cattle, and yaks fordairy products. Meat is eaten mostly on special occasions. Religious rulesaffect which meats people in Nepal eat: Hindus, who make up almost 90 percentof the population, do not eat beef, and Muslims do not eat pork. The Buddhistreligion prohibits the killing of any animals but allows the eating of meat, soBuddhists hire butchers to slaughter animals for food.

   A typical family meal in Nepal might includedaal bhat (rice with lentil gravy) orchapati (a flatbread), steamedvegetables, and achaar (a paste ofspiced pickled fruits). About 90 percent of the Nepalese people live in ruralareas. They often lack electricity for refrigerators or for cooking, so theyrely on dried foods such as grains, lentils, and beans.  

   People carry traditions and foods with themwhen they move from one place to another. You might recognize examples when youlook at your classmates’ special family foods or at specialty restaurants inyour community.  

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   The two features of life in England thatpossibly give visitors their worst impressions are the English weather andEnglish cooking.

   A traditional English breakfast is a verybig meal – sausages, bacon, eggs, tomatoes, and mushrooms.  People who  do have a full  breakfast say that  it  is

 quite good. The writer Somerset Maugham oncegave the following advice: “If you want to eat well in England, eat threebreakfasts daily.” But nowadays it is often a rather hurried and informal meal.Many people just have cereal with milk and sugar, or toast with marmalade, jam,or honey. Marmalade and jam are not the same! Marmalade is made from orangesand jam is made from other fruits. The traditional breakfast drink is tea,which people have with cold milk. Some people have coffee, often instantcoffee, which is made with just hot water. Many visitors to Britain find thiscoffee disgusting!

   For many people lunch is a quite meal. Incities there are lot of sandwich bars, where office workers can choose the kindof bread they want – brown, white, or a roll – and then all sorts of salad andmeat or fish to go in the sandwich. Pubs often serve good, cheap food both hotand cold. School-children can have a hot meal at school, but many just take asnack from home – a sandwich, a drink, some fruit and perhaps some crisps.British kids eat more sweets than any other nationality.

   “Tea” means two things. It is a drink and ameal! Some people have afternoon tea, with sandwiches, cakes, and, of course, acup of tea. Cream teas are popular. You have scones (a kind of cake) with creamand jam.

   The evening meal is the main meal of the dayfor many people. They usually have it quite early, between 6.00 and 8.00, andoften the whole family eats together.

   On Sundays many families have a traditionallunch. They have roast meat, either beef, lamb, chicken, or pork, withpotatoes, vegetables, and gravy. Gravy is a sauce made from the meat juice.

   The British like food from other countries,too, especially Italian, French,Chinese, and Indian. TheBritish have in fact always imported food from abroad. From the time of theRoman invasion foreign trade was a major influence on British cooking.Another  important influence  on British cooking was of course

the weather. The good oldBritish rain gives us rich soil and green grass, and means that we are able toproduce some  of the finest varieties ofmeat, fruit and vegetables, which don’t need fancy sauces or complicatedrecipes to disguise their taste. People often get take-away meals – you buy thefood at the restaurant and than bring it home to eat. Eating in Britain isquite international!

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   Some people criticize English food. They sayit’s unimaginable, boring, tasteless, it’s chips with everything and totallyovercooked vegetables.

   The basic ingredients, when fresh, are sofull of flavour that British haven’t had to invent sauces to disguise theirnatural taste. What can compare with fresh pees or new potatoes just boiled andserved with butter? Why drown spring lamb in wine or cream and spices, whenwith just one or two herbs it is absolutely delicious?

   If you ask foreigners to name some typicallyEnglish dishes, they will probably say “Fish and chips” then stop. It isdisappointing, but true that, there is no tradition in England of eating inrestaurants, because the food doesn’t lend itself to such preparations. Englishcooking is found at home so it is difficult to find a good English restaurantwith a reasonable prices.

   In most cities in Britain you’ll findIndian, Chinese, French and Italian restaurants. in London you’ll also findIndonesian, Mexican, Greek… Cynics will say that this is because English haveno “cuisine” themselves, but this is not quite the true.

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   All people in the world havebreakfast, and most people eat and drink the same things for breakfast. They mayeat different things for all the other meals in the day, but at breakfast time,most people have the same things to eat and drink – Tea or Coffee, Bread andbutter, Fruit.

   Some people eat meat for breakfast. Englishpeople usually eat meat at

breakfast time, but Englandis a cold country. It is bad to eat meat for breakfast in hot country. It isbad to eat too much meat; if you eat meat for breakfast, you eat meat threetimes a day; and that is bad in a hot country. It is also bad to eat meat anddrink tea at the same time, for tea makes meat hard so that the stomach cannotdeal with it

   The best breakfast is Tea or Coffee, breadand Butter, fruit. That is the usual breakfast of most people in the world.

Howtea was first drunk in Britain.11


   By the time tea was first introduced intothis country (1660), coffee had already been drunk for several years.

   By 1750 tea had become the most popularbeverage for all types and classes of people – even though a pound of tea costa skilled worker perhaps a third of his weekly wage!



   Early tea cups had no handles, because theywere originally imported from China. Chinese cups didn’t (and still don’t) havehandles.

   As tea drinking grew in popularity, it ledto a demand for more and more tea ware. This resulted in the rapid growth ofthe English pottery and porcelain industry, which not long after became worldfamous for its products.

Thetea break.

   Nowadays, tea drinking is no longer aproper, formal, «social» occasion. We don't dress up to “go out to tea”anymore. But one tea ceremony is still very important in Britain – the TeaBreak! Millions of people in factories and offices look forward to their teabreaks in the morning and afternoon Thingsto do.

1)<span Times New Roman"">   

Make a display of as many pictures, cut frommagazines. As you can showing different kinds of tea pots and tea cups.

2)<span Times New Roman"">   

Design your own kind of tea pots and tea cups.

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   The popular view outside theU.S.A. that Americans survive on cheeseburgers, Cokes and French fries is asaccurate as the American popular view that the British live on tea andfish’n’chips, the Germans only on beer, bratwurst, and sauerkraut, and theFrench on red wine and garlic.

   This view comes from the fact that much ofwhat is advertised abroad as “American food” is a very pretty flat, tastelessimitation. American beef, for example, comes from specially grain-fed cattle,not from cows that are raised mainly for milk production. As a result, Americanbeef is more tender and tasted better than what is usually offered as an“American steak” in Europe. When sold abroad, the simple baked potato thatcomes hot and whole in foil often lacks the most important element, the famousIdaho potato. This has different texture and skin that comes from the climateand soil in Idaho.

   Even sometimes as basic as barbecue saucesshows difference from many of the types found on supermarket shelves overseas.A fine barbecue sauce from the Southside of Chicago has its own fire and soul.The Texas have a competition each year for the hottest barbecue sauce (therecipes are kept secret).

   America has two strong advantages when itcomes to food. The first is that as the leading agriculture nation, she hasalways been well supplied with fresh meats, fruits, and vegetables in greatvariety at relatively low prices. This is one reason why steak or beefroastis probably the most “typical” American food; it has always been moreavailable. But good Southern-fried chicken also has champions, as do hickory-smokedor sugar-cured hams, turkey, fresh lobster, and other seafood such as crabs orclams.

   In a country with widely different climatesand many fruit and vegetable growing regions, such items as fresh grapefruit,oranges, lemons, melons, cherries, peaches, or broccoli, iceberg lettuce,avocados, and cranberries do not have to  be  imported. This is  one  reason why fruit  dishes  and salads  are so

 common. Family vegetable gardens have beenvery popular, both as a hobby and as a way to save money, from the days whenmost Americans were farmers. They also help to keep fresh food on the table.

   The second advantage America has enjoyed isthat immigrants have brought with them, and continue to bring, the traditionalfoods of their countries and cultures. The variety of foods and styles issimply amazing. Whether Armenian, Basque, Catalonian, Creole, Danish, French,German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, traditional Jewish, Latvian, Mexican,Vietnamese or what have you, these traditions are now also at home in theU.S.A.

   There seem to be four trends in America atpresent which are connected with foods and dining. First, there has been anotable increase in the number of reasonably priced restaurants which offer specialty foods. These includethose that specialize in many varieties and types of pancakes, those that offeronly fresh, baked breakfast foods, and the many that are buffets or salad bars.Secondly, growing numbers of Americans are more regularly going out to eat inrestaurants. One reason is that they are not many American women do not feelthat their lives are best spent in the kitchen. They would rather pay aprofessional chef and also enjoy a good meal. At the same time, there is anincrease in fine cooking as a hobby for both men and women. For some twodecades now, these have been popular television series on all types and stylesof cooking, and the increasing popularity can easily be seen in the number ofbest-selling specialty cookbooks and the number of stores that specialize inoften exotic cooking devices and spices.

   A third is that as a result of nationwidehealth campaigns, Americans in general are eating a much light diet. Cerealsand grain foods, fruit and vegetables, fish and salads are emphasized instead ofheavy and sweet foods. Finally, there is the international trend to “fast food”chains which sell pizza, hamburgers,  Mexican  foods,  chicken, salads  and  sandwiches, seafoods  and

 various ice creams. While many Americans andmany other people resent this trend and while, as many be expected, restaurantsalso dislike it, many young, middle-aged, and old people, both rich and poor,continue to buy and eat fast foods.

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   Tad Dorgan, a sports cartoonist, gave thefrankfurter its nickname in 1906. Munching on a frank at a baseball game, heconcluded that it resembled a dachshund’s body and put that whimsy into adrawing, which he captioned “Hot dog”.

   Sausages go all the way back to ancientBabylon, but the hot dog was brought to the U.S.A. shortly before the Civil Warby a real Frankfurter – Charles Feltman, a native of Frankfurt, Germany, whoopened a stand in New York and sold grilled sausages on warmed rolls – firstfor a dime apiece, later, a nickel.

   The frank appealed to busy Americans, who –as an early 19th century comment put it – tend to live by the maximof “gobble, gulp and go”. Nowadays Americans consume more than 12 billionfrankfurters a year.


   Modern hamburgers on a bun were first servedat the St. Louis Fair in 1904, but Americans really began eating them inquantity in the 1920s, when the White Castle snack bar chain featured a small,square patty at a very low price. Chopped beef, tasty and easily prepared,quickly caught on as family fare, and today hamburger stands, drive-ins, andburger chains offer Americans their favorite hot sandwich at every turn.

   The history of the hamburger dates back tomedieval Europe. A Tartar dish of shredded raw beef seasoned with salt andonion juice was brought from Russia to Germany by early German sailors. Thelightly broiled German chopped-beef cake, with pickles and pumpernickel on theside, was introduced to America in the early 1800s by German immigrants in theMidwest.


   It was early Dutch settlers and thePennsylvania Germans who introduced the yeasty, deep-fried doughnut to America.To the Dutch it was a festive food, eaten for breakfast on Shrove Sunday.

   Legend has it that doughnut got its hole in1847 when Hanson Gregory, a lad later to become a sea captain, complained tohis mother that her fried cakes were raw in the center and poked hole4s in thenext batch before they were cooked.

   During World War I, when the Salvation Armyserved them to the troops, doughnuts really took off as popular fare. Sincethen, coffee and doughnuts become a national institution. Stores sell themplain, sugared, frosted, honey-dipped, or jam-filled.

Applepie<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">[13]

   At its best, with a savory filling andcrisp, light-brown crust, apple pie has long been favorite on American tables.

   Applesand apple seemswere among the precious supplies the early colonists brought to the New World.The first large apple orchards were planted near Boston by William Blaxton inthe 1600s. When he moved to Rhode Island in 1635, he developed the tart RhodeIsland Greening, still considered one of America’s finest apple pies.

   As the fruit became abundant, many settlersate apple pie at every meal. Garnished with a chunk of cheese, it was afavorite colonial breakfast dish. By the 18th century apple piebecame so popular that Yale College in New Haven served it every night atsupper for more than 100 years.

   America’s love affair with apple pie hasremained constant. Today’s housewives, pressed for time, can shortcut thetradition by buying the pastry ready-made at bakeries and supermarkets. Manyvariation on the good old original are available, but the classical apple pie,irresistiblewhen topped with a slice of rat-trap cheese or slathered with vanilla icecream, is still America’s favorite.



   George Crumb, an American Indian who was thechef at Moon’s Lake House in Saratoga  Springs,  New York, in  the  mid-19th  century, was  irked  when  a

finicky dinner guest kept sendingback his French fried potatoes, complaining they were too thick. Inexasperation, Crumb shaved the potatoes into tissue-thin slice and deep-friedthem in oil. He had a dishful of crisp “Saratoga chips” presented to the guest,who was delighted with the new treat.

   Potato chips became the specialty of Moon’sLake House and, later, America’s crunchiest between-meal snack.


   America’s best known soft drink was firstconcocted by an Atlanta pharmacist in 1886. The syrup was cooked up by John S.Pemberton from extracts of coca leaves and the kola nut. He then organized thePemberton Chemical Company, and Coca-Cola syrup mixed with plain water was soldin a local drug-store for 5 cents a glass.

   Sales were slow until in 1887 a prosperousAtlanta druggist, Asa G. Candler, bought the Coca-Cola formula – then as now acarefully guarded secret – and added carbonate water to the syrup instead ofplain water.

   Advertisement stressing the words“delicious” and “refreshing” and carry coupons for free Coca-Cola added to theincrease in consumption. A system of independent local bottling companies wasdeveloped, and the flared bottle, familiar worldwide and said to resemble thehobble skirt, was designed in 1916.

   In 1919 the company was sold out for $25million to a group headed by Ernest Woodruff. Under his son, Robert W.Woodruff, Coca-Cola rapidly expanded its market. By the mid-1970s more than 150million Cokes a day were sold in country all over the world.

   Today Coca-Cola has to compete with manyother soft drinks, but it is still one of the symbols of the United States.

Kazakhtraditional dishes.15

   The mode of life of people,traditional craft, interrelations. Customs and traditions  are, perhaps,  well   comprehended   through traditional  dishes.  The

methods of cooking, whichthe Kazakh people used were closely linked with the culture and mode of life.The table manners of nomads, filled with so many customs, rituals, specialbehavior find its place in our time. The strict nomadic life laws have createdmoral and ethic norm. The whole clan and tribe shared the joys and sorrows oflife, any unexpected traveler was an honored guest. Any steppe inhabitant knew,that he was a welcome guest and had a right to his share. This steppe traditionwas strictly observed and is still observed today by the host. Some time laterthis violation merited a sort of punishment. That explains why every hostregarded the ritual of hospitality as sacred rule and welcomed guests warmly andwith all attention and kindly saw them off with good wishes.

   The main traditional dish of Kazakh isbesbarmak. It is mostly served for the guests and eaten by hands (bes barmak –means five finger). Besbarmak is usually cooked of fat mutton and parts ofsmoked horse meat and horse delicacies like kazyand shyzhyk. Themeat is boiled and separately is boiled thin paste. Boiled parts of meat areput on the paste and spiced with a special flavoring called tuzduk. As thecustom demands the host serves the meal in special crockey – tabak. Thebas-tabak, which is placed before the most honourable guests is used to servethe mutton head, zhambas, horse meat delicacy and other fatty parts. Theesteemed guest (usually the oldest one) cuts bit and part from the head andoffers them to the other guests at the table. The secret of distribution ofparts of the meat from the head lies in traditional wishes. When given thepalate, it expresses the wish – “be wise and eloquent”, the larynx – a gift tosing, skin of forehead – “be the first among equals”. Meanwhile one or twodzhigits (young man), sitting next to the esteemed guest start cutting theboiled parts of meat to pieces and the dish is again spiced with tuzdyk. Theguests are offered to help themselves to the dish. The youth and childrenusually sit at sides of the table dastarkhan. They receive meat directly

 from the elders. The custom is called asatuand symbolized the desire of the youth to experience the long and good life theelders have experienced. When all the meat and sorpa ( soup with large fatcontent) have been eaten and drank, the most respected guest thanks the hostesson behalf of all the guests and blesses the hosts of that house. 

   In our days the main features of this oldritual and table etiquette exist, are carefully kept, followed and passes totheir traditions. 

Foodis Symbolic.16

   Throughout history, food has been used as asymbol of wealth or gratitude, or to demonstrate position and power. In somecultures, eating lavish and exotic meals is a sign of wealth and power, whereaseating only the basic foods is a of  signbelonging to a more common class. In some cultures, the offer of a glass ofcool, clean water is the greatest compliment or honor one can receive. In somecultures, whenever you receive s guest, whether for business or pleasure, youmust offer them something to eat or drink: the more lavish the offeringsignifies the amount of respect or honor you give that person. Diet is not aconsideration.

   For centuries, food has been a key element inreligious rituals. Food was used as offering to the gods and their high priestsand priestesses. Food has been considered a form of tithing to a church or religious sect. Certain foods such aslamp, bread, and bitter herbs are religious symbols in some ceremonies.

   The sharing of food demonstrates acceptance,friendship, family, and love.To be invited to “breakbread” with a family, in many cultures shows respect and is a sign offriendship and acceptance. Literature is full of examples of lovers using foodto show their devotion and respect foe each other: one of the most famous beingthe line from the Rubaiyal of OmarKhayyam, “ A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread – and Thou…” in the West, chocolateand sweets have long been a symbolic exchange of affection between lovers. So,why do we eat the things we do? First, let’s established that not everything welike to meat is all that good for us, unfortunately. For example, there is muchdebate over the value of chocolate – yes, it does have some redeeming qualitiesaside from just tasting wonderful.

Foodas a Fad or Cult.17

   Food has often found a niche for itself inpopular culture. Eating or entertaining with certain foods has often been a fador cult. Whichever group you associate with or aspire to be like will dictatewhich fad you follow. For example, in the late “70s and 80s in the U.S., saladswere the “in” food for the yuppie crowd (the young, upwardly-mobile group).Salad bars (restaurants where salad is the primary food) sprang up everywhere.There were so many types of salads, garnishes, and salad dressings that wereinvented, it was impossible to keep up with them all.

   Of course many people ate salads becausethey were on diets. Thin was “in” and so everyone who was “in” or aspiring tobe “in” wanted to lose weight. Actually, throughout most of the ’80s and 90sthere has been an obsession with dieting. Now, however, dieting is not a politically correct word. There are so manyschemes and foods out in the stores for people to use lose weight; there areeven substances that promise if you take them you can eat all you want andstill lose weight.

   Aside form diets and salads, there are thefoods that people eat because their favorite athlete, musician, or actor eatsthat brand or kind for food. The cultural icons over the last several yearshave been exploited to promote the sale of different foods or food substitutes.Whatever Michael Jordan, Mel Gibson, or Oprah Winfrey drink and eat, the ardentfans, wannabes and admirers worldwide try to eat and drink. People don’t alwayspay attention to how truly nutritious something is; if the in-crowed or thecultural icon they aspire to be like eat it, they will get it. Pop culture is apowerful force.

Foodis the Staff of life.18

   Regardless of how you view food, you need itto live. You need the right kinds of food in the right amounts to have ahealthy life. Your needs for different kinds of food change as grow and mature.Everyone needs the three key nutrients that provide the body with energy andthe necessary building blocks: carbohydrates (sugar and starch), fat, andprotein. Unfortunately, in our world today, not every one has access to all ofthese all the time. World hanger is a global problem that needs to be addressedby all nations.

   The right type and kind of foods the bodyneeds to grow, develop, and stay healthy are not known by everyone. A good,daily, balanced diet is key to a healthy life. Do you have a balanced diet? Doyou know what you eat every

 day? Why do you think you eat the foods youeat? Eating the right food everyday not only nourishes our bodies, but it alsonourishes our spirits, our creativity and thinking, and our language andinteraction with other people.

What Counts as a serving?19

  The amount of food that countsas a serving is listed. If you eat a large portion, count it as more than oneserving. For example, ½ cup of cooked pasta counts as one serving in thebread, cereal, rice, and pasta group. If you eat 1 cup of pasta that would be 2servings. If you eat less than ½ cup, count it as part of a serving.


   For mixed foods, do the bestyou can to decide the food groups and to estimate the servings of the mainingredients. Pizza would count in the Bread Group (crust), the Milk Group(cheese), and the Vegetable Group (tomato). Beef stew would count in the MeatGroup and Vegetable Group. 













Bread, Cereal, Rice, and Pasta Group


Hamburger roll, bagel, English muffin


Rice, pasta, cooked

Pain crackers, small

Breakfast cereal

Pancakes, 4-in diameter




Cake, Frosted


Pie, fruit, 2-crust

Vegetable Group

Vegetables, cooked

Vegetables, leafy, raw

Vegetables, nonleafy raw, chopped

Potatoes, scalloped

Potato salad

French fries

Fruit Group

Whole fruit: apple, orange. Banana

Fruit, raw or canned

Fruit juice, unsweetened


Milk, yogurt, and cheese Group

Skim milk

Lowfat milk 2 %

Whole milk

Chocolate milk,

2 %

Lowfat yogurt, plain

Lowfat yogurt, fruit

1 slice




½ cup




1 large(2oz)

1medium (2oz)

1medium (2oz)

1 average slice

2 medium

1 average slice

2 medium

½ cup


½ cup

½ cup

½ cup


1 medium

½ cup

¾ cup

¼ whole

1 cup

1 cup

1 cup

1 cup

8 oz
































Natural cheddar cheese

Processed cheese

Mozzarella, part skim

Ricotta, part skim

Cottage cheese, 4 % fat

Ice cream

Ice milk

Frozen yogurt

Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts Group

Lean meat, poultry, fish, cooked

Ground beef, cooked

Chicken, with skin


Dry beans and peas, cooked

Peanut butter


Fats, oils, and Sweets

Butter, margarine


Salad dressing

Reduced calorie salad dressing

Sour cream

Sugar, jam, jelly


Fruit drink, ade

Chocolate bar


Fruit sorbet

Gelatin dessert

1 ½ oz

2 oz

1 ½ oz

½ cup

½ cup

½ cup

½ cup

½ cup

3 oz

3 oz

3 oz

2 slices (1 oz)

1 (1 oz)

2 Tbsp (1 oz)

1/3 cup (1 oz)

1 tsp

1 Tbsp

1 Tbsp

1 Tbsp

2 Tbsp

1 tsp

12 fl oz

12 fl oz

1 tsp

½ cup

1 tsp

1 tsp



























Plana healthy Diet

   Using the food Guide Pyramid and “WhatCounts as a Serving?” plan a full day’s diet that contains the recommendednumber of servings for each food group. Be sure that the meals you create areones you would actually eat.


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