Реферат: Thanksgiving Day
Almost in everyculture in the world there is a celebration of thanks for rich harvest. TheAmerican Thanksgiving began as a feast of thanksgiving almost four hundredyears ago.
In 1620, a religiouscommunity sailed across the Atlantic Ocean to settle in New World. They settledin what is not known as the state of Massachusetts. Their first winter inAmerica was difficult. They arrived too late to grow a rich harvest. Moreover,half the Iroquois Indians taught them also how to grow other crops and how tohunt and fish.
In the autumn of 1621 theygot a beautiful harvest of corn, barley, beans and pumpkins. The colonists hadmuch to be thankful for, so they planned a feast. The colonists learned fromIndians how to cook cranberries and dishes of corn and pumpkins.
In following years many ofthe colonists celebrated the harvest with a feast of thanks. After the UnitedStates gained independence, Congress recommended one yearly day of thanksgivingfor the whole country. Later, George Washington suggested the date November 26as Thanksgiving Day. Then, after the civil war, Abraham Lincoln suggested thelast Thursday in November to be the day of thanksgiving.
On Thanksgiving Day, familymembers gather at the house of an older relative, even if they live far away.All give thanks for everything good they have. Charitable organizations offertraditional meal to the homeless.
Foods, eaten at the first thanksgiving, have become traditional. Thetraditional thanksgiving meal consists of roast turkey stuffed withherb-flavored bread, cranberry jelly, mashed potatoes, pumpkin pie. Otherdishes may vary as to region: ham, sweet, potatoes, creamed corn.
<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:red;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">A Celebration of Thanksgiving<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:red;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">
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<img src="/cache/referats/7705/image001.gif" align=«left» v:shapes="_x0000_s1028"><span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">The origins of Thanksgiving predated the Pilgrims atleast 2,000 years. After the harvest of each year was safely stored for thewinter, Celtic priests, the Druids, would mark the end of their calendar withprayers to their sun god for protection during the period of darkness and coldof winter. These harvest festivals evolved and became combined with a ChristianFeast of Saints.
<span Times New Roman",«serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">The first formal celebration of Thanksgiving in NorthAmerica was held by an English explorer, Martin Frobisher,who attempted to establish an English settlement on Baffin Island, afterfailing to discover a northern passage to the Orient in 1576.<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB"> Canada established the second Monday in October as anational holiday, «a day of general thanksgiving,» in 1957.
<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB">The Pilgrims of Plymouth Rock held their Thanksgiving in 1621 as a threeday «thank you» celebration to the leaders of the WampanoagIndian tribe and their families for teaching them the survival skills theyneeded to make it in the New World. It was their good fortune that thetradition of the Wampanoags was to treat any visitorto their homes with a share of whatever food the family had, even if supplieswere low. It was also an amazing stroke of luck that one of the Wampanoag, Tisquantum or Squanto, had become close friends with a British explorer,John Weymouth, and had learned the Pilgrim's language in his travels to Englandwith Weymouth. Wild turkey was on the menu, along with corn (Pilgrim's wheat),Indian corn, barley, peas, waterfowl, five deer (brought by the Indians astheir dish to pass), bass and cod. Since then, we've added such delicacies asham, sweet potatoes, corn on the cob, popcorn, cranberry sauce and pumpkin pie.What? Pumpkin pie is not authentic? The Pilgrims probably made pumpkin puddingsweetened with honey, but they didn't have sugar, crust or whipped topping.Life was tough back then.
<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB"> The turkey tradition wasreally pushed by Benjamin Franklin, who wanted to make it the United Statesnational symbol because it is a quick runner, wary,<img src="/cache/referats/7705/image002.gif" align=«left» v:shapes="_x0000_s1027"><span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">with sharp eyesight, and exhibited a regal stance, atleast to Franklin. While the bald eagle nudged out the wild turkey for ourofficial national symbol, Norman Rockwell has probably made the image of thefamily Thanksgiving turkey even more famous, and certainly more mouth watering.
<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB">The actual day we celebrate Thanksgiving in America was picked by ourpresidents, starting with George Washington who declared a one-time holiday.Abraham Lincoln proclaimed the last Thursday in November to be "...a dayof Thanksgiving and Praise to our beneficent Father who dwellethin the Heavens." Franklin D. Roosevelt moved it to the fourth Thursday ofNovember in 1939, to prevent a 5 week November from shortening the Christmasshopping season.
T for time to betogether, turkey, talk, and tangy weather.
Hforharvest stored away, home, and hearth, and holiday.
Aforautumn's frosty art, and abundance in the heart.
Nforneighbours, and October, nice things, new things to remember.
Kforkitchen, kettles' croon, kith and kin expected soon.
Sforsizzles, sights, and sounds, and something special that abounds.
Americans did not invent Thanksgiving. It beganin Canada. Frobisher's celebration in 1578 was 43years before the pilgrims gave thanks in 1621 for the bounty that ended a yearof hardships and death. Abraham Lincoln established the date for the US as thelast Thursday in November. In 1941, US Congress set the National Holiday as thefourth Thursday in November.
Frobisherand early colonists, giving thanks for safe passage, as well as pilgrimcelebrations in the US that began the traditions of turkeys, pumpkin pies, andthe gathering of family and friends.
<img src="/cache/referats/7705/image003.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1025"><span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:red;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">There are three traditions behind ourCanadian Thanksgiving Day.
1.<span Times New Roman"">Longago, before the first Europeans arrived in North America, the farmers in Europeheld celebrations at harvest time. To give thanks for their good fortune andthe abundance of food, the farm workers filled a curved goat's horn with fruitand grain. This symbol was called a cornucopia or horn of plenty. When theycame to Canada they brought this tradition with them.
2.<span Times New Roman"">Inthe year 1578, the English navigator Martin Frobisherheld a formal ceremony, in what is now called Newfoundland, to give thanks forsurviving the long journey. He was later knighted and had an inlet of theAtlantic Ocean in northern Canada named after him — FrobisherBay. Other settlers arrived and continued these ceremonies.
3.<span Times New Roman"">Thethird came in the year 1621, in what is now the United States, when thePilgrims celebrated their harvest in the New World. The Pilgrims were Englishcolonists who had founded a permanent European settlement at PlymouthMassachusetts. By the 1750's, this joyous celebration was brought to NovaScotia by American settlers from the south.
At the same time, French settlers,having crossed the ocean and arrived in Canada with explorer Samuel deChamplain, also held huge feasts of thanks. They even formed «The Order ofGood Cheer» and gladly shared their food with their Indian neighbours.
After the Seven Year's Warended in 1763, the citizens of Halifax held a special day of Thanksgiving.
The Americans who remainedfaithful to the government in England were known as Loyalists. At the time ofthe American revolution, they moved to canada andspread the Thanksgiving celebration to other parts of the country. many of thenew English settlers from Great Britain were also used to having a harvestcelebration in their churches every autumn.Eventually in 1879, Parliament declared November 6th a day ofThanksgiving and a national holiday. Over the years many dates were used forThanksgiving, the most popular was the 3rd Monday in October. After World WarI, both Armistice Day and Thanksgiving were celebrated on the Monday of theweek in which November 11th occurred. Ten years later, in 1931, the two daysbecame separate holidays and Armistice Day was renamed Remembrance Day.Finally, on January 31st, 1957, Parliament proclaimed....
<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB"><span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">Now, more thanever, we're reminded to treasure our families, communities, and the institutionsthat raise our spirits, help the less fortunate, and express our passions. Aswe move forward, join us in a new tradition. This year, during the Thanksgivingholiday, as you come together for family, friendship, food and fellowship,celebrate Giving Day.<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB">
·<span Times New Roman"">Make a Giving Day commitmentto support your favorite cause with a gift of time ormoney
·<span Times New Roman"">Express your values,compassion, and passions with your loved ones by sharing your Giving Daycommitment at Thanksgiving dinner
·<span Times New Roman"">Build a new tradition byencouraging others to celebrate Giving Day <table cellspacing=«0» cellpadding=«0» ">
<span New York",«serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Arial Unicode MS»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">Thanksgiving Day
<img src="/cache/referats/7705/image004.gif" align=«left» v:shapes="_x0000_s1029"><span Comic Sans MS";color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">The English Puritans were trying to «purify» the Church of England, but finally they formed their own church. They left England and went to Holland and then to America. They became «Pilgrims» because they were travels in search of religious freedom.
<span Comic Sans MS";color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">In the fall of 1620 the Pilgrims crossed the Atlantic Ocean on their ship, the Mayflower. The<img src="/cache/referats/7705/image005.gif" align=«left» v:shapes="_x0000_s1030"><span Comic Sans MS";color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB"> trip was very difficult, and many people got sick. But while they were on the crowded ship, the Pilgrims agreed on a form of government for their new colony. This agreement, the Mayflower Compact, established the principles of voting and majority rule.
<img src="/cache/referats/7705/image006.gif" align=«left» v:shapes="_x0000_s1031"><span Comic Sans MS";color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">Finally on December 22 the travels landed the Plymouth, Massachusetts. There as not enough food for the long, cold winter, and many settlers died. Then some friendly Indians, Samoset, Chief Massasoit, and Squanto, showed to the Pilgrims how to hunt, fish, and plant corn, beans, and other foods. Because of their help, the Plymouth settlers had a good harvest the next fall.
<img src="/cache/referats/7705/image007.gif" align=«left» v:shapes="_x0000_s1032"><span Comic Sans MS";color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">Governor William Bradford declared some special day of thanksgiving. The Pilgrims and the Indians had three-day feast of deer, wild turkey and fish. There were also nuts, corn, beans, pumpkins wild fruits, cranberries, and other foods. The first Thanksgiving celebration was a great success.
<img src="/cache/referats/7705/image008.gif" align=«left» v:shapes="_x0000_s1033"><span Comic Sans MS";color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">President Abraham Lincoln established Thanksgiving as an official national holiday. Now every year on the fourth Thursday of November American families and friends gather, have a feast, and give thanks. Some traditional Thanksgiving food are turkey, dressing, sweet potatoes, cranberry sauce, and pumpkin pie.<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB"><span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-GB"><span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:red;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">Turkey Noodle Casserole1 pkg frozen peas, thawed under cool running water (10 ounce) 2 cups diced cooked turkey (or ham) 1 1/2 cups cooked noodles butter or margarine <img src="/cache/referats/7705/image009.gif" align=«left» v:shapes="_x0000_s1026">1/4 cup chopped onion 8 ounces sliced mushrooms 1 can (10 1/2-ounce) cream of mushroom soup 1/2 cup milk salt, to taste 1/4 teaspoon curry powder 1/2 teaspoon poultry seasoning 1 cup shredded Cheddar cheese
Combineturkey, noodles, and peas in a 2-quart buttered casserole dish. Melt 2tablespoons butter in a saucepan. Sauté onion and mushrooms; blend insoup, milk and seasonings. Pour soup mixture over meat; top with shreddedcheese. Bake in a 350 degree F. for about 20 to 30 minutes.
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