Реферат: The Church of England
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<span Times",«serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">«The Church of England»<span Garamond",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">Москва, 2002
<img src="/cache/referats/7208/image001.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1040"><span Times",«serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">The Church of England
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<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-fareast-font-family: Arial;color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">I.<span Times New Roman""><span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Historyof the Church of England
<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-fareast-font-family: Arial;color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">1)<span Times New Roman""><span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Status of Church in England up to1530 ………………………..4
<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-fareast-font-family: Arial;color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">2)<span Times New Roman""><span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Reformation of Church……………………………………………4
<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Henry VII…………………………………………………………….4
<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Edward VI……………………………………………………………6
<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Mary I………………………………………………………………...6
<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Elizabeth I……………………………………………………………7
<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Charles II…………………………………………………….……….8
<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Victoria ……………………………………………………….………8
<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">II.The Church of England today…………………………………………………..9
<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-fareast-font-family: Arial;color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">1)<span Times New Roman""><span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">The essence of being anAnglican………………………………………..9
<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-fareast-font-family: Arial;color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">2)<span Times New Roman""><span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Organisation of the Church of England………………………………….11
<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:Arial; color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">III.<span Times New Roman""><span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Church of England becomes anInternational Church……………………...12
<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:windowtext;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Bibliography.…………………………………………………………………………14<img src="/cache/referats/7208/image001.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1039"><span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; font-style:normal">Introduction<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;font-weight:normal;font-style:normal">Everything inthis life has its own history, especially Religion, as it is a great institution.With the development of history of a particular country, there will always bedevelopment of Religion, since the Church is an integral part of State System.Heathenism, Orthodoxy, Judaism etc… They have been living for centuries. Andsome of them were changed, penetrated each other or reformed dramatically.
England was not exception.
The English are not a deeplyreligious race. Hundreds of years ago they decided that Roman Catholicism withits teachings about original sin and the unworthiness of the human race couldnot really have been meant for them. So they designed a Church of their own –the Church of England.
The English Reformation wasa result of the chain of events that eventually altered England and Englishnessforever. So much in history is a bastard child of both long-standing, simmeringemotion and the opportunistic seizing of a moment. By its nature unexpected, itis also unpredictable, and shaped as much by environment and chance as by itsprogenitors. The Reformation was no different. It was going on through the agesand reigns.
<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">I.History of the Church of England1. Status of Church in England up to 1530
Until 1054 there was onlyone Christian Church — the Catholic Church. Its leadership was centeredin five great Patriarchates — Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria andConstantinople in the East and Rome in the West. After the Roman Empire becameChristian some bishops increasingly became involved in political matters, andthe bishops of Rome in particular began to claim power over the whole Church.This led to a tragic division in the Church, the «Great Schism» of1054, when it split into the «Orthodox» East and the «RomanCatholic» West.
Not directly involved inthat split was the Church in England, which the Bishops of Rome were determinedto claim — especially after 1061, when a rival Papacy in Lombardy claimedallegiance from the See of Canterbury. In 1066, the Duke of Normandy (William«the Conqueror»), with the support and formal blessing of PopeAlexander II, invaded England. After seizing the English Crown, Williamreplaced all but one of the English bishops with Norman bishops loyal to Rome.The CHURCH OF ENGLAND was to remain under Papal jurisdiction for nearly 500years, until the reign of King Henry VIII.2. Reformation of Church
England in the sixteenthcentury was a land of contrasts. Much less urban than either Germany or theNetherlands, it nevertheless possessed a thriving international trade centre inLondon and in Oxford and Cambridge, two universities of outstanding reputation.The universities, in fact, would play a significant role in the early campaignsagainst Luther. Henry VIII turned to their finest theologians for argumentsallowing him to enter the lists against the growing threat of Lutheran heresy.This initiative would earn him from a grateful Pope the coveted title, Defenderof the Faith.
The progress of theReformation in England was closely bound up with Henry's personal affairs. Hisincreasing desperation to secure release from his marriage to Catherine ofAragon forced him to contemplate radical steps that went very much against thegrain of his own instinctive theological conservatism.
<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">Henry VIII
It was the only Henry’schance to go outside the boundaries of the orthodoxy. Until this event, Henryhad never questioned the Pope’s authority or the validity of the Bible passage,it banned the marriage of a brother- and sister-in-law. It was as early as theend of 1529 that Henry first considered a complete dissociation from the Romanchurch.
Henry forced Wolsey toretire, as his entire foreign policy had collapsed and he was now of no help tothe King. In July of 1531, Henry sent Catherine to Ampthill, never to see heragain. He took back her royal jewels and gave them to Anne. When Parliamentreconvened in January, 1532, Henry ordered that no further funds would betransferred to Rome, but hinted to the Pope that the money would be restored ifthe annulment was passed.
Meanwhile, most of thebishops had been persuaded that they would not lose any power or income if theEnglish Church were to split from Rome. In March, the Convocation formallyannounced their readiness to separate: “May it please your Highness to ordainin the present Parliament that the obedience of your Highness and of the peoplebe withdrawn from the See of Rome.” On May 15, they printed a pledge to submitall its legislation to a new committee, formed of laymen and clergymen, calledthe “Reformation Parliament” and Convocation. This is where the Church ofEngland was born.
On January 15, 1533, Henryand Anne, who was four months pregnant, were married. However, the King stilldid not have his first marriage annulled. He submitted his request forannulment to the new Convocation, led by Thomas Cranmer. On May 23, Cranmerdeclared Henry and Catherine’s marriage to be unlawful and void. Five dayslater, he pronounced Henry and Anne legally wed. On May 31, 1533, Anne wascoronated as Queen of England. Although the King and new Queen rejoiced, thesilence from the crowd at the coronation spoke for much of England. PopeClement excommunicated the King, stating that the new marriage was null, andthat any children would be illegitimate. On September 7 Elizabeth was born.
Henry swiftly transformedthe English Church by passing various Acts through Parliament. In March of1534, The Act of Succession declared the marriage to Catherine invalid,and therefore Mary illegitimate. Elizabeth was named heir to the throne unlessAnne produced a son. Royal commissioners rode through the countryside, stoppingat every house, castle, monastery, and convent to exact oaths of loyalty to theKing from every man and woman. Only a few refused; those that did were sent tothe Tower of London to be put to death.
OnNovember 11, 1534, the Statute of Supremacy was passed byParliament. This Act announced that “… the king, our sovereign lord, hisheirs and successors, kings of this realm, shall be taken, accepted, andreputed the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England, called AnglicansEcclesia”. And the King “…our said sovereign lord, his heirs andsuccessors, kings of this realm, shall have full power and authority” to doeverything “most to the pleasure of Almighty God”. It was done to “… increasevirtue in Christ's religion, and for the conservation of the peace, unity, andtranquility of this realm” (pp. 97-98, Milton Viorst, The GreatDocuments of Western Civilization, NY, Barnes and Noble, 1965)
Innovative from the first,the new Church simplified the liturgy, ensured it was in English rather thanLatin and set it out in a new Book of Common Prayer which was designedto give the people of England a commonly held pattern of worship, a sense ofoneness of Church and people, with the Church sanctifying every side ofnational life, giving society a Godward purpose and direction. It introduced on Day of Pentecost. It is written in English, emphasizes thepeople's participation in the eucharist, and requires the Bible to be read fromcover to cover. Fast days are retained (supposedly to help fishermen), butsaints' days are not.
The political nation was,for the most part, obediently compliant rather than enthusiastic. There is noevidence of any great hostility towards the church and its institutions beforethe Reformation; on the contrary, both the English episcopate and parish clergyseem to have been, by the standards of other European lands, both well-trainedand living without scandal. Cardinal Wolsey, who fathered an illegitimate son,was very much the exception. On the other hand, few were prepared to defy theKing to defend the threatened institutions of the old church. Many benefitedfrom the windfall of church property that followed the confiscation of monasticlands.
During Edward's reign(Henry’s son), the Church of England became more explicitly Protestant — Edward himself was fiercely so. The Book of Common Prayer was introduced in1549, aspects of Roman Catholic practices (including statues and stained glass)were eradicated and the marriage of clergy allowed. The imposition of thePrayer Book (which replaced Latin services with English) led to rebellions inCornwall and Devon.
“Images" orderedremoved from all churches by the council of regents. This also means novestments, ashes, palms, holy water, or crucifixes. This causes so muchresentment that an order suppressing all preaching follows.
Edward VI dies. People aretired of Protestant looting of churches. Mary Tudor («Bloody Mary»),a militant Roman Catholic, becomes queen, shereturned the English churchto communion with Rome. She was Popular at first, but soon marries the hatedPhilip II of Spain. Persecution of Protestants begins; Mary appoints newbishops and fires all married priests. During her reign, about 300 Protestantswere burned, including 5 bishops, 100 priests, and 60 women. An attempt byCardinal Pole (Mary's archbishop of Canterbury) to restore monasticism fizzleswhen, among 1500 surviving monks, nuns, and friars, fewer than 100 are willingto return to celibacy. All this ensures Roman Catholics will remain unpopularin England.
Mary dies. Elizabeth I, (aProtestant), becomes queen. Despite many problems (including frequent assassinationplots from Roman Catholics), she supports the enterprising middle class andEngland prospers. With her accession an independent church was restored andsteered along a middle ground between Roman Catholicism and Calvinism.
Since 1564 the Era of Puritanismhad began. The word «Puritan» appears for the first time. Itwas biblically based on Calvinistic Protestantism — with emphasis upon the«purification» of church and society of the remnants of«corrupt» and «unscriptural» «papist» ritual anddogma. The characteristics of their movement were the following: a disciplined, godly life, and the energeticevangelical activities. They want:a skilled, educated preaching ministry, based on the Bible as few ceremonies in church as Biblically possible (no surplice, no signing of the cross) abolition of the traditional role of bishop, and replacement of the episcopate by a presbyterian system one legal government church, controlled by Puritans.
By the 1660s Puritanismwas firmly established amongst the gentry and the emerging middle classes ofsouthern and eastern England, and during the Civil Wars the Puritan«Roundheads» fought for the parliamentary cause and formed thebackbone of Cromwell's forces during the Commonwealth period. After 1646,however, the Puritan emphasis upon individualism and the individual consciencemade it impossible for the movement to form a national Presbyterian church, andby 1662, when the Anglican church was re-established, Puritanism had become aloose confederation of various Dissenting sects. The growing pressure forreligious toleration within Britain itself was to a considerable degree alegacy of Puritanism, and its emphasis on self-discipline, individualism,responsibility, work, and asceticism was also an important influence upon thevalues and attitudes of the emerging middle classes.
Thirty-Nine Articles(1571) drafted as a doctrinal statement by aconvocation of the Church of England. The Thirty-nine Articles of Religion,along with the historic Creeds, are the doctrinal standard for Anglicanism. They are printed in the back of most editions of the Prayer Book andtell us not only about the main postulates (e.g. Of faith in the Holy Trinity,Of the Word, or Son of God, which was made very man; Of Original or Birth Sin;Of Free Will etc.), but also about Sin after Baptism, Of the Church, Of theAuthority of the Church, Of the authority of General Councils, Of speaking inthe Congregation in such a tongue as the people understandeth etc.CharlesII
With accession of Charles II in 1660 the Restoration of themonarchy began. Everyone is tired of Puritan rule. Puritan laws and censorshipare repealed; the theaters re-open. The «Declaration of Breda»results in tolerance for Puritan views within the Anglican fold. The conflictwith Puritanism leaves distrust for religious individualism and emotionalism («enthusiasm»)among Anglicans. This will continue through the «GreatAwakening» (1738-1784: Christian revival in England and America). Thiscoincides with the Enlightenment, or Age of Reason, during which many educatedpeople cease to consider themselves Christians.
Act of Toleration(1689), partially restores civil rights to Roman Catholics andDissenters. The events since the Reformation have finally convinced mostAnglicans of the virtues of tolerance and mutual forbearance.
The trend during this periodwill be rediscovery of liturgy and church history — High church — andspreading Christianity – Low сhurch.
The Evangelical branch ofthe Anglican Church coincided very nearly with the «Low Church»party. Evangelical, a term literally meaning «of or pertaining tothe Gospel,» designated the school of theology adhered to by thoseProtestants who believed that the essence of the Gospel lay in the doctrine ofsalvation by faith in the death of Christ, which atoned for man's sins.Evangelicalism stressed the reality of the «inner life,» insisted onthe total depravity of humanity and on the importance of the individual'spersonal relationship with God and Savior. They put particular emphasis onfaith, denying that either good works or the sacraments (which they perceivedas being merely symbolic) possessed any salvational efficacy. Evangelicals,too, denied that ordination imparted any supernatural gifts, and upheld thesole authority of the Bible in matters of doctrine
High church was associatedwith the Tractarian movement began about 1833 and ended in 1845with John Henry Newman's conversion to Roman Catholicism. It was also calledthe Oxford Movement because Newman, a fellow of Oriel College (part of OxfordUniversity) and vicar of St. Mary's, the University church, and others werebased there when they began the Tracts for the Times in 1833. There wereexactly 90 Tracts, the majority written by Newman, arguing in general that thetruth of the doctrines of the Church of England rested on the modern church'sposition as the direct descendant of the church established by the Apostles.Pretty obviously, such an argument was a conservative answer to the variouscontemporary challenges to the authority of religion in general, Christianityin particular, and specifically Anglicanism Catholicism, fueled by the sameneed for reassurance as was the Evangelical revival. Since the 16th century theChurch of England had prided itself on being thevia media, or middle road,between Roman Catholicism and a more radical Protestantism.
TheChurch of England has, in its several ways, been the Church to uphold thedignity of the individual. It gave the lead, for example, not only in the abolitionof slavery but it played a critical role in stopping the slave tradeitself. Today, of course, it is a Church at the forefront of the practicalfight to right injustices, restore the dignity of people everywhere and put theworld on a sustainable economic footing without ruining the planet upon whichGod put us.II. TheChurch of England today
We are now in what many callthe post-modern era and the Church of England is experiencing a resurgence ofinterest in matters of faith as well as in the Church itself. Calls to theministry are up, giving for the Church's work is up and the Church is confidentthat, with and by God's grace, it can make an increasingly valuablecontribution to the life of the nation, its people, and do so far beyond itsborders as well.
Anglicans are numerous on every continent andconstitute the principal Christian community in many areas, notably in Africa.
The Book of Common Prayer exists in 170 languages. There are about 45 millionAnglicans worldwide. There are three million Episcopalians in the US.
At least one survey indicates that, among all denominations in this country, wehave the highest percentage of members who take time for daily prayer.
There is little doubt that, among all groups of Christians, we Anglicans arethe most diverse and the most tolerant. Anglicans are still facing persecutionin Iran and other Middle Eastern countries, Communist China, the Soviet blocnations, Central Africa, and Central America.
Throughout the world, over one thousand new Christian churches open their doorseach Sunday. As always, Christianity flourishes wherever it shows people itshighest ideals.
<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">1) The essence of being anAnglican
The Scriptures and the Gospels, the Apostolic Churchand the early Church Fathers, are the foundation of Anglican faith and worship.The basic tenets of being an Anglican are:
* They view the Old and NewTestaments 'as containing all things necessary for salvation' and as being therule and ultimate standard of faith.
* They understand theApostles' creed as the baptismal symbol, and the Nicene creed as the sufficientstatement of the Christian faith.
* The two sacramentsordained by Christ himself — Baptism and the Supper of the Lord — areadministered with unfailing use of Christ's words of institution, and theelements are ordained by him.
* The historic episcopate islocally adapted in the methods of its administration to the varying needs ofthe nations and peoples called of God into the unity of his Church.
Anglicans uphold theCatholic and Apostolic faith. Following the teachings of Jesus Christ, theChurches are committed to the proclamation of the good news of the Gospel tothe whole creation. In practice this is based on the revelation contained inHoly Scripture and the Catholic creeds, and is interpreted in light ofChristian tradition, scholarship, reason and experience.
By baptism in the name ofthe Father, Son and Holy Spirit, a person is made one with Christ and receivedinto the fellowship of the Church. This sacrament of initiation is open tochildren as well as to adults.
Central to worship forAnglicans is the celebration of the Holy Eucharist, also called the HolyCommunion, the Lord's Supper or the Mass. In this offering of prayer andpraise, the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ are recalled throughthe proclamation of the word and the celebration of the sacrament. Otherimportant rites, commonly called sacraments, include confirmation, holy orders,reconciliation, marriage and anointing of the sick.
Worship is at the very heartof Anglicanism. Its styles vary from simple to elaborate, or even acombination. The great uniting text is The Book of Common Prayer, in itsvarious revisions throughout the Communion. The Book of Common Prayer,alongside additional liturgies gives expression to the comprehensiveness foundwithin the Church whose principles reflect that of the via media inrelation to its own and other Christian Churches. The Lambeth Conferences ofthe 1950s and 1960s called for more up-to-date national liturgies and this isgoing on today. No matter how distinctive each is, they are all clearly of thelineage of The Book of Common Prayer.
Another distinguishingfeature of the corporate nature of Anglicanism is that it is an interdependentChurch, where parishes, dioceses and provinces help each other to achieve bymutual support in terms of financial assistance and the sharing of otherresources.
To be an Anglican is to beon a journey of faith to God supported by a fellowship of co-believers who arededicated to finding Him by prayer and service.
<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">2) Today’s Organisation of theChurch of England<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">
The Church of England is organised into two provinces;each led by an archbishop (Canterbury for the Southern Province and Yorkfor the Northern). These two provinces cover every inch of English soil, theIsle of Man, the Channel Islands, the Isles of Scilly and even a small part ofWales.
Each province is built fromdioceses. There are 43 in England and the Diocese in Europe has clergy andcongregations in the rest of Europe, Morocco, Turkey and the Asian countries ofthe former Soviet Union.
Each diocese (except Europe)is divided into parishes. The parish is the heart of the Church of England. Eachparish is overseen by a parish priest (usually called a vicar or rector). Fromancient times through to today, they, and their bishop, are responsible for the'cure of souls' in their parish. That includes everyone. And this explains whyparish priests are so involved with the key issues and problems affecting thewhole community.
Her Majesty the Queen is theSupreme Governor of the Church of England, and she also has a unique andspecial relationship with the Church of Scotland, which is a Free Church. Inthe Church of England she appoints archbishops, bishops and deans of cathedralson the advice of the Prime Minister. The two archbishops and 24 senior bishopssit in the House of Lords, making a major contribution to Parliament's work.
The Church of England isepiscopally led (there are 108 bishops) and synodically governed. TheGeneral Synod is elected from the laity and clergy of each dioceseand meets in London or York at least twice annually to consider legislation forthe good of the Church.
The Archbishops' Councilwas established in 1999 to co-ordinate, promote, aid and further the missionof the Church of England. It is composed of 19 members and 7 directorswhose task is to give a clear sense of direction to the Church nationally andsupport the Church locally.
The Church of England issuesits own newspaper: The Church Times, founded in 1863. It hasbecome the world's leading Anglican weekly newspaper. It has always beenindependent of the Church of England hierarchy. It was a family concern until1989, when ownership passed to Hymns Ancient & Modern, a Christiancharitable trust. The Church Times was started to campaign for Anglo-Catholicprinciples, which it did with vigour and rudeness. But in the 1940s and '50sthe paper began the move to broaden its outlook and coverage. It now attemptsto provide balanced and fair reporting of events and opinions across the wholerange of Anglican affairs. The rudeness we now leave to our readers. For alonger history of the paperIII.Church of England becomes an International Church
Anglicans trace theirChristian roots back to the early Church, and their specifically Anglicanidentity to the post-Reformation expansion of the Church of England and otherEpiscopal or Anglican Churches. Following the discovery of the «NewWorld», Anglicanism spread to the Americas, Asia, Africa and Oceania (thecentral and south Pacific). Some 37 national and regional Anglican Churcheswere established in various parts of the world, which together became known asthe Anglican Communion.
Historically, there were twomain stages in the development and spread of the Communion. Beginning with theseventeenth century, Anglicanism was established alongside colonisation in theUnited States, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa. The secondstate began in the eighteenth century when missionaries worked to establishAnglican churches in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
As a worldwide family ofchurches, the Anglican Communion has more than 70 million adherents in 38Provinces spreading across 161 countries. Located on every continent, Anglicansspeak many languages and come from different races and cultures. Although thechurches are autonomous, they are also uniquely unified through their history,their theology, their worship and their relationship to the ancient See ofCanterbury.
The Anglican Communion hasno constitution, governing body, central authority or common liturgy. It ismerely a loose association of autonomous Churches with similar origins. Since1970 it has been disintegrating, as some member churches have brazenly tamperedwith essential elements of the Faith and con no longer claim to have the sameScriptures, Creeds, Sacraments and Ministry as the rest of the Catholic church.Since 1987 those Churches have included the CHURCH OF ENGLAND herself.<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">
Therehave been Christians in Britain since AD200 and probably earlier. Through war,peace, famine and prosperity, the Church was critical in the development ofsociety, law, buildings and the quiet piety of the people. English civil powerand the Church developed in an increasingly uneasy parallel. Two points ofcontention were the Church's wealth and its ties with Rome. These differencescame to a head in the 1530s, when King Henry VIII wished to obtain a divorcefrom Queen Catherine of Aragon. And Act of Supremacy was issued. ThisAct reaffirmed the King’s sovereignty over the English Church and State andgave Henry power over all moral, organizational, heretical, and ecclesiasticalreform which until this point had been left to the Church. The new church waschristened Ecclesia Anglicana.
<img src="/cache/referats/7208/image001.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1042">But in 1550's, however, under Edward VI, the English Church becameProtestant in doctrine and ritual, and even then it remained traditional inorganization. Under the Roman Catholic Mary I a politico-religious reactionresulted in the burning at the stake of some prominent Protestants and theexile of many others, which led in turn to a popular association of Catholicismwith persecution and Spanish domination. When Elizabeth I succeeded to thethrone in 1558, however, she restored a moderate Protestantism, codifying theAnglican faith in the Act of Uniformity, the Act of Supremacy,and the Thirty-Nine Articles.
Under reign of Charles II.Puritan laws and censorship are repealed; the theaters re-open. The conflictwith Puritanism leaves distrust for religious individualism and emotionalism(«enthusiasm») among Anglicans. This will continue through the«Great Awakening». During «Great Awakening» Christianrevival took place in England and America.
The trend during VictorianEra rediscovered of liturgy and church history and spreading Christianity. Inthe mid-nineteenth century, then, the Church of England was disorganized.Though its adherents were largely conservative, a considerable portion of itsleadership was, ideologically speaking, perilously close to Catholicism, andthe religious census of 1851 showed that it was reaching only about fourteenpercent of the population of England.
When the British Empireexpanded in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, so too did the Church. And todaythe Anglican Communion has more than 70 million adherents in 38 Provincesspreading across 161 countries. Te Churches are committed to the proclamationof the good news of the Gospel to the whole creation. In practice this is basedon the revelation contained in Holy Scripture and the Catholic creeds, and isinterpreted in light of Christian tradition, scholarship, reason andexperience. The Anglican Church is open for people who are united in theircreed and their love of Christ Jesus, the Son of God and what He means for themand for the world around them.<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">
1.<span Times New Roman"">The Anglican Catholic Church, second edition, 1998, published by The Anglican Catholic Church
2.<span Times New Roman"">Dickens, A.G. The EnglishReformation. Second Ed. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania StateUniversity Press, 1989
3.<span Times New Roman"">Rupp, Gordon. Religion inEngland 1688-1791. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986
4.<span Times New Roman"">Morgan, Kenneth O., ed. TheOxford Illustrated History of Britain. New York: Oxford University Press,1986.
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