Реферат: Leadership in Hospitality IndustryIntroduction
In the beginning of this report itwould be essential to say what leadership is and its history. According toJames MacGregor Burns, “leadership is one of the most observed and leastunderstood phenomena on earth” (http://www.emeraldinsight.com).
The study of leadership has beenimportant to humans since the dawn of the civilization. The concepts ofleadership, leader, and follower are represented in Egyptian hieroglyphicswritten 5000 years ago. Between 400 and 300BC the Greek philosophers Plato andAristotle wrote about leadership and the requirements, characteristics, andeducation of leaders (http://www.emeraldinsight.com).
Leadership is central to the humancondition (Wren, 1995) and has been found to be important to all societies,although specific patterns of behavior vary over time and across cultures(Bass, 1990)(http://www.emeraldinsight.com).
Although we can see that leadershipis being an ancient notion there was no evidence of existence of the wordleadership in the English language until the yearly nineteenth century.According to Bass (1990), the appearance of the concept of leadership inpolitical, sociological, and organizational writings was usually accompanied bya unique and ambiguous definition (http://www.emeraldinsight.com).Bryman (1992) defines leadership as “a social process in which leadersinfluence followers to achieve group goals”. Although leadership described inmany cases as a process, most of the theories and researches look at the personto understand the nature of leadership.History of leadership
Leadership can be defined by threephases:Leader’s traits Leader’s behaviors; and Leader’s qualities
From the turn of the twentiethcentury through the 1940s, leadership research focused on identifying traitsthat distinguish leaders from non-leaders (http://www.emeraldinsight.com). Asexample we can see Stogdill’s review of the leader trait research.
This research was based on the ideathat leaders were born, not made, and the key to success was simply inidentifying those people who were born to be great leaders (http://www.emeraldinsight.com).Nevertheless a lot of work was done to identify the trait, the research failedto identify a universal set of traits that differentiated effective leaders.
In the early 1950s a second majorthrust appeared. This thrust looked at leader behaviors in an attempt todetermine what successful leaders do, not how they look to others (Halpin andWiner, 1957) (http://www.emeraldinsight.com).
Two primary, independent factorswere identified by these studies:Consideration; and Initiation structures.
“The impact of this work was in partthe notion that leadership was not necessarily an inborn trait, but insteadeffective leadership methods could be taught to employees” (Saal and Knight,1988). A lot of progress was made in identifying what behaviors differentiatedleaders from followers so that the behaviors could be taught (http://www.emeraldinsight.com).
Another impact of this work has todo with the broadening of management’s focus to include both people-orientedactivities along with task-oriented activities (http://www.emeraldinsight.com). Thesestudies helped categorize leaders based on their behavior.
Another approach dealt with theinteraction between the leader’s traits, the leader’s behaviors, and thesituation in which the leader exists (http://www.emeraldinsight.com).
Contingency theories make the assumption that the effects of onevariable on leadership are contingent on other variables. In other words,meaning that leadership could be different in every situation. Although hefound that certain leadership styles were more effective in certain situations,the contingency approach was more theoretical.
Culture as well plays an importantrole in leadership research. According to Schein, 1985, culture related issuesmust be clearly identified in order for leaders to be successful. It isimportant to notice that one of the aspects of the culture is change.Therefore, leaders must be able to adapt to the change in order to be moresuccessful. Also some words have to be said about culture management as anotherimportant aspect of leadership. “Culture management deals with the ability ofleaders to know and understand what the organizational culture is, modifyingthat culture to meet the needs of the organization as it progresses” (Horner, http://www.emeraldinsight.com).Therefore, it is obvious that leaders need to work within the culture to bemost successful.Leadership and motivation
The study of motivation is extremelyimportant as all the above theories depend on it. This study “suggests thatleadership is less a specific set of behaviors than it is creating anenvironment in which people are motivated to produce and in the direction ofthe leader. By creating the right environment, one in which people want to beinvolved and feel committed to their work, leaders are able influence anddirect the activities of others” (Horner, http://www.emeraldinsight.com).Herzberg (1964) differentiated between elements in the work place that led toemployee satisfaction and elements that led to employee dissatisfaction. Theseelements can be thought as motivators as employees are motivated to achievethem. For example, Herzberg labeled hygiene factors as they are necessary tokeep employees from dissatisfaction (Horner, http://www.emeraldinsight.com).
Moreover, there are some needtheories that people have needs for certain results. One of these theories isMaslow’s hierarchy of needs, which suggests that some needs are more basic thanthe others and people are motivated to satisfy them (Horner, http://www.emeraldinsight.com).Certainly, work satisfy some of these needs, but some people have more advancedneeds and it is essential to know whether leaders can develop an environmentthat will satisfy those needs. One more theory by Alderfer (1969) suggests thatthere are only three needs that can be. They are: existence needs, relatednessneeds, and growth needs. His theory was based on the thought that people canmove up and down the hierarchy and can be motivated by many needs at any onetime.
Let’s look now at another needtheory, which called Murray’s (1938) manifest needs theory. His view aboutpeople’s needs what that that people can experience a variety of needs, such asneed for achievement or need for power and that is not necessary that everyonewould have the same needs.
There are also some additionalmotivation theories such as expectancy theory, equity theory, goal setting, andreinforcement. Each of this has implications for the approach leaders can taketo dealing with followers (Horner, http://www.emeraldinsight.com).The reason why motivation theories are added to leadership issue is thatbecause of the emphasis on the followers themselves and what causes them toact, instead of focusing on the leaders.
Therefore, “leadership is not only the processand activity of the person who is in leadership position, but also encompassesthe environment this leader creates and how this leader responds to thesurroundings, as well as the particular skills and activities of the peoplebeing led” (Horner, http://www.emeraldinsight.com).The transformational-transactional leadership
“Transactional leadership stems from moretraditional view of workers and organizations, and it involves the positionpower of the leader to use followers for task completion” (Burns, 1978).“Transformational leadership, however, searches for ways to help motivatefollowers by satisfying higher-order needs and more fully engaging them in theprocess of the work” (Bass, 1985).
“Transformational leaders caninitiate and cope with change, and they create something new out of old. Theybuild strong relationships with others while supporting and encouraging eachindividual’s development” (Horner, http://www.emeraldinsight.com).
A very interesting theory of “SuperLeadership is offered by Manz and Sims (1991). They challenge the traditionalparadigm of leadership as one person doing something to other people (Manz andSims, 1991). Instead, they suggest, “the most appropriate leader is one who canlead others to lead themselves” (Manz and Sims, 1991, p.18). They suggest thatleaders become great by unleashing the potential and abilities of followers,consequently having the knowledge of many people instead of relying solely ontheir own skills and abilities (Horner, http://www.emeraldinsight.com).
To understand better what istransforming leadership lets look at it as at the “body”, which consists of theheart, and head and hands. There are three aspects of leadership: supervisory,strategic and inspirational. They are going to be discussed more detailedfurther down.
“The most universally encounteredaspect of leadership is the “inspirational” leadership of the heart. Theessential, distinguishing the feature of inspirational leadership is that itnever resorts to the use of coercive power or authority” (Nicholls, http://www.emeraldinsight.com). Toenergize enthusiastic followers, inspirational leaders create a compelling“vision”, which changes peoples view at the world around them. Another changethat “vision” creates is that people change way they relate to one another.
There are two ways of affectingpeople minds by creating a “vision”. First one is that it clarifiesunderstanding, and the second one is that it encourages alignment. So we cansee that by its impact on the people’s personal beliefs, the leader’s visionbuilds the psychological ground for common action
Nichols defines it as “that activitywhich stimulates purposeful activity in others by changing the way they look atthe world around them and relate one another”.
A strategic leadership can be calleda “nominal” head of the organization. The leader’s responsibility in this kindof leadership is the creation of an effective organization (Nicholls, www.emeraldinsight.com).
There are two principal componentsof the strategic leadership: path-finding and culture-building. First relatesan organization to the business environment and the second one helps to peopleinto membership of an organization. The role of the organizational leadershipis to identify what organization it will be and where it is going. A veryimportant thing to say is that managers must look beyond the routine dailyoperations in order “to find a better way” (Nicholls, www.emeraldinsight.com). In strategic leadership managersmust use their head to ensure the effectiveness of the organization.
A supervisory leadership is the jobof the mangers hands. Every manager is familiar with this kind of leadership inhis or her particular situation. In other they are familiar with the job thathas to be done and the people that will do that job.Charisma
The concept of charisma comes to usfrom Romans. Also in the New Testament it refers to gift from the Holy Spirit.Max Weber used this term for theological use. He viewed charisma as “a pureform of authority based on of the gift of diving grace” (Weber, 1968).
Contemporary conceptualization ofcharismatic leadership have become inclusive of more leaders as the conceptchanged over the time (http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0025-1747.htm).
“The concept of charisma hasfertilized the study of leadership. The term has taken on a number ofdifferent, but over planning meanings: leaders’ magical qualities; emotionalbond between leader and led etc.” (Paul et al, http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0025-1747.htm).
A lot of theories of charismaticleadership appeared. These theories did not emphasise the role of charisma,instead they take a look at leader’s vision and values. For example, “Berlew(1974) suggested that leaders who attempt to bring change in organizations weresimilar to charismatic leaders trying to effect changes in society” (http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0025-1747.htm).
House (1977) defined charismaticleadership as “a leader who has a high degree of charismatic effects onfollowers. According to House, followers of charismatic leader become moreself-confident and can set and accept higher goals.
All of the contemporary charismaticleadership theories include elements related to a leader’s emphasis on apurpose, vision, or mission (House and Shamir, 1993).Gender differences inleadership styles
Over the past two decades there is adebate about whether female and male managers have different leadership styles.
Though the early 1990s the researchshowed that there were no gender differences in leadership styles. Even thougha lot of researches support the view that there are no gender differences inleadership styles, some differences were identified. Those differences wereidentified based on self-reported data collected from a sample of male andfemale accountants (Burke et al, http://www.emeraldinsight.com).
According to Powel (1993), intuitivereasoning suggest that early socialization patterns develop different qualitiesin women and men that would likely result in variations in leadership styles.The earlier research found a lack of for the notion that women utilizedifferent leadership styles than do men (Bass, 1981) (Burke et al, http://www.emeraldinsight.com).
“A major influence on effectiveperformance in the hospitality industry is the nature of themanager-subordinate relationship. This entails the process of leadership andthe choice of an appropriate style of managerial behaviour” (Mullins, 1998,p.397).
A good manager should have solid charactertraits, leadership skills and good management ethics. The good question is:“What is the difference between managing and leading?”
One leadership teacher defined it asfollows:
MANAGER<span Arial Unicode MS",«sans-serif»;color:#111111; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">
LEADER<span Arial Unicode MS",«sans-serif»;color:#111111; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">
Is a copy
Focuses on system+structure
Relies on control
Has a short-range view
Asks how and when
Has an eye on the bottom line
Accepts status quo
Does things right<span Arial Unicode MS",«sans-serif»; color:#111111;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">
Is an original
Focuses on people
Has a long-range perspective
Asks what and why
Has an eye on the horizon
Does the right thing<span Arial Unicode MS",«sans-serif»; color:#111111;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB">
In the beginning of development of thehospitality industry, when a lot of the hospitality organizations were familyowned, leadership was associated with ownership. However, with a growth ofhospitality organizations, a more broadly based approach to the appointment anddevelopment of leaders were needed. According to Walker, “the real key toleadership involves developing appropriate personality characteristics and thetalents of other members of the organization” (Mullins, 1998, p. 403).
Moreover, “Walker identifies some ofthe most important indicators of the appropriate temperament for leadership:
·<span Times New Roman"">Self-control(leaders should be above average in their ability to exercise self-control).
·<span Times New Roman"">Sense ofvalue (respect the intangible, spiritual side of life).
·<span Times New Roman"">Drive (astrong drive is an advantage in any assignment).
·<span Times New Roman"">Moodiness(the manager should be optimistic, cheerful and generally capable ofmaintaining morale and team spirit).
·<span Times New Roman"">Sensitivity(the one who is sensitive to himself is sensitive and to others, so have a highpotential to managerial success).
·<span Times New Roman"">Defence ofideas (managers should be willing and able to support and defend their ownideas).
·<span Times New Roman"">Self-awareness(the person needing less recognition for individual contribution is moresuccessful for managerial success).
·<span Times New Roman"">Balance(the ability to defend their ideas and a low degree of self-consciousness,coupled with a high degree of sensitivity to other people) (Mullins, 1998, p.403).
According to Mullins, anumber of recent articles showed that the hospitality industry had occurred adramatic change and that the importance and benefits of transformationalleadership are more obvious.
“A lot of researches showthat demographic style of leadership is more likely to produce effectiveperformance from work groups. Also a human relations, people oriented approachis more likely to lead to job satisfaction and group cohesiveness” (Mullins, 1998, p.424).
However, it is not alwaysthat demographic ways of leadership are the best. Sometimes, it happens thatautocratic style of leadership is more effective.
“There is no one best styleof leadership which will result in the maintenance of morale among the groupmembers and high work performance. There are many variables, which underlie theeffectiveness of managerial leadership in the hospitality industry, including:
·<span Times New Roman"">The typeand nature of establishment, its goals and objectives, and the organizationalculture and climate
·<span Times New Roman"">Thecharacteristic of the manager, personality, attitudes, abilities, value systemand personal credibility
·<span Times New Roman"">Thecharacteristics of subordinates, their needs and expectations, motivation andcommitment, and their knowledge, confidence and experience
·<span Times New Roman"">The basisof the leadership relationship and the type of power and influence
·<span Times New Roman"">Therelationships between the manager and the group, and among members of the group
·<span Times New Roman"">The type ofproblem and nature of the manager’s decisions
·<span Times New Roman"">The natureof the tasks to be achieved, the extend to which they are structured orroutine, the technology and work organization
·<span Times New Roman"">Theorganization structure and systems of management
·<span Times New Roman"">The natureand influence of the external environment” (Mullins, 1998, p.424). Conclusion
In this work a lot of theories ofleadership were covered. Despite it, the leadership issue still remains notwell understood. Leaders have to be aware of the times, because they arechanging faster than we can imagine. Leaders’ knowledge and practice mustaccommodate themselves to these changes if they do not want to be left behind (http://www.emeraldinsight.com).References and Bibliography Books
MULLINS J. LAURIE (1998). Managing people inthe Hospitality industry. 3rd edition. British LibraryCataloguing in Publication data.Electronic Sources
1.<span Times New Roman"">BURKE SARAH AND COLLINS M. KAREN (2001),Gender differences in leadership styles and management skills. Women in Management Review. Vol.16, No5, pp.244-256. Available from: www.emeraldinsight.com(03/04/2003)
2.<span Times New Roman"">HORNER MELISSA (1997), Leadership theory: past, present and future. Team Performance Management. Vol.3, No4, pp.270-287. http://www.emeraldinsight.com(03/04/2003)
3.<span Times New Roman"">MANNING T. TRACEY (2002), Gender, managerial level, transformationalleadership and work satisfaction. Womenin Management Review. Vol.17, No 5, pp.207-216. http://www.emeraldinsight.com(03/04/2003)
4.<span Times New Roman"">McCRIMMON MITCH (1995),Bottom-up leadership. ExecutiveDevelopment. Vol.8. No 5, pp.6-12. www.emeraldinsight.com(03/04/2003)
5.<span Times New Roman"">NICHOLLS JOHN (1994), The “Heart, Head and Hands” of TransformingLeadership. Leadership and OrganizationDevelopment Journal. Vol.15, No 6, pp.8-15. http://www.emeraldinsight.com(03/04/2003)
6.<span Times New Roman"">PAUL JIM, COSTLEY L. DAN, HOWELL P. JON AND DORFMAN W. PETER (2002), Themutability of charisma in leadership research. Management Decision. Vol. 40, No 1, pp.192-200. http://www.emeraldinsight.com(03/04/2003)
7.<span Times New Roman"">SARROS C. JAMES AND SANTORE C. JOSEPH (2001), Thetransformational-transactional leadership model in practice. Leadership and Organization DevelopmentJournal. Vol.22, No 8, pp.383-393. http://www.emeraldinsight.com(03/04/2003)
8.<span Times New Roman"">http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~ha100c-c/class/management/leadership/lesson1-2-1.html