Реферат: Лингвистический фон деловой корреспонденции (Linguistic Background of Business Correspondence)


Introduction   …………………………………………………………….……    3

Part I.


The basic forms of communication  ……………………………………………   5

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Non-verbalcommunication…………………………………………..    5

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Verbal communication………………………………………………    6

3.<span Times New Roman"">    

Language barriers tobusiness communication………………………    9

Part II.


Types of business communication  …………………………………………....  11

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The typesdescription………………………………………………...  11

2.<span Times New Roman"">    

Business writing (letters,memos and reports, other documents)…...  12

Part III.


Types of business correspondence ……………………………………………   15

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Correspondence on socialsituations

               (appointments; travelarrangements; invitations; job         applications; goodwill letters; etc) …………………………..   15

2.<span Times New Roman"">    Correspondence on businesssituations (inquires; quotations; salesletters; orders; complaints; acknowledging of payment; etc) …………………………….   20


Part IV.


Structural and lexical peculiarities ofbusiness letters …………………………  30

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 Structure of a business letter………………………………………..  31

2.<span Times New Roman"">    

 Content of a business letter  ………………………………………… 36

3.   Rules and manners of writing a businessletter ……………………..  40

4.   Style of a businessletter…………………………………………….   44

5.   Lexics of business letters

(frequentphrases; cliches; abbreviations, etc.) …………….. 48

Conclusion ……………..……………………………………………………… 58

Mini-dictionary of business correspondence………………………………………………..    60

Bibliography ………………………………………………………………………………….  64


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Letter writing — is anessential part of communication,  anintimate part   of   business and life experience.   Each letter-writer  has  acharacteristic way of writing, his style of writing,  his wayof expressing thoughts,  facts,  etc. But  it  must beemphasised that the routineof the official  or  semi-officialbusiness letters  requires  certain accepted idioms,  phrases,patterns, and grammar which are found  in general  use  today.Therefore certain  skills  must be acquired by practice,  anddetails of writing must be carefully andthoroughly learnt.

The choice of this topic for my diploma paper was mostly conditioned bythe fact that the students studying English at our University are almost unableto write proper business letters and that the problem of writing businessletters is still not well-studied.

I think that it is very important to know a constituent part of modernbusiness communication.As nowadays more and moreagreements are  made  in English, for English  is  the nearest  thing  we have  to a universal businesslanguage.  Joint ventures,  bank loans, and trademark licensesfrequently  are  spelled out  in  this language even  though it is not native to at least  one of  the  contracting parties.

The subject matter of the diploma paper is the role of lexics andsemantics in the case of business letter correspondence. The question of thehistory of official communication, the main stages of business transactions,the role of person’s feeling for the proper use of phrases as well as hisknowledge of grammar are highlighted. Moreover, those phrases which are moreoften used in business letters are examined from the point of view of theirappropriateness in different situations. The practical part contains manyexamples of business letters; the occasions on which they were written and someof their characteristics are observed.

The aim of my diploma paper is to study business letters from thelexicological point of view and make the matter of business letter writing lesscomplicated.

 The objectives and purposes ofthe paper may be formulated as follows:

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Critical study of thematerial on the theme;

·<span Times New Roman"">       

Exposure of the aims, place,importance, role and contents of the aspect of letter-writing in the course ofLexicology and Business English classes;

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Defining the specificity oflexics in different spheres of business correspondence;

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Searching the peculiaritiesof the structure, manners and styles of business letters;

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Defining and stating therules of writing a business letter;

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Arranging and classifyingthe business letters according to the sphere of usage;

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Giving useful tips and adviceto anyone interested in business letter writing.

To achieve the set aims I have collected more then 100 letters onvarious issues of business correspondence. Then, I made a thematicclassification and description of letters concerning different spheres ofbusiness (trade, finance, industry, international inquiries and reports, etc.).Having analysed each type separately, I came to the conclusion that there arecertain  common rules which need throughstudying. While searching the letters I mostly paid attention to the specificusage of lexics, semantics, manners and styles of business letter writing.

As resource for my paper I used a list of business books, variousreference books, dictionaries, language textbooks, real pieces of businesscorrespondence and different sites of the Internet.

Nowadays, we have a great need of Business English teachers and I dohope that my diploma paper could be really useful especially for them. Italso  contains good material for thestudents of language higher institutions, and could be as well appreciated byany person interested in the course of business letter writing.

My diploma paper consists of Introduction, four chapters, Conclusion andAppendix.


Part I

The Basic Forms Of Communication

As David Glass is well aware, effectivecommunicators have many tools at their disposal when they want to get across amessage. Whether writing or speaking, they know how to put together the wordsthat will convey their meaning. They reinforce their words with gestures andactions. They look you in the eye, listen to what you have to say, and thinkabout your feelings and needs. At the same time, they study your reactions,picking up the nuances of your response by watching your face and body,listening to your tone of voice, and evaluating your words. They absorbinformation just as efficiently as they transmit it, relying on both non-verbaland verbal cues.

1.<span Times New Roman"">    

Non-Verbal Communication

The most basic form of communication is non-verbal. Anthropologiststheorize that long before human beings used words to talk things over, ourancestors communicated with one another by using their bodies. They grittedtheir teeth to show anger; they smiled and touched one another to indicateaffection. Al­though we have come a long way since those primitive times, westill use non-verbal cues to express superiority, dependence, dislike, respect,love, and other feelings.

Non-verbal communication differs from verbal communication in funda­mentalways. For one thing, it is less structured, which makes it more difficult tostudy. A person cannot pick up a book on non-verbal language and master thevocabulary of gestures, expressions, and inflections that are common in ourculture. We don't really know how people learn non-verbal behaviour. No oneteaches a baby to cry or smile, yet these forms of self-expression are almostuniversal. Other types of non-verbal communication, such as the meaning ofcolors and certain gestures, vary from culture to culture.

Non-verbal communication also differs from verbal communication in termsof intent and spontaneity. We generally plan our words. When we say«please open the door,» we have a conscious purpose. We think aboutthe message, if only for a moment. But when we communicate non-verbally, we sometimesdo so unconsciously. We don't mean to raise an eyebrow or blush. Those actionscome naturally. Without our consent, our emotions are written all over ourfaces.

The functions of non-verbal communication

Although non-verbal communication can stand alone, it frequently workswith speech. Our words carry part of the message, and non-verbal signals carrythe rest. Together, the two modes of expression make a powerful team, augment­ing,reinforcing, and clarifying each other.

Experts in non-verbal communication suggest that it have six specificfunc­tions:

• To provide information, either consciously or unconsciously

• To regulate the flow of conversation

• To express emotion

• To qualify, complement, contradict, or expand verbal messages

• To control or influence others

• To facilitate specific tasks, such as teaching a person to swing agolf club.

Non-verbal communication plays a role in business too. For one thing, ithelps establish credibility and leadership potential. If you can learn tomanage the impression you create with your body language, facialcharacteristics, voice, and appearance, you can do a great deal to communicatethat you are competent, trustworthy, and dynamic. For example, Wal-Mart founderSam Walton has developed a homespun style that puts people at ease, therebyhelp­ing them to be more receptive, perhaps even more open.

Furthermore, if you can learn to read other people's non-verbalmessages, you will be able to interpret their underlying attitudes andintentions more accurately. When dealing with co-workers, customers, andclients, watch care­fully for small signs that reveal how the conversation isgoing. If you aren't having the effect you want, check your words; then, ifyour words are all right, try to be aware of the non-verbal meanings you aretransmitting. At the same time, stay tuned to the non-verbal signals that theother person is sending.

2. Verbal Communication

Although you can express many things non-verbally, there are limits towhat you can communicate without the help of language. If you want to discusspast events, ideas, or abstractions, you need words—symbols that stand forthoughts — arranged in meaningful patterns. In the English language, we have a750,000, although most of us recog­nize only about 20,000 of them. To create athought with these words, we arrange them according to the rules of grammar,putting the various parts of speech in the proper sequence

We then transmit the message in spoken or written form, hoping thatsomeone will hear or read what we have to say. Figure 1.1 shows how much timebusiness people devote to the various types of verbal communication. They usespeaking and writing to send messages; they use listening and read­ing toreceive them.

Speaking and writing

When it comes to sending business messages, speaking is more common thanwriting. Giving instructions, conducting interviews, working in small groups,attending meetings, and making speeches are all important activities. Eventhough writing may be less common, it is important too. When you want to send acomplex message of lasting significance, you will probably want to put it inwriting.

Listening and reading

It's important to remem­ber that effective communication is a two-waystreet. People in business spend more time obtaining information thantransmitting it, so to do their jobs effec­tively, they need good listening andreading skills. Unfortunately, most of us are not very good listeners.Immediately after hearing a ten-minute speech, we typically remember only halfof what was said. A few days later, we've forgotten three-quarters of themessage. To some extent, our listening prob­lems stem from our education, orlack of it. We spend years learning to express our ideas, but few of us evertake a course in listening.

Similarly, our reading skills often leave a good deal to be desired.Recent studies indicate that approximately 38 percent of the adults in the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region>have trouble reading the help-wanted ads in the newspaper, 14 percent cannotfill out a check properly, 26 percent can't figure out the deductions listed ontheir paycheques, and 20 percent are functionally illiterate. Even those who doread may not know how to read effectively. They have trouble extracting theimportant points from a document, so they cannot make the most of theinformation presented.

College student are probably better at listening and reading than aremany other people, partly because they get so much practice. On the basis ofour own experience, no doubt realise that our listening and reading efficiencyvaries tremendously, depending on how we approach the task. Obtaining andremembering information takes a special effort.

Although listening and reading obviously differ, both require a similarapproach. The first step is to register the information, which means that youmust tune out distractions and focus your attention. You must then interpretand evaluate the information, respond in some fashion, and file away the datafor future reference.

The most important part of this process is interpretation andevaluation, which is no easy matter. While absorbing the material, we mustdecide what is important and what isn't. One approach is to look for the mainideas and the most important supporting details, rather than trying to remembereverything we read or hear. If we can discern the structure of the material, wecan also understand the relationships among the ideas.


3. Language Barriers

If we're doing business in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>, we obviously won't have much of a lan­guageproblem. We may encounter a few unusual terms or accents in the 29 countries inwhich English is an official language, but our problems will be relativelyminor. Language barriers will also be relatively minor when we are dealing withpeople who use English as a second language (and some 650 mil­lion people fallinto this category). Some of these millions are extremely fluent; others haveonly an elementary command of English. Although you may miss a few subtletiesin dealing with those who are less fluent in English, we’ll still be able tocommunicate. The pitfall to watch for is assuming that the other personunderstands everything we say, even slang, local idioms, and accents. One groupof English-speaking Japanese who moved to the United States as employees ofToyota had to enroll in a special course to learn that «Jeat yet?»means «Did you eat yet?» and that «Cannahepya?» means«Can I help you?»

Barriers to written communication

One survey of 100 companies engaged in internationalbusiness revealed that between 95 and 99 percent of their business letters toother countries are written in English. Moreover, 59 percent of the respondentsreported that the foreign letters they receive are usually written in English,although they also receive letters written in Spanish and French. Otherlanguages are rare in international business correspondence.

Because many international business letters arewritten in English, North American firms do not always have to worry abouttranslating their correspon­dence. However, even when both parties write inEnglish, minor interpreta­tion problems do exist because of different usage oftechnical terms. These problems do not usually pose a major barrier tocommunication, especially if correspondence between the two parties continuesand each gradually learns the terminology of the other.

More significant problems arise in other forms ofwritten communication that require translation. Advertisements, for example,are almost always translated into the language of the country in which theproducts are being sold. Documents such as warranties, repair and maintenancemanuals, and product labels also require translation. In addition, somemultinational compa­nies must translate policy and procedure manuals andbenefit plans for use in overseas offices. Reports from foreign subsidiaries tothe home office may also be written in one language and then translated intoanother.

Sometimes the translations aren't very good. Forexample, the well-known slogan «Come alive with Pepsi» was translatedliterally for Asian markets as «Pepsi brings your ancestors back from thegrave,» with unfortunate results. Part of the message is almost inevitablylost during any translation process, sometimes with major consequences.

Barriers to oralcommunication

Oral communication usually presents more problems thanwritten communica­tion. If you have ever studied a foreign language, you knowfrom personal experience that it's easier to write in a foreign language thanto conduct a conversation. Even if the other person is speaking English, you'relikely to have a hard time understanding the pronunciation if the person is notprofi­cient in English.

Idiomatic expressions are another source of confusion.If you tell a for­eigner that a certain product «doesn't cut themustard,» chances are that you will fail to communicate. Even when thewords make sense, their meanings may differ according to the situation. Forexample, suppose that you are dining with a German woman who speaks Englishquite well. You inquire, «More bread?» She says, «Thankyou,» so you pass the bread. She looks confused, then takes thebreadbasket and sets it down without taking any. In German, thank you (danke) can also be used as apolite refusal. If the woman had wanted more bread, she would have used theword please (bitte in German).

Part II

Types of Business Communications

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The types description

The primary tools for communicating information inbusiness include e-mail messages, memos, letters, reports, phone calls,meetings, and conversations. To determine which is the best to use in a givensituation, start by asking yourself the following questions:

·     How muchinformation do I have to pass along?

·     How manypeople will receive the message?

·     How quicklydoes it need to reach them?

·     How much timedo the recipients need to respond to it?

·     How formalshould the presentation be?

·     Is the messageconfidential?

·     How are peoplelikely to respond to it?

                                                   E-mail Messages

Because of its speed and informality, e-mail isideal for routine communication between coworkers. For instance, an e-mailmessage is usually the best means of announcing a new policy, introducing arecent hire, informing colleagues of a meeting time, and reminding an employeeof an approaching deadline.

       E-mail messages are also useful for day-to-day or extremely timelyexchanges with people outside the company. Because of their low cost, theyoften are preferred for communicating with overseas contacts.

Although e-mail messages are now used instead of memos for most intercompanycommunication, memos are still suitable for notes sent to people higher in thecompany hierarchy, especially in conservative companies.

The memo is also appropriate for lengthy, formalcommunications to coworkers that may eventually be circulated to yoursupervisors or to contacts in other companies.

The letter is now used primarily for formal correspondence with clients,customers, and others outside the company, particularly people you have notmet.

Imagine, for instance, that you need to ask foradvice or information from someone you do not know personally. The person willlikely give a letter more attention than an e-mail message because a letterconveys an added element of formality and courtesy.

A complex document of more than ten pages, especially one that will be shown tooutside contacts, is best presented as a report. A routine report can be easilyproduced using a word processor and a laser printer. Important reports forpotential clients, stockholders, or others you might want to impress usuallyshould be professionally designed and printed, often in full color on heavy orglossy paper.

                           Phone Calls,Conversations, and Meetings
The main advantage of a phone conversation is that it allows both parties torespond to each other immediately. If you and a coworker have several questionsfor each other, asking them in a single phone call is usually lesstime-consuming than exchanging a long series of e-mail messages.

         Personalmatters or topics that might elicit a highly emotional response are bestdiscussed in person. As common sense will tell you, sending an e-mail or memoreading “You’re fired!” is not the most delicate or responsible way of dealingwith a difficult situation.

Face-to-face meetings are usually the safest wayof communicating confidential information. Meetings are also useful when aquick group decision is needed on a particular problem or issue. Important sidebenefits of meetings are that they allow employees in different departments ordivisions to become acquainted and can often foster a sense of shared missionamong coworkers.

2. Business writing

Intercultural business writing falls into the same general categories asother forms of business writing. How you handle these categories depends on thesubject and purpose of your message, the relationship between you and thereader, and the customs of the person to whom the message is addressed.


Letters arethe most common form of intercultural business correspondence. They serve thesame purposes and follow the same basic organizational plans (direct andindirect) as letters you would send within your own country. Unless you arepersonally fluent in the language of the intended readers, you shouldordinarily write your letters in English or have them translated by a profes­sionaltranslator. If you and the reader speak different languages, be especiallyconcerned with achieving clarity:

• Use short, precise words that say exactly what you mean.

• Rely on specific terms to explain your points. Avoid abstractions al­together,or illustrate them with concrete examples.

• Stay away from slang, jargon, and buzz words. Such words rarely trans­latewell. Nor do idioms and figurative expressions. Abbreviations, tscfo-nyms(such as NOKAI) and CAD/CAM), and North American product names may also lead toconfusion.

• Construct sentences that are shorter and simpler than those you mightuse when writing to someone fluent in English.

• Use short paragraphs. Each paragraph should stick to one topic and beno more than eight to ten lines.

• Help readers follow your train of thought by using transitionaldevices. Precede related points with expressions like in addition and first, sec­ond,third.

• Use numbers, visual aids, and pre-printed forms to clarify yourmessage. These devices are generally understood in most cultures.

Your word choice should also reflect the relationship between you andthe reader. In general, be somewhat more formal than you would be in writing topeople in your own culture. In many other cultures, people use a moreelaborate, old-fashioned style, and you should gear your letters to theirexpectations. However, do not carry formality to extremes, or you will sound un­natural.

In terms of format, the two most common approaches for interculturalbusiness letters are the block style (with blocked paragraphs) and the modifiedblock style (with indented paragraphs). You may use either the American for­matfor dates (with the month, day, and year, in that order) or the European style(with the day before the month and year). For the salutation, use Dear (Title/Last Name). Close the letterwith Sincerely or Sincerely yours,and sign it personally.

If you correspond frequently with people in foreign countries, yourletter­head should include the name of your country and cable or telexinformation. Send your letters by air mail, and ask that responses be sent thatway as well.

Check the postage too; rates for sending mail to most other countriesare not the same as rates for sending it within your own.

In the letters you receive, you will notice that people in othercountries use different techniques for their correspondence. If you are awareof some of these practices, you will be able to concentrate on the messagewithout passing judgement on the writers. Their approaches are not good or bad,just different.

The Japanese, for example, are slow to come to the point. Their letterstypically begin with a remark about the season or weather. This is followed byan inquiry about your health or congratulations on your prosperity. A note ofthanks for your patronage might come next. After these preliminaries, the mainidea is introduced. If the letter contains bad news, the Japanese begin notwith a buffer, but with apologies for disappointing you.

Letters from <st1:place w:st=«on»>Latin America</st1:place> lookdifferent too. Instead of using letterhead stationery, Latin American companiesuse a cover page with their printed seal in the centre. Their letters appear tobe longer, because they use much wider margins.

Memos and reports

Memos and reports sent overseas fall into two general categories: thosewrit­ten to and from subsidiaries, branches, or joint venture partners andthose written to clients or other outsiders. When the memo or report has aninternal audience, the style may differ only slightly from that of a memo orreport written for internal use in <st1:place w:st=«on»>North America</st1:place>.Because sender and recipient have a working relationship and share a commonframe of reference, many of the language and cultural barriers that lead to misunderstandingshave already been overcome. However, if the reader's native language is notEnglish, you should take extra care to ensure clarity: Use concrete andexplicit words, simple and direct sentences, short paragraphs, headings, andmany transi­tional devices.

If the memo or report is written for an external audience, the style ofthe document should be relatively formal and impersonal. If possible, theformat should be like that of reports typically prepared or received by theaudience. In the case of long, formal reports, it is also useful to discussreporting require­ments and expectations with the recipient beforehand and tosubmit a prelimi­nary draft for comments before delivering the final report.

Other documents

Many international transactions involve shipping and receiving goods. Anum­ber of special-purpose documents are required to handle these transactions:price quotations, invoices, bills of lading, time drafts, letters of credit,corre­spondence with international freight forwarders, packing lists, shippingdocu­ments, and collection documents. Many of these documents are standardforms; you simply fill in the data as clearly and accurately as possible in thespaces provided. Samples are ordinarily available in a company's files if it frequentlydoes business abroad. If not, you may obtain descriptions of the necessarydocumentation from the United States Department of Commerce, InternationalTrade Administration, <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:City>, <st1:State w:st=«on»>D.C.</st1:State>, <st1:PostalCode w:st=«on»>20230</st1:PostalCode></st1:place>.(For Canadian information, contact the Department of External Affairs, TradeDivision, <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Ot­tawa</st1:City>, <st1:State w:st=«on»>Ontario</st1:State></st1:place>, K1A OG2.)

When preparing forms, pay particular attention to the method you use forstating weights and measures and money values. The preferred method is to usethe other country's system of measurement and its currency values fordocumenting the transaction; however, if your company uses <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>U.S.</st1:place></st1:country-region> orCanadian weights, measures, and dollars, you should follow that policy. Checkany con­version calculations carefully.

Part III

Types of Business Correspondence

1.<span Times New Roman"">   

Correspondence on socialsituations

2.<span Times New Roman"">    

Appointments and TravelArrangements

Inpersonal meetings, talks take priority over writing, yet appointments andtravel arrangements often involve correspondence. Even if appointments havebeen made verbally it is wise to confirm them in writing, as a letter isclearer to all parties concerned than a telephone message, where it is easy tomisinterpret dates and places.

          Travel arrangements can, of course, bemade without writing letters. However, correspondence is necessary ifaccommodation is to be booked abroad, or if one is to travel further fromplaces outside one's own country.


<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">InternationalImport Corporation

<st1:Street w:st=«on»><st1:address w:st=«on»><span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">44 Nasatar St

</st1:address></st1:Street><span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">.

<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»><span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Cairo

</st1:City></st1:place><span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">18 August, 1997

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Dear Mr.Carter,

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">As mentioned inmy letter of 9 August, I am planning to spend a few days in <st1:City w:st=«on»>London</st1:City>next month, on my way to the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region>. The dates are now settled: I shallat Heathrow on Wednesday, 3 September (Flight BA 602 15 30) and leave on Fridaynight. I shall be staying at the Cumberland Hotel, Marble Arch, London W1.

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">On September 3I already have some appointments, but could come to your office any time onThursday, 4 September. Would you kindly leave a message at my hotel letting meknow what time would suit you.

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">One of the mostimportant matters to be discussed is the percentage of commission you couldgive us for distributing your SELECT copier in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Egypt</st1:place></st1:country-region>. As we have alreadyindicated, 10% is unacceptable to us: we require at least 12% if we are to do agood job of selling this equipment in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Egypt</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">In the hopethat we can come to terms, and looking forward to meeting you, I am,

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Yourssincerely,

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»">Amir Hanna

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">InternationalImport Corporation

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Amir Hanna

<span Bookman Old Style",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Bookman Old Style",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

3.<span Times New Roman"">    

Invitations: Accepting andDeclining

Aformal invitation, usually in the form of a letter or printed card, is writtenin the third person, and replies also follow the same style. Other invitationsare written less formally. Any written invitations should be answered inwriting too, not by phone.

          A distinction is made between a formalinvitation, a semi-formal and informal invitation, and the correct form ofreply to each is indicated.


<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">DearDr Simon,

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">On behalf of the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Russian</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Academy</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>of Sciences and the Organizing Committee of the 10th Internationalcongress on brain surgery I have the honour and pleasure of extending to you aninvitation to participate in the work of Congress and to give a lecture at thePlenary Session covering your area of research.

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">An early reply to this letter would beappreciated.

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Sincerely Yours,

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">F.N. Pavlov, Professor

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Chairmanof the Organizing Committee

<span Bookman Old Style",«serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">


<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Dear Dr. Truman,

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">I very much regret that I am unable toaccept your kind invitation to a Reception to be held in Hotel Ritz at seveno’clock on Friday, the tenth of March, 2000, as I have already accepted aprevious invitation for that date and time.

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Yours Truly,

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">SimonPerry

<span Tahoma",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">


<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">John and Jane Doe
are pleased to accept the kind invitation of
John and Jane Smith
to join them in celebrating the graduation of their daughter, Jane
Saturday, the twentieth of June, at 4 o'clock
at the Riverside Country Club, 4500 Riverside Drive

4.<span Times New Roman"">    

Thanks for Hospitality,Requests, Complying with a Request

Itis a matter of courtesy to write to your host personally if you have enjoyedhis/her company's hospitality. Here you can see how to express thanks forthe  fulfilment of other requests, too.


<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">DATE: August 29, 1999

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">It was a pleasure meeting you today, Mr Smith. Youcouldn't have chosen a better restaurant. The food was superb.Thank you.

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">I am glad we had plenty of time to discuss theconstruction project. You helped clear up almost all the questions I had. Andyou pointed me in the right direction to find the answers to the few queries Ihave left.

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">I look forward to meeting you again in the nearfuture. I will call you when I return from my trip to the head office and thenit will be my pleasure to treat you to lunch.

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Regards,

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">M.J. Johnson

<span Bookman Old Style",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">


<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">TO: J. Watkins
FROM: Dr. J. R Ewing
DATE: August 29, 1999
SUBJECT: Marriage Benefits

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Congratulations on getting married, Jim. Best wishesto you and your bride for a long and happy life together.

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Now that youare changing your status, we need to discuss your health insurance andretirement plans. As well, I would like to explain our company policies as theyaffect you and your wife. Could you drop by my office as soon as you returnfrom your honeymoon so that we can talk?

5.<span Times New Roman"">    

Employment: Applications,Letters of Recommendation, Givingnotice

Whenwriting a letter of application, the applicant would like to say what job andconditions he or she would like to have. But a good letter of applicationshould contain facts the prospective employer wants to know, for instance whatexperience the applicant has, how useful he or she will be to the company. Ifhe has held several positions, it would be advisable for the applicant to submita personal data sheet, the curriculum vitae, containing full personal detailsand information on the past experience, education and certificates or degrees,special qualifications, and possibly references.

          The letter then can serve to draw thereader's attention to the candidates' suitability for the vacancy. If you arestarting your career and have had one or two jobs, or none at all, all theparticulars can be included in the letter itself.

          A contract of employment defines theconditions of work, the working hours, holidays allowed, responsibilities andnotice. It may contain a job description and give information on fringebenefits such as company pension scheme, bonuses, expenses and commission whereapplicable. When employment is terminated by either party, notice has to begiven in writing and the set period observed.


<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Dear Dr. James

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">This letter is in response to youradvertisement in the Financial Times on November 25, l998  for a position of secretary. I have threeyears  experience in the field of marketresearch.

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">I am ready for long hours and travelrequired to be an effective personal secretary.

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">My resume is attached for your resource.

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Sincerely,

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">J. Kvatson (Ms)


<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Dear Mr Douglas,

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">I have been working for “Newborn Electronics” for 7years and I always enjoyed and valued my job. As well I always enjoyed andvalued my salary.

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">However the total crisis in the countryand the recent ruble inflation make me ask for a certain adjustment of mysalary which is now 8.000 rubles. Three months ago this sumequaled to approx.530 US dollars while today it is less the 200US dollars.

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Taking into consideration the abovecalculations I am requesting a salary adjustment of 17.000rubles. Thank you in advance for your prompt consideration of this matter.

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Sincerely Yours,

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">F.T. Petrov


<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Dear Mr Hampshire:

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Your work has been excellent. However,your absentee record is now overshadowing your work record. I realize that yourhealth has been poor but one of our job requirements is regular attendance. Wehave difficulty scheduling when we cannot depend on your attendance.

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">We have discussed this subject with youseveral times before. Now your attendance must meet our requirements or we willhave to terminate you.

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black">Sincerely,

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black">J. Johnson

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; color:black">Export Department

<span Tahoma",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

6.<span Times New Roman"">    

Goodwill letters:Congratulations, Introductions, Condolence, Christmas and New Year Wishes

Agoodwill letter, as its name implies, is not written to obtain an order, or tocollect outstanding bills. It is intended to pay for itself in another way, bybuilding up goodwill. It is difficult to measure its value, but if this couldbe done businessmen would probably write goodwill letters more often.

          They give both the reader and writerpleasure when the occasion arises to enclose a gift, to send good wishes, to expressthanks or to remember an anniversary. Letters of introduction can also be agreat help, both to a young person starting out n a particular field ofbusiness and to the established businessman wishing to expand his operations.

          Goodwill letters let customers feelthat they are in tough — in good times and bad — when business friends showsympathy, when they offer assistance, and when congratulations are due.


<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;layout-grid-mode:both">November 30, 1997

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Dear  Dr.Simpson,

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">I want to introduce you to Ms James, who worked withme at Connaught Centre for five years.

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">She is a person of great intellect and work ability. MsJames is currently involved in a project which might be of interest to you, andhe shall be contacting you soon to arrange a meeting.

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">I am sure you will benefit if you agree to see her.

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Yours Sincerely,

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> Mr Watson

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Sales Manager

<span Tahoma",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">


<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Hunters Ranch,

<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»><span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">Paxton

</st1:City><span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">, <st1:State w:st=«on»>Florida</st1:State> <st1:PostalCode w:st=«on»>32538</st1:PostalCode></st1:place><span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">May 4, 1995

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Dear Mr. Wembley:

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">My wife and Iare coming to <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Delhi</st1:place></st1:City>for a fairy long stay, as I have business there that will keep me several months.I know you have lived in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Delhi</st1:place></st1:City>for several years, and I wonder if you would kindly give us some introductions.

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Since I shallbe very occupied, my wife may feel lonely at times. If she knew one or twopeople whom she could visit now and again, it would be very pleasant for her.

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">I would be mostgrateful for your help. If there is anything I can do for you — either here inthe states or when I am in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Delhi</st1:place></st1:City>- please do not hesitate to let me know.

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Sincerelyyours,

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Harold Canning

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Harold Canning

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Mr. CliffordWembley

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">c/o AmericanPress Office 

<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»><span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">New Delhi

</st1:City><span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>India</st1:country-region></st1:place><span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">


<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">InternationalOffice Equipment Inc.

<st1:address w:st=«on»><st1:Street w:st=«on»><span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">P.O. Box 295

</st1:Street><span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> <st1:City w:st=«on»>Nassau</st1:City></st1:address><span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»><span Courier New";mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Bahamas

</st1:place></st1:country-region><span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">December 18,2000

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Ladies andGentlemen:

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Near the closeof another year, we would like to take this opportunity of thanking our friendsand customers for their continued confidence and patronage.

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">We send you andyour families our best wishes for Christmas and a very prosperous New Year.

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Sincerelyyours,


<span Courier New"; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">H. Raffley

2. Correspondence on business situations

          1. Inquiries

Aninquiry (also spelt enquiry) is sent when a businessman wants some information,especially about

<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">

·<span Times New Roman"">       

the supply of goods

·<span Times New Roman"">       

leaflets or catalogues

·<span Times New Roman"">       

quotation or prices

·<span Times New Roman"">       


·<span Times New Roman"">       

terms and discounts

·<span Times New Roman"">       

availability of goods

·<span Times New Roman"">       

delivery times and deadlines

·<span Times New Roman"">       

method of transport

·<span Times New Roman"">       

insurance<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">

Abusinessman will save unnecessary correspondence by giving full details thatare relevant.

          If a prospective customer approachessuppliers for the first time, it is useful to tell them something about his ownbusiness, the kind of go

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