Реферат: General concepts of democracy
GENERAL CONCEPTS OF DEMOCRACY
Democracy is a theoretical number of important, very important qualities that are important for human development is, first, freedom of choice, which allegedly involves choosing the best. This choice is best in trade involves stimulation of labor, creativity, creation better. A selection of the best in people involves selecting the best, most talented, most intelligent and wise leader that builds a natural hierarchy in society, assumes the best and most equitable system of society and the best of his leadership.
Freedom of choice causes, encourages competition, as some kind of confrontation in a society that does not give society, people calm down, relax, stay, and encourages and pushes for further development.
Freedom of choice for people is an important element of his personal liberty and an element of fairness in society — people freely without any coercion vibrato what he likes, or — what he needs in his life, he freely chooses — by balancing selection with their tastes, preferences, inclinations, concepts, level of intelligence.
Freedom of choice is in itself an ominous negative, gives a stunning deception, cunning illusion — the illusion of equality, that all are equal in the choice and freedom of choice. Although, if we ignore other abstractions, illusions and even cast a cursory glance maybe state with a democratic system, the eye is drawn to the inequality of people. But in the modern era of democracy — market relations have given the concept of equality does not only mocking sense, but izgolilis in the perversion of human spirituality, in the perversion of its unique values — authenticity. That's what draws the attention of a prominent psychoanalyst and philosopher Erich Fromm (1900-1980 g.).
«The idea that all men are created equal, implies that all people have the same inalienable right to be goals, not means. Today, equality has become the equivalent of interchangeability, and this is a direct negation of individuality. Equality, instead of being a condition for uniqueness of each person, means eradicating individuality, „samootkaz“ characteristic of a market orientation. Gender was associated with a difference, and has become synonymous with „indifference“, in fact, indifference is precisely what characterizes the modern man to himself and to others », for the most part, on how can you sell your identity, then you perceive yourself as a commodity, or, rather, as a seller, and as a commodity at the same time. This feeling can be compared with the feeling of the goods, for example, with sense of bags on the counter if they could feel and think. Each bag was trying to be as much as possible «attractive»/
»His (man), the prestige, status, success, fame as a certain other specified persons become replacement genuine sense of identity. This situation completely dependent on how others perceive him, and forced to adhere to the role, had once brought him success. «People looking for in today's work is not just felt in my own skin and well-being of these truths, when it is necessary to unify — like at all or that expect to see employers. It was the opinion of the expert (analyst) on equality and freedom in a western democracy. But not necessarily be a narrow specialist, that has spoken the truth about democracy. Enough to be just a medium-intelligent man, to glance at the history of mankind and draw the correct conclusions.
Immediately it should be noticed, looking at the thousand-year history of mankind, which is always the rich nations people live better than the poor — regardless of the form, type of state. A type of democratic state is not the best, the universal and the optimal form of the state for all states for all time and is not eternal.
The democratic state along with the feudal state or a slave is not only the internal device states, but above all on an equal basis with other forms (feudal, slave) — as another unique type of curtain that covers the implementation of the principle of self-interest, benefits the people, especially prevalent in society, and located power. And everything else screen and placed in the service-to achieve the realization of this principle. And what's more — because democracy, unlike other forms reflects the interests, attitudes and principles are not the best people in society, and the ignorant, half-animal majority, the principle of self-interest, profits realized in a democracy, with particular fanaticism, impudence, impudent, animal and cynicism.
Even at the dawn of democracy, when one of its fathers and founders — Karl Marx was a little boy, the great Hegel, to understand democracy, „said Democracy in America as follows:
“The general protection of property and the almost complete absence of taxes are the facts that are constantly praised. This expresses the main characteristic, is the desire of individuals to gain profit, the predominance of private interests, with a common endeavor here only for their own benefit. Of course, there is a legal procedure, formal laws, but the formal law without integrity, and thus on the American merchants are bad rumor that they were deceived, under cover of law. „And that is just not doing savagely in a democracy — under cover of law and a constant imperfection of legislation… Is it not so? Is that something has changed in fact in America or even in the West since the great Hegel?
“They believe that satisfy the feelings — the first necessity of human civilization. Thus, until the end of life of their anxiety immeasurable. Entangled in a network of hundreds of thousands of desires and absorbed in lust and anger, they get the money in the name of the wicked ways of meeting the senses „- speak of semi-animal in the most ancient sacred book of India (B-i.i. 16, v. 11-12.).
“The man who had forgotten about the interests of society, and the head of state, who had forgotten about the interests of citizens — not the Romans, and barbarians» — said more than two thousand years ago the best of the Romans, Cicero, Mark Thulium. Now these people, we call barbarians Lochy, stupefied gourmand cattle. Unfortunately today, almost all of it, zombie democratic propaganda, our youth can be attributed to this category — they are pretending to come from the Carnegie and understand Freud — stubbornly followed by the most brutal instincts and aspirations.
«Modern democracy — it is only violence by the majority, who manages to create a mass opinion. Millions of ignorant, uniting, reinforce ignorance and all its consequences… „- there has been a prominent thinker of our time, a psychoanalyst and philosopher — Antonio Meneghetti. Here are the basic principles of democratic ideology modern people:
— More money, the more happiness.
— More pleasure from the show — both on the visual masturbation, as well as food and sex — the more happiness.
— More Ponte, as artificial, false, hypocritical manners — the more confident in life and more meaning in it.
Accordingly, all half-animals can be easily classified, for example — are unemployed, who dreams of wealth — “a poor hick loser», a successful capitalist, who thinks only of himself — «a successful fat hick» etc. All this classification suckers reader may well continue, and we will go further.
The founder of positive philosophy of August Comte believed that under the rule of the majority of the people of the arbitrariness of the crowd suppresses the best people, and half-animals dominate principles. He was absolutely right. Rousseau assiduously promoted equality and the right of the majority, and the French Revolution attempted to implement its democracy. Then France, drowning in blood, was nearly lost its independence, and only when I went to the dictatorship of Napoleon — has entered a period of prosperity. Germany was divided into dozens of democratically equitable land and was the most backward country in Europe, and only after the arrival of Bismarck, who despised the democratic constitution, Germany has become the path of development and has become the most powerful and prosperous state.
The Greeks were smart enough to obey their great philosophers, did not have enough money to make its democracy, to change their principles, and unite in the face of danger — to «unite» the Persian King Philip, the Greeks were in slavery, and left the leading role on the historical stage. In this land of the Persians defeated the Romans, who with the advent of Christianity the democratic processes are progressing. And when the plebeians almost equal rights with the patricians, and disrupted the hierarchy in the society, the Roman Empire reigned usual democratic scene: bribing the senators and the entire Senate, the laws are not respected, talk declared — and before the final collapse of the empire came to power, natural commander-Caesar. Caesar put an end to democratic formalism, but these fighters for the republic and democracy, as Brutus and Cassius killed Caesar in the name of freedom. The result — the Romans, the glorious Greeks, Persians, Egyptians and many other nations, no longer able to resist the natives, the usual barbaric northern tribes. Palo power of Rome. State collapsed. Freedom and many lives lost. Rome destroyed and looted. And the Romans left the historical scene. Can not you stupid fanatics democracy Brutus and Cassius to name the Nazis to his people?
In this book, we have observed in some detail how to enjoy full democracy, the Poles had occupied his time in Moscow. When in Poland at the height of democracy within the state has observed exactly the same democratic painting, as in Rome, at the time of their democratic — the Poles drank a lesson of democracy in full — and then a sea of blood and hundreds of thousands of lives could not regain their freedom. Only the tumult of democracy in Tsarist Russia in the early 20 th century, the collapse of imperial Russia and desperate patriotism of General Pilsudski, the Poles returned to freedom.
A thousand times right Ilyich, saying that no one can break us apart their own mistakes — it applies to everyone. Marx's idol and father of democracy — Rousseau knew equality and freedom «as the autonomy of people as equal participation of all in the practice of law in which the nation gives laws to himself. This equality of participation, an attempt to put this insanity has led to Russia's tremendous shameful fact-absurdity-Marxists organized the Democrats in 1929 (20 th century!) — When the Russia Academy of Sciences, professors and academics have tested cleaners, watchmen and guards Academy… Here is a succession of historic facts about democracy, which by definition can not be disputed. Russian princes at the battle of the Kalka decided to honorably and with dignity, play in democracy — the result: a few centuries in a row after the Tatar-Mongols raped shamelessly Russian, and Russian for several centuries in a row licked the Tatar-Mongolian ass — and now once again forgotten the lessons of its democracy. In general, what needs history books, including this book, if such bad memory, sets out a dull mind and slavery?
But everything in this world is not eternal and is always a number of changes-stages: nucleation-development — prosperity — decay — decay, decay. If the first half of this phase of the process are all conducive to life, development, society, then in the second to prevent him, obstructing him. Effective universal law of the Cosmos-the Universe-Mira, sounded great Heraclitus: „Everything flows,“ everything changes ». By the end of the 20 th century, there have certainly every indication that the flowering of democracy has already passed, it changed and their expansion-rotting inhibits the development of mankind. Now try to sort things out even more specific.
It is necessary to make a very important point — analyzing democracy in reality, that is, identifying and disclosing the truth about democracy, we also criticize the democracy — and if anyone of my readers do not like criticism at all — basically, in this case, you must be patient and understand the essence of the ongoing Analysis-criticism. For we reveal flaws, holes, cracks, fistulas and ulcers Realized democracy is not for intoxicating pleasures of bile criticism, and relying on the negative experience of democracy — a creative attempt to mend those wounds and the holes — while creating a new, more advanced ideology and system, more perfect structure and form a new society-state.
1. R. Cherries. The study of wisdom.