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Реферат: Политология

        На примерах развитиячеловеческого общества авторы пытаются показать, что государствопредставляет начало власти, благодаря которому, оно объединяет человеческиеобщности в социум.

    

      В государстве ВЛАСТЬ является отличительнымпризнаком.

Всилу этого, на наш взгляд, государство является исходным элементомпостроения всех политических учений, центральной проблемой политологии.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image001.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1026 _x0000_s1073"> <img src="/cache/referats/1116/image002.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1035 _x0000_s1083">


<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image003.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1045">   Предметом политологии                                 Политика

     является: 

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image004.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1103"> 

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image005.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1093">     

                                                                                                                        ее природа

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image006.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1117">


<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image007.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1124">                                                                                                                        содержание                                              

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image006.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1135">                                                                                                                    

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image008.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1129">


                                                                                                                         основные

                                                                                        элементы             

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image004.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1144">


<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image009.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1140"> 

                                                                                                                         общие

                                                                                  закономерности  

                                                                                                                  

      

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image010.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1148">


<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image011.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1157">     Предметом истории                                      

    политологии                                                     Политика,

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image012.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1155">    является:                                                          но в ее:

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image013.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1159"> 

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image014.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1158">


                                                                                                                  систематическом

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image013.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1161">


<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image015.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1160">                                                                                                                 

                                                                                                                      историческом

                                                                                        измерениях

   *  Историю политологии следует воспринимать тольков контексте:

        истории культуры,

        истории философии,

         религии и государства, в частности.

      Это происходит потому, что история политологиипредставляет собой   

 

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image016.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1027">


                                                    Древниймир

                                           VIII — VI в. Дон.э.

   

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image017.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1046 _x0000_s1055 _x0000_s1064 _x0000_s1074 _x0000_s1094">


                                                                     

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image018.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1036">                    

                                                                            Идеябожественного

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image019.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1084">                                                                     происхождения от-

                                                                     ношений власти и

                 Конфуций                                 порядка. Люди не-

                 Будда                                         равныпо воле богов.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image020.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1104">                 Заратустра                               Неравенство вечно

                 Иеремия                                     инеизменно. Попыт-

                                                                      ки устранить нера-

                                                                     венство-святотатст-

                                                                     во.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image021.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1111">


                                               Античныймир

                                            VI — II в.До н. э.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image022.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1118">


<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image023.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1149"><img src="/cache/referats/1116/image024.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1145"><img src="/cache/referats/1116/image025.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1141"><img src="/cache/referats/1116/image026.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1136">                                   

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image027.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1130">


                                                                   Теоретическое осмысление

                                                                   форм гос. Устройства: аристок-

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image028.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1125">                                                                    ратии, демократии, олигархии,

                                                                   тимократии, тирании. Пред-

                                                                   ставления о политике как цар-

                     Платон                          ском искусстве управлять

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image029.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1152">                                                              людьми.Введение понятий:

                    Аристотель                      юридическое лицо,политичес-   

                                                                   кая справедливость и др.  

                                                                  Создание теории идеального

                                                                   государства.

                                                                   Зарождение элементов науч-

                                                                   ного исследования политики.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image030.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1028">


                                   Эпоха средневековья

                                    с V до  XIV в. в.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image031.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1047"> 

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image032.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1056 _x0000_s1085 _x0000_s1095 _x0000_s1105">


<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image033.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1037">                                                                      

                                                                  Обновление верховенства

                                                                  церкви над светской властью.

                                                                   Законыприроды и общества —

        это правила применительно

к достижению конкретной

цели.

                                                                  Концепция религиозной сущ-     

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image034.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1065">ности государства:

              А. Августин                              мировой порядок установлен

                                                                        богом.       

               Ф. Аквинский                             

                                                                   Проповедьсмирения, послу-  

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image035.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1075">              Златоуст                                   шаниявластям: но люди

равны перед богом и на

                Пересветов                               Земле.

                 Татищев                                  Выступлениепротив духов-

ной диктатуры церкви, от-

рицание насилия.

Идея о суверенности рус-

ского государства и верхо-

венства царской власти.                                   

           

 

 

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image036.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1029">


                                        Эпохавозрождения

                                         с XIV в.до XVIII в.

                          

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image037.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1038 _x0000_s1066 _x0000_s1076 _x0000_s1086 _x0000_s1096 _x0000_s1112 _x0000_s1119">


                                                                            Освобождениеполитической

                                                                     науки от теологии, обоснова-

                                                                     ние идеи естественного про-

                                                                      исхождениягосударства.

                                                                     Введение понятия “ государ-

                                                                     ство”. Создание учения о го-

                                                                     сударстве.

                                                                     Обоснование форм буржуаз-

                                                                     ного государства.

                                                                     Зарождение буржуазной по-

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image038.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1048">                                                                     литико — правовой мысли.

             Н. Макиавелли

             Т. Мор                                          Формирование учения о

          Т. Кампанелла                              гражданскомобществе

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image039.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1057">                                          Т.Гоббс                                        теории общественного до-

               Б. Спиноза                                    говора,принципе разделе-

                Д. Локк                                             ния властей.

                                                                             Возникновениеидей уто-

                                                                      пического социализма.

                                                                    Правозглашение идей гу-

                                                                    манизма, прав и свобод

                                                                    человека.

                                                                    Признание закономерности

                                                                    смены политического

                                                                    правления.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image040.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1030">


                                     Эпоха просвещения

                         Период утверждениякапитализма

                           в странах Западной Европы

                                  XVII — XVIII в. в.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image041.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1039 _x0000_s1067 _x0000_s1077 _x0000_s1087 _x0000_s1097 _x0000_s1106">


                                                                 Развитиеидеи о

                                                                       гражданском об-

                                                                       ществе.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image042.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1049">         Д. Локк                                            Целью государства

         Ж. Руссо                                             является сохранение

         Вольтер                                               свободы и собствен-                            

         Ш. Монтескье                                            ности,  приобретен-  

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image043.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1058">         Т.Гоббс                                          ной посредством

         Ф.Бэкон                                         труда.

        Гольбах

        Гельвеций                                       Людисами могут

        и  др.                                                изменить сущест-       

                                                                  вующий порядок.

         

                                                                 Бороться за граж-

                                                                 данские свободы и

                                                                 равенство людей.                

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image044.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1031">                            Эпоха развития капитализма

                             конец XVIII — нач.  XIX в.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image045.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1068 _x0000_s1078 _x0000_s1088 _x0000_s1098 _x0000_s1107">


<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image046.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1040">                                                 

                                                              Политологиястановится

                                                                    учебной дисциплиной.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image047.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1050">


            Ш. Монтескье                             Развивается политическое

            И. Кант                                         учениео государстве,

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image048.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1059">            Фихте                                           гражданском обществе, о

            Шеллинг                                       разделении вобществе

            Гегель                                          законодательной, испол-

                                                                   нительной и судебной

                                                                   властей, суверенитете,

                                                                   мировом духе.               

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image049.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1113">


                            Период утверждениякапитализма

                                      XVIII — XIX  в. в.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image050.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1120 _x0000_s1142 _x0000_s1146 _x0000_s1150 _x0000_s1153 _x0000_s1156">


                                                                    Резкая критика капита-

                                                                    лизма и прогнозирование

                                                                    нового общественного

                                                                    устройства.

                                                                    Отрицание частной собст-

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image051.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1137">                                                                     венностив пользу общест-

                   С. Сен — Симон                          венной.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image052.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1131">                                                                    Труд — первая потребность

                  Ш. Фурье                                личности.

                                                                    Социальное равенство и

                  Р. Оуэн                                    соц.Справедливость.   

                                                                     Отрицаниереволюции.

                                                                    Равноправие женщины и

                                                                    мужчины.

 

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image053.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1032">          

                      Теории революционного переустройства

                            общества вРоссии  XIX в.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image054.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1041 _x0000_s1060 _x0000_s1069 _x0000_s1079 _x0000_s1089 _x0000_s1099">


                                                                   Идеал общества, где не

                                                                    будет богатыхи бедных,

                                                                   царей и подданных. Люди

                                                                   будут братья.

                                                                      Белинский

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image055.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1051">                                                                  Революционный путь об-

                                                                  новления общества лежит

          В. Г.Белинский                            через общину.

                                                                     Герцен

          А.И. Герцен

                                                                 Ограничение частной собст-

          Н. Г. Чернышевский                       венности, наемноготруда,

                                                                 Развитие коллективного

          Н.А. Добролюбов                       владения.

                                                                    Чернышевский

                                                                 Значение человека по его

                                                                 личным достоинствам. Расп-

                                                                 ределение материальных

                                                                 благ по труду.

                                                                   Добровольский                     

   

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image056.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1033">


                                   Политическая мысль

                     К. Маркса и Ф. Энгельса XIX в.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image057.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1042 _x0000_s1100">


                 Историческая необходимость уничтожения

                 капитализма и построения коммунистического

                 общества.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image058.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1052 _x0000_s1108">


                Теория классовой борьбы, историческая мис-

                сия пролеториата, его сщюзников.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image059.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1061 _x0000_s1114">


                Объяснение политики с точки зрения классовы

                интересов

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image060.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1121">               

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image061.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1070">


                Необходимость создания пролетарской партии,

                ее авангардной роли.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image062.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1126">


<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image063.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1080">                

                Теория и типология социальных революций.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image060.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1132">


<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image064.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1090">      

                Определение исторических рамок государства.   

  

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image065.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1053">


                                 Разработкаполитической теории

                             В. И. Лениным конец XIX- нач. XXв.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image066.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1043 _x0000_s1122">


                          Оценка империализмакак кануна социальной

                          революции.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image067.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1127">


<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image065.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1062">                       

                          Теория переходногопериода от капитализма к

                           социализму.  

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image068.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1133">


<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image069.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1071">                           Разработка плановсоциалистического

                           строительства

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image070.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1138">                          

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image065.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1081">


                           Теория политическойсистемы социализма и

                            социалистическогогосударства.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image071.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1143">                         

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image072.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1091">                         

                          Учение о политическойпартии революцион-

                          ного типа.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image062.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1147">                         

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image073.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1101">


                          Приоритет интересовобщественного развития

                          перед классовым.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image062.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1151">


                  

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image065.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1109">                          О мирномсосуществовании классово — проти-

                          воположныхсистем.  

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image074.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1115 _x0000_s1154">


                          О национальнойполитике пролетарского

                           государства.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image075.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1034">


                                          Современная эпоха

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image076.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1044 _x0000_s1072 _x0000_s1082 _x0000_s1092 _x0000_s1102 _x0000_s1110">


         Арендт

         Бердяев

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image077.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1063">          Бжезинский                                        Западные

         Бурлацкий                                          политические

         Вебер                                                   доктрины.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image078.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1116">         Вятр                                                     Политические

         Дарендорф                                          доктрины

         Дюверке                                              социал — демократов.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image079.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1123">          Истон                                                  Политические

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image080.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1054">          Маркузе                                              аспекты

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image081.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1134">         Лассуэлл                                              религии.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image082.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1139">         Михельс                                              Доктрины

         Моска                                                  политического

         Санистбан                                           экстремизма.

<img src="/cache/referats/1116/image083.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1128">         Тихомиров                                          Политическая

         Фромм                                                 система

         Шаран                                                 социализма.

         Шахназаров

         Шварценберг                                     

 

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