Реферат: Топики по Английскому языку для англ.шк. (10 класс)

Topic 1

The <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>United Kingdom</st1:country-region> is the administrated title and itincludes <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Great Britain</st1:country-region> and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Northern Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>.And <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Great Britain</st1:country-region> it selfincludes <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:country-region>, NI and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>. They are 4 different partsof UK with their own culture, history, traditions & even language Thedifferences are in the climate, in their politic, in their mineral resources,in their religious, in the industries, which are promoted in different parts,people’s occupations. Landscape is varied. Yes that’s true: mountainous Northof Wales, highlands & lowlands in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:country-region>,miles of rocky cliffs on the coast of the south of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>. But climate in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region> is more gentle than in other parts of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>UK</st1:place></st1:country-region>. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Great Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>is situated on one of the largest British island and the landscape and climatevery greatly, from cold in North to warm in the South. At first I want to talkabout <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>.<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>can be divided into three main parts, which varies one from another greatly. Inthe south there are lots of sea costs, which vary from the flat, sandy or stonybeaches to the rocky cliffs. The climate there is mild. The midlands region ismostly the farming land and the north has a hilly landscape. In the midlandsand in the north the climate is colder than in the south. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:country-region> as <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region> can be divided into severalparts: the south and the north. The country varies from the picturesquemountains of the north to the valleys of the south. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region> considered having the mostbeautiful landscape – of hills, valleys and unspoiled beaches. The climate isconsiderably colder than in any other parts of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Great Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>, but however there isno month has an average temperature below freezing. The last part of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>UK</st1:country-region> I wont to mention is <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Northern Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>.The landscape there is gentle. The climate is not stable. Rain showers quicklychanged by sunshine. As we can see all parts of the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>UK</st1:place></st1:country-region> are different. They have theirown landscapes and climate but as a hole they all form highly developedindustrial country.  But besides climateand landscape all parts of the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>UK</st1:place></st1:country-region>has their own traditions, culture, and way of living and even language. Forexample in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:country-region> apart fromEnglish people speak on the Welsh language and in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:country-region></st1:place> people speak The ScottishGaelic.

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            Topic 2

<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:country-region></st1:place>has many places of interest which havehistoric associations. <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>London</st1:City></st1:place>is one of the cities each reflected the past. <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Buckingham</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Palace</st1:PlaceType> is the official <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>London</st1:City></st1:place> residence of theSovereign the daily ceremony of the Changing of the Guards takes place in itscourtyard. The palace was built by the Duke of Buckingham. Stonehenge aprehistoric complex regarded as one of the most important monuments of its kindin <st1:place w:st=«on»>Europe</st1:place> and very popular with visitors. Thegreat circle of standing stones is believed to have had some religious purpose.<st1:City w:st=«on»>Windsor</st1:City> is a town on the Thames not far from          <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>London</st1:City></st1:place>.Its castle has been a royal residence for 9centuries. Seen from a distance it’sbeautiful beyond imagination. <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Windsor</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Castle</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> has a long andfascinating history. <st1:City w:st=«on»>Canterbury</st1:City> an ancient cityin <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Kent</st1:country-region></st1:place>with a majestic cathedral which dominates it. <st1:City w:st=«on»>Canterbury</st1:City>is a religious capital of <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region></st1:place>.It became a place of pilgrimage in medieval. Stratfort-on-Avonis an attractive town world famous as the birthplace of  William Shakespeare. It holds a pricelesscollection of Shakespeare relics.

    In <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:country-region> we can visit times <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Coventry</st1:City></st1:place>. It’s now known for its magnificentcathedral, decorated by the best artists and craftsmen in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:country-region></st1:place>. It was built near theruins of the old cathedral destroyed during the Second World War in the memoryof those who died in the bombings.

       <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Cardiff</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Castle</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>has colorful and lavish interiors continually supriseand delight visitors who enter a grim fighting castle to find themselvessurrounded by exquisite wood carving and sculpture. Cenarfonis an ancient town with a magnificent preserved castle which dominates it.

        Places to visit in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:country-region></st1:place>. <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Edinburgh</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Castle</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>stands high on the massive Grey Castle rock. In the Castle are the Honours of Scotland the Scottish Crown scepter and thesword of state the oldest royal regalia in <st1:place w:st=«on»>Europe</st1:place>is an areas. The Burns Country where <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:country-region></st1:place> national poet wrote manyof the world’s most tender love songs. The thatched cottage where Robert Burnswas born is the starting point together 40places associated with the poet.

 Places to visit in Northen<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:country-region></st1:place>.The <st1:place w:st=«on»>Giant’s Causeway</st1:place> is a mass of stonecolumns standing very near together. The tops of the rocks from stepping stonesleading from the cliff foot and disappearing under the sea. This strangegeological feature is believed to have been the result of volcanic action. It’ssometimes called the 8th wonder of the world.  

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Topic 3

In the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>UK</st1:place></st1:country-region> represents four nations, whichare distinct from each other in almost every aspect of live. They have theirown dialects, economics, social and legal systems. All of them have got theirown stereotypes. The Irish for example are supposed to be good talkers when theScots are supposed to have a reputation for being careful with money. The Welshare famous for their singing abilities and English are individualists. Thefirst nation I’m going to speak about is the English. The English are mainlyAnglo-Saxon in origin. Since 12-th century the English people have developedtheir own character and personality. They managed to save their traditions of dance,food and music from mixing with other origins. English people are generallytolerant of new ideas and influences. Traditionally, the English are thought tobe reserved, shy of strangers, suspicious of change and slow to accept newideas. The Scots have a strong sense of national identity, of their owndistinct values, and traditions. This is partly due to history. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region>’shistory is a history of endless battles against the English for independence,and Scots have many national heroes who fought in these battles. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region> is acountry with an intense national tradition, with its own songs, its poetry, itsown national food and drinks, sports and manners. To many foreigners, the imageof <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region>looks a little bit childish. Kilts, tartans, bagpipes, and tweed play animportant role in it. Although the part of the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>UK</st1:country-region>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:country-region> has it’s own laws,which in some are really very different from English ones and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region> evenhas got its own pound coin. The Welsh are proud of themselves and they believeto be the true Britons. Nowadays only twenty per cent of them speak Welsh, theoldest language in <st1:place w:st=«on»>Europe</st1:place>. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:place></st1:country-region> wasinhabited from ancient times. From the 6-th century the Welsh fiercely resistedthe attacks of the Anglo-Saxons into their land. Also the Welsh fought for manyyears against the English to win their freedom but they were defeated in 1282.The Welsh are proud of their culture, traditions, and their language. They arereally gifted in the art of self-expression in words, they are not afraid of beingpoetic in speech, of using bright and pictorial descriptions of men and eventsin ordinary conversations. And the last nation I’m going to speak about is theIrish. The Irish are mainly Celtic people. They have maintained their ancientGaelic language but English is spoken everywhere. To understand the presentsituation in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Northern Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region> it is necessary to know somethingabout the island’s long and violent history. Before the early 20thcentury, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Northern Ireland</st1:country-region>was a part of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>as a whole. After many English and Scots people had settled there in the 16thcentury, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Northern Ireland</st1:country-region>became mainly Protestant, unlike the rest of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region> which remained, as before,mainly Roman Catholic. By the terms of an Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Northern Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>was granted its own parliament in which the protestant government was formed.And also <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>has a lot of immigrants who left their countries because of the political orreligious persecution or some other problems. In the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>UK</st1:place></st1:country-region> they form different societies inwhich they follow their native traditions.

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<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">Topic  4

Today English is a major language spoken in theworld. In every part of the world English is spoken with differentpronunciations, but the original and right pronunciations can be heard only in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region></st1:place>and it’s called The King’s or Queen’s English. The King’s or Queen’s English isa good correct English, as it should be spoken. The standard form of Englishused in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region></st1:place>is called the RP – Received Pronunciation and it is also called the BBC Englishas it is used be the BBC. RP or BBC English is the accent of the South-east of <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region></st1:place>.It has been associated with power and high social class since the 14thcentury. At the time of the King, the Royal court and the government settled in<st1:City w:st=«on»>London</st1:City>, and the universities of <st1:City w:st=«on»>Oxford</st1:City>and <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Cambridge</st1:City></st1:place>,both settled in the Southeast, provided higher education for the whole country.People who wanted to be part of that powerful world had to use the samelanguage and accent. In the 19th century RP was used in publicschools and universities, the government and the army to form small groups whowould run the empire. It was even impossible to get any kind of high positionif you did not speak the right way. The best advise to those who wish to becomeproficient in English was given in 1906 by the Fowler brothers in the famousbook “the king’s English”. It is still sound advice for any student of English,whether English is his mother tongue or whether it is foreign language: prefer the familiar word to the far-fetched,Prefer the concrete word to the abstract, Prefer the short word to the long,Prefer the Saxon word to the Romance. Above I’ve mentioned accent and now I want to explain the right meaningand the role of it in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region></st1:place>.Accent is the sound of a person’s pronunciation of the English language. It isvery important in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:country-region></st1:place>.It shows where the person comes from and, to an extent, what class he or shebelongs to.  And I also want to mentionthat in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>London</st1:City></st1:place>you can meet another way of speaking English, which is called Cockney. Cockneyis typical among people who live in the eastern area of <st1:City w:st=«on»>London</st1:City>and it also known as <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>London</st1:City></st1:place>dialect. Cockney has some differences. For example in cockney TH is pronounced as f and didn’t become didn. And nowadays English is considered tobe the major language in the world. To my mind English language has reachedsuch a great popularity thanks to the expansion of British colonial power andthe emergence of the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>US</st1:country-region></st1:place>as the leading economic power of the 20th century. English is thelanguage of the international air traffic control, policing and emergencyservices. It is also used as the language of international business andacademic conferences and the leading language of international tourism. A lotof video games, broadcasting and computers use English language. World famouscomputer net, I mean Internet is based on English language. So from my point ofview English language is the major language and its really great to learn andto know this language as gives you opportunities to travel abroad, to learnmore, to get a better job.

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<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;mso-ansi-language: EN-US;font-weight:normal;mso-bidi-font-weight:bold;font-style:normal; mso-bidi-font-style:italic">Topic 5

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>as every country has its own kinds of houses that can be rarely seen in anyother countries. In <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>there are know three main types of houses that people live in. They are:detached houses, semi-detached houses and terraced houses. They all differ fromeach another by size, price and conveniences in living. A detached house is themost expensive one among those that I mentioned. This house usually stands onits own land and its not attached to any other buildings. Such houses haveprivacy from neighbors, and they are ideal for keen gardeners who can devoteplenty of time to work in their garden. The next house, which is less expensivethan a detached one is a semi-detached. A shared wall joins a semi-detachedhouse to the house next door but it still offers a good standard of privacy andcomfort. It usually has a small garden in the front and a larger one at theback. A terraced house is usually two – or three- storeyshigh. It is one of the continuous rows of similar houses, joined together bytheir sidewalls. Many rows of terraced houses were originally built for workersin nearby factories or coalmines. A terraced house usually costs less than asemi-detached or detached house of similar size. There are miles of terracedhouses in most towns. Over a quarter of British families live in them. Butapart from these houses there are some other types that are popular withEnglish people. They are: bungalows, apartment blocks and country cottages.Bungalows are one-storey houses, which are particularly popular with olderpeople. Apartment blocks are high-rise blocks of flats, which provideaccommodation for a lot of city dwellers. But these buildings are not verypopular. About 20% of the population lives in flats. There are more flats incities than in rural areas. Most people in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region> traditionally like to livein houses. To my mind English people prefer to live in detaches, semi-detachedor terraced houses because of they habits, I mean that they are keen ongardening. To buy a house is an expensive thing and to help people to do itthere are building societies and mortgage system in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>. From building societiespeople can get loans to buy a house, and then in a period of 25 years you oughtto return them money back. And Mortgage system works the next way: When you buya house you pay only a half of its price and then during the limited period oftime you have to pay the rest of the house’s price by parts. The onlydisadvantage is that you have to pay percent. About one third of the populationnow lives in council houses. Local authority councils such as town councils,usually at a low rent, provide these houses. Since 1980 it has become possiblefor council house tenants to buy their houses at favorable rates after theyhave lived in them for at least two years.

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Topic 6

    <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:country-region></st1:place>is a country there sport and leisure life are taken seriously. TV has helped togenerate interests in a wide variety of sports. Millions of people all over the<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:country-region></st1:place>take part in sport exercises and competions.

    Football and <st1:place w:st=«on»>Rugby</st1:place>football. The British invented the rules of many sport and games played allover the world. The rugby football or “rugger” isanother popular British sport. The story is told that in 1823 Boys at Rugbyschool in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region></st1:place>were playing football in the normal way? When suddenly one boy picked the ballup and run with it. So a new game was born.

    Cricket is sometimes called the Englishnational game? Having been played from 1550s. It’s usually played by a men andboys. Players traditionally wear white clothes.

    Bowls it is another outdoor summergame. It was played since 13 centure. It’s played ana specially prepared green/ The players roll large bowls towards a small balland try to bring them as near as possible.

     Mountaineering and rock climbing. Thereare more than 330 mountaineering clubs in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:country-region></st1:place>. The most popular areas in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:country-region> are the sea cliffs of Devon and <st1:City w:st=«on»>Cornwall</st1:City>, the peak district, the lake district, Snowdonia in <st1:place w:st=«on»>North Wales</st1:place> and some others. British climbers often goabroad to climb mountain, such as Alp’s.

      Horse racing and Horse riding. Horseracing sometimes called a sport of kings? Because it is very expensive to own aracehorse. There are two kings of h.r.: flat racing(w/o jumps) and steeplechasing (with jumps). HorseRiding is very popular too. Riding a horse used to be means of transport.

       Sailing. About 3 million British peoplego sailing in a small boats every year. The number of small boats owners hasincreased 1000% in last 10 years. If you live in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:country-region></st1:place> you are never more then <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«100 miles» w:st=«on»>100 miles</st1:metricconverter> from the seaand you have a lot of opportunities for sailing.

     In <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:country-region></st1:place>all the year round there are different competitions. In March – April the havegot The international boat race, Oxford and Cambridge boat race, The Londonmarathon, The grand national and so on all the year round. The <st1:City w:st=«on»>Oxford</st1:City>– Cambridge Boat race is a traditional annual rowing race between teams from <st1:City w:st=«on»>Oxford</st1:City> and <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Cambridge</st1:City></st1:place>universities. The Grand National is the most exciting steeplechase in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:country-region></st1:place>,held annually in spring. And as I started to speak about important sportingevents I must mention the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Wimbledon</st1:place>, the mostimportant event in lawn tennis. <st1:place w:st=«on»>Wimbledon</st1:place>tournament draws huge amount of spectators from all over the world. And so atthe end I would like to say that English people really fond of different kindssports. But they do not only watch it on TV or on stadiums, but they also takepart in it, they form different clubs and compete with each other. All theschools have their own soccer or cricket teams and even such well-knownuniversities as <st1:City w:st=«on»>Oxford</st1:City> and <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Cambridge</st1:City></st1:place> have their own rowing team.

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Topic N 7

<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>UK</st1:country-region></st1:place>is a country where holidays are celebratedwith great enthusiasm. In <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region></st1:place>people have some different public holidays and besides them there are otherfestivals, anniversaries and simply days, on which certain traditions areobserved, but unless they fall on a Sunday, they are ordinary working days.Here are some examples. From December to February people in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region></st1:place> have such holidays as:Christmas day, boxing day, new year, burns night, St valentine’s day and Cruft’s dog show. Christmas is a traditional family reunionday. On this day many people attend a church service, open their presents, eatChristmas dinner and watch the sovereign’s annual Christmas broadcast on TV.Preparations for Christmas are always pleasant: Buying gifts, sending Christmascards and decorating the Christmas tree with small, brightly-colored lights andsmall colored glass ornaments. In <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:country-region></st1:place>, Christmas is the mostimportant public holiday of the year. It combines the custom of giving giftswith the tradition of spending this day with the family. 26th ofDecember is a boxing day, which comes right after Christmas and is celebratedas a bank holiday in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:country-region></st1:place>.It was formerly the custom to give “Christmas boxes”, or gifts or money toservants and tradesmen on this day. The custom gave a name to the holiday.January 1st, New Year’s Day is now a public holiday in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region></st1:place>.I think that this holiday does not need any explanation, as it’s well known allover the world. 25 January is Burns night. This celebration is held on the 25thof January, the anniversary of the birth of Robert burns, <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:country-region></st1:place>’s greatest national poet.It usually takes the form of a supper at which the traditional Scottish dishesare eaten, including haggis, and during which a Scottish pipe plays, wearingtraditional <st1:place w:st=«on»>Highland</st1:place> dress. 14th ofFebruary is called St Valentine’s Day or the day for lovers and it alsobecoming an international one. On this day, boys and girls, sweethearts andlovers, husbands and wives, friends and neighbors, and even office staffexchange greeting cards with the hearts on them. <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:country-region></st1:place> is a nation of animallovers. No wonders that dog shows always attract a lot of enthusiasts. Cruft’s Dog Show at <st1:address w:st=«on»><st1:Street w:st=«on»>East Court</st1:Street>, <st1:City w:st=«on»>London</st1:City></st1:address>,is internationally known. Dog breeders from all over the world bring their dogsto take part in it and the winner is broadcasted on TV. From March to May in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>England</st1:country-region></st1:place>are known such holidays as: St David’s and St Patrick’s days, Pancake day,April fool’s Day and many others. Pancake day is the popular name for ShroveTuesday, the day before lent. People traditionally eat pancakes on Pancake Day,which are made from eggs, flour and milk, fried on both sides in fat on a panand eaten with lemon juice and sugar. In many towns pancake races are held onShrove Tuesday in which women run with pancakes. Each runner has a pancake in apan and while running have to toss the pancake up and over in the air andcatches it again in the pan. The 1st of April is the funniest day ofthe year. On this day people usually play jokes on other people. Easter is themost important Christmas religious festival. It is traditionally associatedwith Easter eggs and with the coming of spring. In many towns there arefunfairs with roundabouts, coconut shies, switchbacks and other amusements. 23rdof April is the Shakespeare’s Birthday Celebration. This Celebration is alwaysheld in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Stratford</st1:City></st1:place>,where a long procession of flower-carriers walks from the Shakespeare MemorialTheatre, through the streets to the churched where Shakespeare is supposed tobe born. The 1st of May is traditionally celebration of the comingspring. On this day the most beautiful girl is chosen as a May Queen. A lot ofpeople sale good on open air. From June to august there are such holidays as:Trooping the color, summer sales, the Proms, Nottinghill carnivals and others. Trooping the color takes place each June as part ofa 200-year-old ceremony to mark the official birth of the monarch. Trooping thecolor is an impressive military display held at horse Guard Parade, a huge openspace behind the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Whitehall</st1:City></st1:place>where the various royal units troop their regimental flags to the tune of themarching music and thundering drums. Troops march past the Queen dipping theirColors in salute. The ceremony ends with the monarch returning to the B.P. atthe heart of her Guards. Notting Hill carnival isheld over the August Bank holiday since 1966. It mostly involves black peopleand is known for it’s colorful costumes and the steel band music. It’s thelargest street carnival in <st1:place w:st=«on»>Europe</st1:place>. Remembranceday(poppy day) is observed throughout <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:country-region></st1:place> on the Sunday nearest tothe 11  of November, Armistice day.Fallen in both world wars are remembered in special church services & civicceremonies. Poppies are sold in the streets & people traditionally wearthem in memory of those who fell in the wars.

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            Self-honesty. Telling you the truthusing emotional positive actions.

   Self-honesty means telling myself the truth.It means knowing myself and choosing positive actions that are right for me.

I know mystrengths and weaknesses.

I admit mymistakes.

I don’tblame others.

I resistpeer pressure.

It willhelp us to:

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Learnabout and like us.

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Knowour strengths and weaknesses.

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Admitmistakes and accept responsibility for our own actions.

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Avoidblaming others and making excuses.

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Behavein a way that is honest with what we think and feel.

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Keepour word and do what we say we’ll do.

   Sometimes things happened tous, make us feel sorry for ourselves. Nobody can go through life with the worldon a string without anything bad ever happening. It’s pretty natural to feelsorry for ourselves, at least for a little while. But if we keep feelingself-pity we won’t find the way out of our problems. And we sure can’t turn abad thing into something good if we are lost in self-pity.

   Being honest with yourself andadmitting what is good about you as well as those things about you that aren’tso good: your strengths and weaknesses. Sometimes a weakness{like eating toomuch candy} can be changed, but in some cases a weakness is just a weakness andthere’s not too much we can do about it. In fact, recognizing both kinds ofweakness in ourselves helps to find out who we really are.

    Being able to look at yourselfclosely and honesty and recognize what things you do best are positive actions.It is important to know what you are strong in when choosing a career or tryingout for sports or play; it can help you to make the right selection.

    Everyone has some strength ina particular area. Your strength might be an ability to get along with others,a good memory, or an ability to think quickly.

    Have you ever heard anyonesay: “ Oh, he’s always making excuses!” do you ever get tired of people whonever do what they’ve promised and only give you an excuse why they didn’t doit? We come across such situations quite often at school, when a pupil hasn’this homework and makes up some excuse not to be given a bad mark

     Often people make up excusesout of habit. They haven’t yet learned the positive action of takenresponsibility of their actions. Instead, they look for a quick way out of theproblem not caring much if they are honest or not.

    Sometimes we need to be honestabout our needs instead of making excuses.

   Actions can be either honest ordishonest. Sometimes we apologize just in order not to be punished. Sometimeswe say we are busy just because we don’t want someone to come over and play.Sometimes we misbehave to get attention. Throughout all our life we will haveto make decisions. It will never stop. We might as well begin now being trulyhonest with ourselves about what is right for us. As we get older, we’ll havefewer and fewer people helping us make decisions. The choices are ours to make.Some of lives’ choices are easier to make than others. Some students of our agehave to make choices about drugs and other things that may not be good fortheir bodies.

    Do you have some needs rightnow? Do you feel like an outcast and need friends? Do you wish you could likeyourself more? Are you pulled in 2 different directions?

   Have you ever experienced peerpressure? Pressure is “force applied to something”. If you’ve ever had atoothache you have felt pressure on that tooth. But we can feel not onlyphysical pressure. One of them is peer pressure. Our peers are classmates andfriends, people that are equal to us.

   Peer pressure is a term we maynot have heard before but we’ve experienced it, we all have! Peer pressureoccurs when others try to influence you in your thoughts and actions. Oftenfriends try to persuade us to do something or to think a certain way that weknow is not right for us. We must be honest with ourselves! If we do somethingthat is not within our personal Code of Conduct, we won’t feel satisfied withourselves.

  Peer pressure is real andpowerful. We are all influenced by it at some time. But we should always rememberto be honest with ourselves, to do what’s right for us. We must alwaysremember: be true to that important person you live with everyday – yourself!


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                                                            Positive action.

   Yourself-concept is how you see yourself. It is what you think about the person youcall “Me”. It is not only what you see in the mirror. It includes feelings,emotions, opinions, and attitudes to others. Ability to manage ones lifesuccessfully and other aspects of yourself. Self-concept means the way you feelabout yourself, friends and families influence your self-concept. Negativechoices and negative actions create a negative self-concept. Positive choicesand positive actions make us feel good about yourself.

   The positivecircle shows positive feelings, leading to positive thoughts and positiveactions. If you want to be a happy positive person, say “Yes” to life.

   Usepositive actions and you will be as happy as you can be. You know, an action issomething you do. A positive action is something you do that makes life goodfor you and the people around you; a negative is just the opposite. It is easyto learn about positive actions. It is hard to use positive actions.

  Positive action is a course that helps to feel good about themselves.The way you think about yourself controls how happy, healthy and successful yoube. You can learn simple ways to be your own good friend and to make your lifehappy. You say to yourself:” I want to enjoy my life, to do interesting thingsand be as happy as I can be.” I am a happy and positive person. But I canexpand on who and what I am. I want to learn more about myself and to likemyself, to be a good friend and to tell myself the truth. Self-concept helps meto think about myself, to picture myself in my mind. This self-concept is veryimportant. Because it has a great influence on how happy I am and what Iachieve. When I help others, if I am independent and loved, I feel good aboutmyself. Most people are disappointed with themselves at times, but they wishthey were different in some way. And naming some negative feelings, peopleoften have about themselves, they mean that these negative words represent achallenge for improvement.

  Developing a strong self-concept it is important to set yourself up tosucceed. You must discover what is important to your self-esteem and then dothose things well.

  Everyone needs a positive self-concept. No one can be 100 % positive allthe time. We all get a little angry with ourselves at times. This can be veryvaluable if we keep things in perspective and use our disappointment tomotivate us towards improvement and gives way to despair. We must accept ourweaknesses as challenges and we must take satisfaction in the abilities we have.The person who takes a positive self-view much more often than not is the onewho will be happy, healthy and successful.

   Take olook at yourself and identify your strong points and built on them positiveself-concept. No matter what kind of self-concept you have now, you can makestronger. Each of us can develop a skill, a talent or a personal quality, tobring us pleasure and the appreciation of family, friends and others. You candevelop your good qualities and make even better. These qualities will give youconfidence and happiness. Do you sing or play an instrument? Are you a goodfriend? Do you read well or write stories or poems? Are you fun to be with? Canyou organize and get things done? Do you know a lot about some subject? Do youhave a sport you play well? Are you clever? And do you sometimes make peoplelaugh? These things can give your enjoyment and are reasons for you to feelgood about yourself. When people are happy and well liked, they sometimes failto realize that they still have room for improvement. It is an excuse to say ”Ihave to be myself” or “That is just the way I am”. We should want to be ourbest selves.

    Nowask yourself “Is there some area that I am still weak in?” Is there somethingabout myself that I could improve?” Once you have chosen a quality you wouldlike to improve, write it down and then write your plan for improvement. Thenthoughts-actions-feelings cycle can be a positive force for you.

   Everyday we are faced all kinds of situations that require us to make choices. Whenfaced such situation we some thought about it. This thought leads to an actionand that action leads to a feeling. Let us take an example: a teacher asks youto do some homework. You have a thought: homework makes me feel responsible( getknowledge). That is a positive thought and it leads to an action: you do a goodjob on the assignment. This leads to a positive feeling: satisfaction and pridein your work. But when you begin with a negative thought such as, “I hatehomework”, negative feelings and actions might follow. So positive or negativethought do not simply stop with feelings. Good or bad feelings cause us to havefurther thoughts and those influence further actions and further feelings. Thecircle of behavior and emotions follow and continues on and on.

  Somethings happen in life that are unpleasant. We can not pretend that they arenot. These can be a serious as divorce. Certainly, we should not excepted to bepleasant with everything that happens to us, but our thoughts about difficultsituations still control our ability to handle them in a positive way. Giveexamples of difficulties you have overcome by using positive thoughts. Aself-concept is not an accident. Behind the way you feel about yourself aremany influences. Important pictures we have about ourselves come from thepeople who are most important to us – friends, teachers, and especially ourfamilies. By showing you that you are loved, interesting and important to yourfamily and your friends also build you self-esteems. We all need to know thatothers think well of us. When we are discourage and having and having negativethoughts sometimes we need to go to a friend or a family member to findpositive thoughts we need. Parents will almost give us that kind of help, thenthey know we need it. Sometimes “however” a friend or a family member may be a very one giving us the negativethoughts of ourselves. At times like that we need to look inside ourselves forpositive thoughts and look to other friends or relatives who see what we needat that time. We should never feel ashamed of needing a little “tender lovingcare.”

  Friendscan affect self-concept. Perhaps, a compliment brightened the way you feltabout yourself. May be teasing  hurt yourfeeling. We all need to look within ourselves for the assurance that we believein ourselves. But we can not help being not influenced by the attitudes of ourfriends. Now turn the situation around. Just think a good friend you can be tosomeone else’s self-concept. It takes almost no effort to give a compliment andit also work in reverse. When you treat    

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                                                  Managing yourself.       

  Eachperson has eight gifts: time, energy, possessions, money, talent, thoughts,feelings, actions. We need to use our gifts wisely. We need to learn positiveactions that will help us to waste less energy, to create some order.

  When aperson con not use self-discipline, usually someone else has to make choicesfor that person. If you let your time go, your parents have to limit yourplaying time. When you make good choices and show self-control, you usuallygain more chances to make, more choices, when you show immaturity by using noself-control, you often lose some of the freedom you have attained.

  Time isone of the resources we have in equal amount. Happy, healthy people managetheir time wisely. This management is a positive action that helps people feelgood about themselves.

   Energyis like fuel. Our actions lose strength and efficiency when we fail to manageenergy. These are things we can do to use our energy gift well.

   1 stayhealthy. If you are sick, rundown, tired or poorly nourished, you can notperform effectively.

   2 staymentally alert. You mind can stimulate your energy.          

   3 stayin control emotionally. People who are upset, sad or discouraged sometimes losetheir physical energy. Happiness and excitement, on the other hand stimulateenergy.

   4 useyour time wisely. At certain times of the day your energy level is high. Studyor hard work is rarely done well late at night when you are tired.

                                              Learn to manage possessions wisely.

  Owingthings requires that we act responsibly. We may wish to share or even give ourpossessions as gifts but too means that we use proper management. When we giveproper care to the things we possess, we feel a sense of satisfaction. In manyways our possessions represent us people. If our rooms and the things we own inour rooms are kept in order and are looked after, we experience a sense of ourown worth. And we show the same respect for other possessions.

   Whenyou use positive actions to protect the valuable things you own you willrespect yourself. And these is greater possessions than your own sense ofself-worth.

   Money.People say that money can not buy happiness. That is true many times. But moneycan certainly make people unhappy. When we fail to manage our money wisely, weoften make our lives difficult and disappointing.  

   Moneyis not the most important thing in the world, but when it is used wisely itgives you control over your life. When it is used poorly, it controls you andyour are unhappy. Now is the time to acquire the good money habits to make ourlife happy.

 Positive actions are also necessary for recognizing and developingtalents. Some people seem to have lots of talents, others only have few. Buttalents do not mean much unless they are developed. We should be thankful forthe things we are good at and we should do our best to improve those skills. Wehave a lifetime to improve upon our abilities, and after all, that is one ofthe main joys in life; seeing yourself get better at something.

   Allpeople experience feelings and emotions. One of the most powerful humanemotions is love. Managing the emotion of love means being a good friend. Youmay call it caring about people. That is another name for the same feeling. Aperson who is in control of this emotion will expand his circle of friends andlearn to be friendly to all people.

  And howto manage anger? What does anger look like? Does it have a shape? Or edges?Each of us experiences anger in a different way. We all get angry at times. Butuncontrolled anger will destroy your chances of thinking and acting wisely.People who act in anger almost always regret it. Wise persons learn to givethemselves some time to consider before they act and to react in a positiveway. Here are some ways to manage anger.

  1accept anger as a feeling we all experience.

  2 nevertake your anger out on someone who is not to blame.

  3 giveyourself time to think of ways to deal with it.

  4 tryto get an explanation for what happened. It may help you handle your angerconstructively.

  5 reactpositively. Channel your emotional energy towards hard world or intenseactivity. Then you may be able to express your anger in a reasonable way.

 Problems with worry. How do you feel when you worry? What happens toyour body? Does you stomach feel sick? Does your heart hurt? Do you feel likecrying?

 Everyone feels jealous at times. Positive people, however, learn tocontrol the feeling by sharing the joy that others experience. If you careabout others, you should be happy with their good fortune. You expect yourfriends to be happy for you.

  Thefeeling of fear. Fear is certainly normal. It is something every single humanbeing experienced. Fear can be useful. It keeps you from doing things thatmight harm you, such as leaning too far over a high ledge or going into dangeroussituations. But fear must be managed. Some fear are exaggerated  and keep people from enjoying normalactivities. If you are afraid of water, for instance, you may have a healthyfear. Water can be dangerous. But if that fear keeps you from swimming, it hastaken over and is managing you. You must face your fear, enter the watercarefully and conquer that negative feeling. People should also conquer thefeeling of discouragement. Discouragement is the feeling we have when we feelwe can not stand up to the challenges we face. Discourage means to losecourage. But the positive action in such situation is not to give way todespair and to deal with feelings of discouragement.

  So ifour goal life is to keep on leaning in all the ways we can we want to bewell-rounded persons, we must meet the needs of bodies(physical),minds(intellectual) and emotional(feelings).

  You canchoose positive over negative actions.

  We allhave eight gifts we can manage wisely: time, energy, money, possessions,talents, thoughts, feelings, actions.

 Everyone has feelings of anger, worry, jealousy, pride, fear, discourageand love. We should learn to manage these through positive actions.

  You arein control. When you choose positive actions you feel better about yourself.   

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Topic 13

Beowulf anepic in Old English tells us of the times long before the Anglo-Saxons came to <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:country-region></st1:place>.The poem was compiled in the 10th century by an unknown author. Themanuscript is in the <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>British</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Museum</st1:PlaceType> in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>London</st1:City></st1:place>.The main events are the staying of the monster Grendeland Grendel’s mother by the hero Beowulf of a braveand noble knight who is ready to sacrifice his life for his country and hispeople.

TheCanterbury Tales is another masterpiece of the English literature. GeoffreyChaucer who is acclaimed today as «the father of English poetry» wrote it in1384. His most important contribution was the development of the resources ofthe English language for literary purposes. By using English instead of themore fashionable French spoken in court circles and by the aristocracy he addedtremendously to its prestige. “The Canterbury Tales” are a series of storieswritten in verse. The framework that serves to connect them is a pilgrimage to <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Canterbury</st1:City></st1:place> is 60miles. Tomake the tiresome four-day trip more interesting the pilgrims decide to tellstories. Beside their intriguing and exciting plot they contain a moral whichis valid for all times. The value of the work lies also in the brilliance ofstyle.

Anotherwork which exercised enormous influence on the development of the Englishlanguage is The King James Bible. It was appointed to be read in churchesthroughout the Kingdom and in this way had a far-reaching influence on thepopulation. The King James Bible remains the most widely accepted version ofthe Bible and a classic of the English language. There are many phrases in theKing James Bible which have entered the English idiomatic language some of themare: eye for eye, a wolf in sheep’s clothing and many others. An exceptionalrole in the English literature was played by William Shakespeare. He is theauthor of 37plays and some tragedies and sonnets. Shakespeare’s genius lay notonly in masterful narration but rather in his capacity for revealing thegreatness and imperfections of human life in its full richness and movement. Inhis masterpieces Shakespeare possesses some special merit for every generation.Shakespeare enriched the English language with plenty of phrases such as: whatis done can’t be undone, to play fast and loose, to much of a good thing.          

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Topic 14


                                              WILLIAM SAROYAN.

 William Saroyan is an American writer ofAmerican origin. He gained his popularity in the thirties as a short-storywriter. The long list of Saroyan’s collections of short stories opens with “TheYoung man on a Flying Trapeze”. He is also known as a talented dramatist, thebest of his plays being “The Time of Your Life”. He is the author of a numberof novels. His first novel, “The Human Comedy”, combined his talent of thestoryteller with that of a dramatist.

   Saroyan’s works are highly democratic, theyare marked by deep belief in human kindness and the power of  humor. To him the kind heart and humor areinstruments of helping people in overcoming hardships and in resisting evil.

    Saroyan’s characters are mostly commonpeople, poor, noble, and full of humor. His is at his best, however withcharacters of children and such grown-ups who remain children, preserving theirsincerity and sensitivity. No wonder that his manner of writing ischaracterized by the sincerity of intonation and. His language is both lucidand colorful. Saroyan makes the reader see the world through the eyes of hischaracters, keeping himself in the background, His humor is mostly mild, sometimes bitter, and more often than noeccentric.

   Realistic and democratic at bottom,Saroyan’s works are not devoid of drawbacks and certain limitations. His firmbelief in human kindness makes him resist the seamy side of life, its violenceand cruelty. Though being a realist, he can’t help exposing it from time totime. But that is always accompanied by the soothing tone and reassuring smilesuggesting that in spite of the hardships life will change for the better.Thus his kindness borders on sentimentality.

     “The Human Comedy” came out in 1943. It’sa rare case of the adaptation of a move scenario into a novel. Both the movieand the novel were a great success.   Itreminds us of Saroyan’s short story collections, each chapter forming anepisode which can be arranged into a story. The novel is set in <st1:State w:st=«on»>California</st1:State> in a small provincial town of <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Ithaca</st1:City></st1:place> during World  War Second. The plot is centered round  the Macauleyfamily, whose eldest son is at war, the youngest, Ulysses, is only four, Homeris 14. Their mother is a widow of two years. The novel is to some extentautobiographical; Saroyan, as well as Homer Macauley,had to earn his living from an early age and had a lot of after school jobs,one of them that of a telegraph messenger. The job was not a casual choice ofthe writer. It linked Homer with a lot of people and with their fates, andconstantly reminded was a war going on.

         The title of the novel is suggestive.It implies that in spite of war and evil, life is going on and will finallywin, for the world is full of clever, noble, stoical people, possessing thesense of humor, too.            

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Topic 17

The problems ofenvironment include a wide range of burning issues: nature distraction,pollution, extermination of wildlife on global scale, endangering human healthwith industrial and nuclear wastes, shortage of natural resources and others.The problem of pollution has become one of the most serious ones during thelast thirty years. That is why man’s interest in environmental protection hasbeen stimulated by a great number of problems mankind ever faced. A lot ofrainforests are disappearing fast on the planet. But we shouldn’t forget thatthe “green belts” not only provide restful relaxation but they are regarded asimportant allies in the battle against air pollution.

Manyfactories and plants pour their wastes into seas, rivers and lakes. That is whyamong the simple but far disappearing blessings is the small of clean fresh airand the good taste of pure water. Acid rains, holes in the ozone layer, globalwarming are caused by pollution.

Now theproblem of pollution is being tackled depends greatly on the Government andsocial initiative. All states ought to join their efforts to save the Earthfrom an ecological catestrophe. It’s urgent to buildsuch purifying systems which anable to avoid thepollution of rivers and reduce the amount of harmful wastes in the air. Naturaland energy resources should be used economically. As protecting forests is thekey to our survival on the Earth that’s why the greenarymust be increased. Ecological education should be introduced in all schoolssince an early age because the should realise theimportance of environmental protection. We must save energy because productionof electricity causes air pollution, acid rains, global warming. People shoulduse ecologically harmless-salar power, wind power andwater power. Recycling saves energy and raw materials and also reduces damageto the countryside.       

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English meals.

      Thereare four meals a day in English home: breakfast, lunch, tea and dinner.

    Breakfast is the first meal of the day. It is at about 8 o’clock in themorning, and consists of porridge with milk and salt or sugar, eggs – boiled orfried, bread and butter with marmalade or jam. Some people like o drink tea,but ether prefer coffee. Instead of porridge they may have fruit juice, or theymay prefer biscuits.

    Theusual time for lunch is 1 o’clock. This meal starts with soup or fruit juice.Then follows some meat or poultry with potatoes – boiled or fried, carrots andbeans. Then a pudding comes. Instead of the pudding they may prefer cheese andbiscuits. Last of all coffee – black or white. Englishmen often drink somethingat lunch. Water is usually on the table. Some prefer juice or lemonade.

    Teais the third meal of the day. It is between 4 or 5 o’clock, the so -called 5o’clock tea. On the table there is tea, milk or cream, sugar, bread and butter,cakes and jam. Friends and visitors are often present at tea.

    Dinner is the fourth meal a day. The usual time is about 7 o’clock, andall the members of the family sit down together.

   Dinner usually consists of soup, fish or meat with vegetables –potatoes, green beans, carrot and cabbage, sweet pudding, fruit salad,ice-cream or cheese and biscuits. Then after a talk they have black or whitecoffee.

    Thisis the order of meals among English families, but the greater part of thepeople in the towns, and nearly all country-people, have dinner in the middleof the day instead of lunch. They have tea a little later – between 5 or 6o’clock, and then in the evening, before going to bed, they have supper.

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