Реферат: Robinson Crusoe
The full title of the book sounds like «The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner: who lived eight and twenty years, all alone in an un-inhabited island in a coast of America, near the mouth of the great river of Oroonoque; having been cast on shore by shipwreck, where in all the men perished but himself. With an account how he was at last as strangely delivered by pirates. Writing by himself».
The author of this book – Daniel Defoe. Defoe – a writer and journalist, was born April 26, 1660 in Cripplegate, England. To artistic creativity Defoe turned too late. At the fifty-eighth year of his life he wrote his «Robinson Crusoe». Despite this, the literary legacy left to them is enormous.
«The Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe was published in 1719. The book is written as a fictional autobiography of Robinson Crusoe, a sailor from York, who spent 28 years on an uninhabited island after a shipwreck. All events are recorded in a diary and create a realistic picture of the pseudo-product. Most likely, a novel written under the influence of the real stories that happened to Alexander Selkirk, who spent on an uninhabited island in the Pacific for four years.
September 1, 1651 Robinson sailed from Gul in London. A week later, in Yarmouth Roads, swooped storm. The ship is sinking, sailors picks up the boat from a neighboring vessel. In London he met with the captain of the ship, being prepared to go to Guinea, and decides to go with him.
That was an unsuccessful expedition: their ship captures a Turkish corsair, and the young Robinson becomes the slave of the captain. Robinson and the boy Xury escape from the ship. On the road shoots down fugitives on the shore of livestock, even killing a lion and a leopard, loving natives provided them with food and water. Finally their picks counterclaim Portuguese ship. The captain is taken free deliver Robinson in Brazil.
In Brazil, he arranged and lastingly: Receive a Brazilian citizen, buying land for plantations of tobacco and sugar cane, the sweat of working on it.
Robinson once again travels to illegally brought the slaves from Africa. Never before has the fate of not warned him so distinctly: he sailed on Sept. 1, 1659, that is, day to day, eight years after his escape from the parental home. In the second week of sailing ship is wrecked. Robinson is selected on the land.
He is one escaped, as evidenced by stranded three hats, cap, and two unpaired shoe. The first night he spends on the tree. By morning the tide had driven their vehicle close to the shore, and swam Robinson gets to him. From the spare mast, he builds a raft and ship it «all the necessities of life: food, clothing, carpentry tools, guns and pistols, shot and powder, swords, saws, an ax and a hammer. On the shore, he constructs a tent, transfers it from the sun and rain, food and gunpowder comfortable bed itself. That same night the storm broke, and the next morning from the ship nothing left.
The primary concern of Robinson becoming the device safe, secures housing, and above all – in view of the sea, from which only can expect salvation. On the slope of the hill, he finds a flat meadow and on it, against a small indentation in the rock, decides to pitch a tent by protecting its palisades driven into the ground strong trunks. Enter the «fortress» could only be by a ladder.
He will learn to domesticate goats. In addition to ranching, Robinson will establish farming when germinate shake with rubbish from the bag of grain of barley and rice.
Robinson though alone, but believes in the future and do not want to get lost in time, he makes a calendar – this is a great post on which he makes every day a notch. The first date there – September 30, 1659/
Among the things that catch in the ship were ink, pens, paper, three Bibles, astronomical instruments, telescopes. Robinson keeps a diary.
Meanwhile, the island of nails wrecked ship, and Robinson gets surprise building material and tools. In those days he fell into a fever, repenting of their fatal errors, Robinson first time «for many years, praying, reading the Bible – and as much as cured. At his feet lift rum infused on tobacco, after which he slept for two nights. Accordingly, from his calendar fell one day.
Recovered, Robinson, finally, examines the island. And the island is rich in livestock – rabbits, foxes, turtles and even penguins. And decides to put a tent here, well to strengthen it and to live for several days to «cottage».
Cherished his dream is to build a boat and reach the mainland. Robinson knocks a huge tree and a few months hew out a canoe. When she finally finished, he still cannot get it into the water.
In the everyday work place for another five years, highlighted the fact that he did build a boat, launch it and rigged sail. To a distant land on it does not get, but you can walk around the island. Robinson makes a royal gift – up! The island has a lot of tobacco.
In one of his walks Robinson sees the tracks in the sand bare foot. Scared to death, he returns to the «fortress» and sits there for three days. Most likely, it savages from the mainland.
Life is filled with Robinson's new – and pleasant cares. Friday, as he called saved, was able to disciple, loyal and good friend.
Having learned English, Friday says that on the mainland at his fellow tribesmen live 17 survivors from the Spanish wreck. Robinson decided to build a new canoe, and together with Friday to rescue captives.
New arrival savages violated their plans. Pa, this time cannibals bring the Spaniard and the old man, who turned out Friday's father. Robinson and Friday, has no worse than his master controlled from a gun, releasing them. Taking the Spaniard's sworn promise not to take it the Inquisition, Robinson sends it to Friday's father to the mainland. And on the eighth day, on the island arrive new guests. The only condition which puts Robinson – to deliver it with Friday in England.
Odyssey-old Robinson ended: 11 June 1686 he returned to England. His parents died long ago, but still alive, good lady friend, widow of his first master. In Lisbon, he learns that all these years, his Brazilian plantation managed by the treasury official, and as it turns out that he was alive, he returns all the income for this period. Wealthy man, he takes into his care of two nephews, and the second prepares sailors. Finally, Robinson married (he is 61 years). He has two sons and a daughter.
The main character is Robinson Crusoe. Robinson was the third son in the family, spoiled child, he was not prepared to any trade, and from his childhood, his head was filled with «all sorts of things in» – mostly dreams of voyages. Robinson introduces the reader to the typical adventurer of the time. In the pursuit of profit, it is not decided on a dangerous adventure, and, eventually, because of their own greed tolerates failure. However, on the island Crusoe completely changed. It is worth noting that he does not surrender and for 28 years trying to get back to the mainland. He quickly learns, learned the craft, keeps the economy and not at risk for nothing. In order not to go crazy keeps a diary and calendar. Robinson is a strong man, using a cold calculation and skill. Crusoe can wait.
Another hero of the product – Friday. Friday – Prisoner of savages, released Robinson. Thursday – thankful man. It helps Robinson, quickly learns the English language. In addition, he is still quite bold, not afraid of guns Robinson, though, and saw it first as a god.
This book I read in 5 class, but still it remains one of my favorite works of foreign literature. It is unlikely that I, like Robinson, would be able to survive on an un-inhabited island with no people and tools 28 years, and this fact compels respect Robinson. The story is very interesting and pleasing happy ending. However, the last thing I want to be in this situation.
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