Реферат: Social and labor relations
The currentstate of social and labor relations reflects the contradiction between price and cost of labor between the interests of employees and employers, but also reflects the available labor deformation values, level of conflict in society due to the imperfect state policy, which was conducted over a decade of social cost losses.
Adjust the process of interaction of relations in the workplace — a relatively independent tasks, which affect the interests of not only employers and employees, but also society in general.
Labor Relations — a set of economic, social, psychological, administrative and legal practices and norms aimed at the inclusion of labor in the process of labor and its reproduction on the basis of market forces — supply, demand and market prices.
Complex description of social and labor relations involves clarifying the essence of such categories, as a party, subject, object relations in social and labor sphere, their types and levels and so on. Together, these elements and relationships that they represent, constitute a system of social and labor relations.
Labor Relations define the position of man in the world of work, its way of life, environment, climate in the workplace, the effectiveness of socialization of labor rights. Thus they depend not only on labor behavior of the individual but also on many factors. Formation and development of social and labor relations in society is influenced by the huge number of factors, the significance of which is subject to historical, economic, sociocultural and political content
1. Party actors and levels of social and labor relations
The principal components of social-labor relations is their side and subjects. And the parties, and subjects of social and labor relations are called employees, employers and the state. The difference between these concepts is that the parties of social-labor relations is the primary bearers of rights in this relationship, and actors can have both primary and delegated the primary bearers of rights.
For example, the employee side and the media as a primary law in social and labor relations can exercise their rights and interests directly (entering into employment agreement with the employer). However, employees may set up of those they delegate their rights and responsibilities. These organizations will realize the delegated rights of employees at the production, industry or other levels as subjects — party representatives of employees in social and labor relations.
The number of parties and social and labor relations can not be more than three (employees, employers and the state), while the number of subjects these relationships may be higher due to carrier delegated rights (unions of employees and employers, their representative bodies, various state agencies, etc.).
Scientists in the field of social and labor relations produce at least four groups of subjects of social and labor relations.
The first group — to be the primary bearers of rights and interests (employees, employers, state, local governments).
The second group — they are representative of their bodies that are carriers of delegated authorities (employers, trade unions, governmental bodies).
The third group — the authorities have realized through social dialogue (the National Council of Social Partnership and other permanent or temporary bodies in fields, regions, businesses or organizations).
The fourth group — a body to minimize the effects of possible conflicts prevent the aggravation of social and labor relations (conciliation, mediation structure, independent experts, arbitrators, etc.), as well as educational, informational, advisory and other units .
Classification of socio-labor relations on the subjects of their division to provide individual (one employee interaction with the employer) and collective (when employers and employees interact with each other). On the basis of pre-conditions, the subjects of social and labor relations are: employee, employer (Employers' Union), state.
Under-developed social market economy subjects of social and labor relations inherent in certain features that allow you to identify this subject as it is towards social and labor relations.
Employees — a citizen who entered the labor agreement (usually in writing) with the employer, manager of enterprise (organization) or the authorized body, whereby the employee agrees to perform the work specified in the agreement, in accordance with internal regulations The owner of the enterprise (organization) or its authorized body shall pay the employee wages and provide conditions necessary for the work envisioned by the labor legislation, collective agreement and the agreement of the parties. Employees — subject to social and labor relations — can act as an individual employee or group of employees different position in the socio-professional structure and orientation of interest, motivation and other characteristics. The basis of group and individual differences are: age, gender, health, education, professional, officer, branch affiliation.
Special role in the formation of new social and labor relations in Ukraine play age differences: change of generations, which differ from each other on basic social and psychological parameters, orientation and motivation, which require adequate consideration.
As an employer of social and labor relations — a person who works independently and continuously employed for labor process one or more employees. In most cases, the employer owns the means of production. However, business practices in Ukraine is the employer and supervisor in the public sector, which hires workers under a contract, though he is an employee of the state and has no means of production.
The state's role in social and labor relations is that it often performs legislative functions, forms and develops on the basis or with regard to ILO Conventions and Recommendations and other international labor standards, in accordance with national conditions and practice, national legislation and rules of social partnership between government agencies, employers and employees. Ratifying international labor standards, protect the rights of all categories of workers. State may be: the initiator, regulator, arbitrator, mediator in the process of social dialogue and collective bargaining.
The problem of interaction of social and labor relations is solved through the selection of social and labor relations.
Labor relations is important to divide them by levels of regulation, because then they take specific content and content presentation. Each level has its subjects according to their existing primary or delegated powers. By regulating levels of social-labor relations can be divided into:
a) State regulation — through legislation;
b) contractual regulation — through the General Agreement and the decision of
a) State regulation — through acts of central executive bodies;
b) contractual regulation — through sectoral collective agreements and decisions of the sectoral social partnership.
a) Public utility regulation — through the decisions of executive bodies and local authorities;
b) contractual regulation — through regional agreements and decisions of the regional bodies of social partnership.
a) administrative regulation — through the decisions of owners and their authorized bodies;
b) contractual regulation — through collective bargaining, consultation, negotiation, individual employment contract.
This distribution is somewhat conditional, because at the regional level, for example, possible differences as the subjects of relationships and problems that are solved. Now partners solve many problems, the scale of which extends beyond the region or district as an administrative and territorial unit.
Since the regional distribution in Ukraine is not legislatively defined, such problems will be solved by combining the efforts of associations of trade unions, employers and governments of several areas or regions.
2. Objects and types of social and labor relations
Objects of social and labor relations defined objectives, which seek to reach people at different stages of activity. For each level and type of social-labor relations have specific objects and relations among them.
Terms of social and labor relations at the individual level is the labor side of life: labor self-determination, professional orientation, training, hiring and firing, socio-professional development, professional training and retraining, training, quality of work, evaluation of work, remuneration for work; labor activities. A social-labor relations in manufacturing (micro) level, for example, between employees and employers may be personnel policy, which includes the full range of HR organizations and (or) its individual elements: certification of personnel, economic growth enterprise (company), control and analysis of employment, labor organization, evaluation of work efficiency, rate setting, labor disputes and their development, labor motivation.
A social-labor relations at the territorial level is common to the economically active population of the administrative unit of labor problems, such as creating new jobs, support local producers, the level of training of workers, the state of social infrastructure in the region, improving the environmental situation and others.
A social-labor relations at the sectoral level are specific issues in these sectors. This may be the normalization of labor firms to establish branch minimum guarantees salary according to qualification and minimum payments and allowances to the specific production, ensuring proper working conditions, minimum of social guarantees and privileges, and others.
Terms of social and labor relations at the national (macro) level is the basic principles and norms of social and economic policy and labor relations, including the warranty work and productive employment, state protectionism in the labor market, creating favorable conditions for entrepreneurship, support for domestic producers ensuring the minimum guarantees in pay and other minimum social guarantees of social insurance, protecting the natural environment and so on.
A social-labor relations is based on the basic blocks problem: employment, work organization and efficiency, the need for economic growth, remuneration, social protection of employees of institutional analysis.
Institutional analysis covering economic, legal, social and psychological aspects of functioning of various types. Theoretical and practice proved that this method may be used in research of various aspects of social and labor relations.
A key feature of relationships at work is their subject. It is commendable multifaceted socio-economic phenomena and processes that are the subject of social and labor relations.
As the subject of individual relationships in the workplace are the specific side of working life of employees. Subject (group) socio-labor relations at the enterprise level in general act as part of personnel policy — salaries, personnel evaluation, certification training, career planning, staff rotation, staff development, etc. — as well as other issues of social and economic direction the solution of which directly or indirectly affects the quality of working life — the development of social sphere, environment protection etc… In summary components of the object relations that are analyzed are:
Ø Labor Relations Employment;
Ø Labor Relations related to the internal regulations;
Ø Labor Relations related to the protection and working conditions;
Ø Labor Relations arising in connection with the development of staff (refresher courses, retraining, etc.);
Ø Labor Relations related to the organization of individual and collective work;
Ø Labor Relations in relation to evaluating individual qualities and results;
Ø Labor Relations arising in connection with the evaluation of individual qualities and results;
Ø Labor Relations arising in connection with compensation for labor services;
Ø Labor relations related to compliance with labor laws and treaties and agreements;
Ø Labor Relations with other work life issues.
Thus, virtually all parties working life is rightly regarded as a social and labor relations. Without prejudice of the specific socio-economic phenomena that are part of a social and labor relations, vyokremymo those that account for the largest «load» to regulate relations between employers and employees and their representative bodies: Labor Relations Employment Labor relations arising in connection with compensation for labor services (service work), Labor Relations, related to the organization and effectiveness.
The subject of social and labor relations has the organizational and legal consolidation, which is the legal form of contracts and agreements at various levels, to whom precede negotiations.
Types of social and labor relations characterize the ethical, psychological and legal forms of relationships in the work. Important role in shaping the types of social and labor relations plays a specific priority of the principles of their combination in the process of solving problems.
The basic principle of social and labor relations — legislative protection of rights in social and labor sphere, the definition of objects, subjects, order of interaction, the coverage areas of interaction of and enforcement of these rights.
For organizational forms distinguish the following types of social and labor relations:
• discrimination and conflict.
The principle of partnership involves the implementation of protection of interests of social and labor relations and their development policies in coordination of mutual priorities.
The principle of specificity is especially important in the implementation of targeted programs for social protection.
The principle of integration includes the mandatory interconnection and interoperability of all forms, elements and methods of social protection, organizing them into a single system at all levels of society.
Paternalism (State) provides virtually complete government regulation of social and labor relations. Paternalism at the enterprise level is based on the use of strict regulation of social and labor relations and is meant administration is caring about their employees.
Subsidiarity means to human aspiration and self samovidpovidalnosti in achieving their goals. The principle of subsidiarity is intended to prevent the transfer of responsibility to society.
The principle of solidarity — the ideal, produced by mankind in the process of socio-economic development, provides a shared responsibility of people based on personal responsibility, consistency and common interests.
Discrimination — is based on arbitrary unlawful restriction of the rights of subjects of social and labor relations. Discrimination possible when choosing a profession, for admission to higher education, in employment, with promotion, the wage in the enterprise benefits to employees. There is discrimination based on age, sex, nationality and so on.
The conflict — a clash of business interaction, caused by the opposite orientation goals, interests and opinions.
Labor dispute — a kind of a social conflict.
social labor relation employment
3. The mechanism of functioning of the socio-economic relations
The quality of social and labor relations discussed above material is the basis for our opinions stamp: assessment of state and rozvynenos those social-labor relations is not possible when using one or two or even several indicators. This is a task of high complexity. Understanding this long led experts to the problem of finding the system measuring instruments for evaluation and finally to the conclusion that it is appropriate as a criterion of development of social and labor relations use indicators of quality of working life.
Systematic collection of properties that characterize the working conditions in the broadest sense — the conditions of production and allow life to take into account the degree of employee interest and use his abilities (intellectual, creative, moral, organizational, etc..) Number of qualitative work life.
The basic theoretical understanding of the concept of quality of working life in 1960 oformylysya 1970rr. Although some aspects of the theory has been developed in the 20-50's. Twentieth century. works in E. Mayo, A. Maslow, D. McGregor. The basis of the concept of quality of working life in Western countries was perceived hromadskis ty at all levels up to national, neobhidnis # of radical changes in working conditions, her motivation in social and labor relations in general, which was due to a sharp increase in the level of industrial development. The basis of the concept of quality of working life is common approach to understanding the creative nature of human personality, the need for problem solving content enrichment work, because modern production worker wants to be an active party in the social and labor relations — would influence the work, plan their work, to Number of participants in decisions regarding pay, hiring, promotion, etc. The main goal in developing the concept of quality of working life in the restoration of the authors saw tsilisnos those of labor and culture, creating such conditions in which employees can best be realized as osobystos those here in terms of this concept include cultural, national, moral, domestic aspects and the terms and organization not only work, but also welfare and recreation.
The internal aspect of the theory of quality of working life is, first, the claim of the employee during his self-satisfaction in the achievements of labor as the main motivator in comparison with the salaries and careers. Secondly, the principle of work of Democracy (Democracy at work). Thirdly, the development employee in the concept of quality of working life involves the possibility of ongoing professional development. In this regard, the concept of quality of working life includes two such important areas as autonomy of the individual employee and an opportunity to develop his abilities. That is why large corporations have on their businesses not only training courses but also a system of continuous training, while corporations pay TINA training of enterprises are even beyond thy, thus encouraging their professional growth. With the same selection is concerned and such part of the wage, the cost of knowledge. In many developed countries, which have an effective system of state social support, corporations spend vill be constantly upgrading the skills more than your state.
In theoretical and empirical studies to improve the quality of working life also plays a great place working conditions, its health and safety.
Implementing the concept of quality of working life in that part of it impinges on the creation of enterprises and organizations of the network of specialized services to monitor the working environment factors and manufacturing operations that may adversely affect the health of workers. These services involved in the leadership of enterprises are developed ment programs to improve manufacturing operations and in the exam in testing and sanitary evaluation of new equipment. Because workers differ in psychophysiological characteristics, these services contribute to adapt themselves to the labor processes of these characteristics of workers. Thus, the purpose of these services — the formation of a safe and healthy working environment and promote physical and mental health workers.
The most advanced system of such services exist in Germany. With universally recognized international daddy they purchased after the entry into force of the 1985 ILO Convention number 161 on occupational health services. Implementing quality programs working life began in a number of major corporations in 70-ies with tons of pressure by unions and economic conditions, technological changes, the introduction of automated and computerized equipment. Gradually, their use spread to enterprises are TBA bilshos those of developed countries. Assessment of quality of working life began to hold the system of indicators based on statistical information and special polls, and expert evaluations. This system characterizes the quality of working life from a position of an employee, entrepreneur and society. Last position, for example, included the costs of social protection by tons of employees and their dependents, the coefficients of satisfaction with the quality of working life, etc. Measurements of quality of working life were analyzed in five groups: technology, organization, personal needs of employees, the environment and society, the workplace. How effective indicator of quality of working life of relevancy used the opportunities provided by enterprises are thy, employee expectations, given its zdibnos children and drawbacks. From November 1980. in 24 OECD countries started to use some other system of quality of working life. In this system included indicators: income distribution, use of time (duration of the paid vidpus TKI, the average hours of work time on the road to work, used work schedules) and the parameters of safety and working conditions (disturbance of normal working conditions, smertnis quantity in the workplace). All these parameters are defined and studied in two aspects: first, in the plane with trukturnoyi internal dimension (eg time on the road to work: 0-15 min, 16-30 min, 121 min and more) and, secondly in the plane of industries, occupations and so-called standard indicators (sex, age, type of household, socio-economic status, size of settlement). Much of life is at work, so the quality of working life largely determines the qualitative habitat Number of people in general. However, the quality of working life, of course, only one element of quality of life in general. In terms of stage of development of social and labor relations need a clear understanding of their relationship, the above factors of social and labor relations and the factors that determine the qualitative Number of working life, show this relationship. Quality of life — a synthetic description of the level and living conditions, which also takes into account family composition, health of its members, their social satisfaction, etc. The quality of life of the population of a territory or state is determined by the combined influence of economic, social, demographic, environmental, geographic, political, moral and other factors, both objective and subjective nature. Among them are very important zadovolenis # of work and living conditions, capabilities of the individual and his family, place of family in society, its financial condition, assessment of habitat conditions and quality of work life. Most countries use indicators and somehow those living standards recommended by the UN and its organizations (1961). Thus, ECE offers a classification in eight groups of indicators, there are different national approaches to assess quality of life. The concept of quality of life, developed by Sweden in the first place puts the work and its terms, then the economic and political capabilities of man. In the UN classification intended for any country, including developing countries, in the first place — food consumption and health. But the most complete system is quality of life of the OECD. Note that these figures became known as social indicators. The above scorecard covers nine basic aspects of human life: health, employment and quality of working life, leisure and recreation, state of the consumer goods markets, environment, personal safety, social opportunities and social activity
4. Methods of regulating social and labor relations
The main form of coordination of interests of employees and employers can be and which is based on relationships and dictatorship rule in social and labor relations of any class, body or person. Social partnership — an alternative to any dictatorship in social and labor relations, it is the most acceptable method of optimization to balance the interests of employers and employees.
For the effective functioning of social and labor relations in a market economy, according to international experience, especially experience of countries with developed market economy, requires on the one hand, the presence of an effective system of social partnership, on the other — active state activities in social and labor sphere. At the same time is extremely important to employ measures (administrative, organizational, economic, etc.) that optimize the relationship between employers and employees directly at the production level, and balances the interests of subjects and bodies that operate at this level. In expanded form methods of regulation of social and labor relations, which are used in market-type economy, may be submitted in the form of the following groups:
• target software;
• administrative and regulatory;
• organizational vporyadkuvalni;
• Conciliation, arbitration, mediation, conciliation;
Regulatory methods are the result of legislative activity of the state (legislature, executive and local governments). This form of regulation of social and labor relations involves the application of the standards contained in laws, government regulations, presidential decrees and other regulations, approved by state and local authorities.
Program targets include the development of methods and application programs in social and labor sphere, which, depending on the level of implementation are divided into national, regional (territorial), sectoral and program production level (enterprises, organizations). Thus, at the national level in Ukraine developed and implemented employment programs, social policy, development and work potential, reduce poverty and many others.
Administrative and managerial and organizational vporyadkuvalni methods used mainly at the level of enterprises and organizations and are designed to regulate relations in the system: employer — Administration Administration — employees, supervisor — the employer and the relationship between workers, which are connected by various forms of division and cooperative work. Application of these methods in practice provides organizational development regulations (orhproektiv), the provisions of units, job descriptions, schedules of working hours and rest more.
Scope of contracting methods used in social and labor sphere, related to the consultations and negotiations between social partners and the signing of agreements and contracts at different levels of social and labor relations. Using these techniques — the basis of the functioning of social partnership.
Application of Conciliation, arbitration, mediation, conciliation methods intended to prevent labor disputes and settle them without social upheaval and destructive processes. Using participatory methods involves the introduction of modern forms and methods of participation of employees in production management in adopting and implementing organizational and managerial innovations.
Thus, conclusions can be drawn:
Social relations — a relationship between social groups (communities) and some individuals which consist in view of their social status, manner and way of life, conditions of formation and personality development, social communities.
Labor Relations — is objectively existing interdependence and interaction of these actors in the process of labor relations, aimed at regulating the quality of working life. Meanwhile, Labor Relations, of course, subjective, because it reflects the subjective intentions and actions determined by the participants of this relationship, conscious due to their mutual dependence.
Classification of socio-labor relations on the subjects of their distribution provides the individual, involving the interaction of one employee with the employer, collective, when employers and employees interact. On the basis of pre-conditions, the subjects of social and labor relationships: a hired worker, the employer, the state
Labor Relations depending on how their regulation, methods of solving problems are classified by type.
Type of social and labor relations is determined by their nature, namely those who can read specific decisions in social and labor sphere. Important role in shaping the types of social and labor relations play an equality or inequality of rights and opportunities for actors of social and labor relations. From the extent to which and how these basic principles are combined, depending the particular type of social-labor relations and other principles that define it.
The basic principle of social and labor relations — legislative protection of rights in social and labor sphere, the definition of objects, subjects, order of their interactions, the coverage areas of business relations and enforcement of these rights.
Formation and development of social and labor relations in society is influenced by the huge number of factors, the significance of which is subject to historical, economic, sociocultural and political context. Among the main factors include the features of social policy, globalization of economy, development of social labor and production.