Реферат: Economic crisis
The content and direction of globalization processes that have gained massive nature for the beginning of. The depth of current global financial crisis lay preconditions fundamental change in the strategy development of all entities (from micro to global), are accompanied by restructuring the world economic space as a whole with change economic centers of world development. At the same time increasing problem of harmonious integration of the country and its regions in the global economic space, as they relate to the world economy through a combination of external and internal market. In this context, assessments of trends and features of development in Ukraine makes it possible to assert the urgency of the tasks of directing their spatial, organizational, functional, administrative, financial, institutional, investment and innovation transformations in an integrated manner. Under these conditions, growing demand in the formation of an adequate theory of regional development, justifying the revised methodology for analyzing and deepening of regionalization actualizes the task of ensuring integrated development of regions
Economic growth and sales potential of any economic system depends largely on how efficiently placed its productive forces. Account of specific territorial organization of the productive forces in the practice of management to achieve significant economies of social labor, significantly improve the structural parameters of the economy and its main macro-and microeconomic indicators.
Improving the economic mechanism in Ukraine during the formation of a market economy is based on economic research, including in the field of productive forces. Comprehensive analysis of the processes occurring in the economic and social spheres of society, deep scientific generalization promote the formulation of sound recommendations for improving the territorial organization of production, including improvement of specialization and comprehensive accommodation areas, rationalization of production and territorial ties based on advanced exchange. Knowledge of the laws of productive forces and allows the complex to reveal additional sources of higher productivity, which has considerable importance for predicting development of economy of Ukraine and its economic regions
1. The main problems of productive forces in Ukraine
Within Ukraine there is a significant territorial differentiation of the spatial distribution of population and production facilities, which makes the problem of rationalization of production. So, now the society spends huge sums on transportation of raw materials, fuel and finished products due to the remoteness of the territorial elements of production (and this trend is very clear). To improve the allocation of production, it is necessary to carry out protyvytratnyh measures, including reduced transport costs. A significant role will be played and the rationalization of productive forces with regard to the ecological validity of placing new production, optimization of intersectoral links and more.
Methodological problems of productive forces is inseparable from their rational territorial organization, which is the basis of economic division. The last is based on territorial division of labor, which, in turn, is associated with production specialization and economic areas require strict proportionality of their development.
Radically change the conditions of the last two or three decades, accompanied by a significant expansion of information resources, increased knowledge on the organization of social and economic processes together with the deepening of regional specialization imposes requirements for the evaluation of comprehensive development of the region and requires proper evaluation of the transition region as a complex set of zobmezhenoyu phenomena, essential for learning or research of the complex, qualitative evaluation of its individual components to complete its comprehensive general characteristics that meet the objectives of sustainable development. According to the evaluation criteria of comprehensive regional development along with economic, social, environmental and criteria should be balance, proportionality, stability, controllability. Real reflection of institutional contradictions and problems is incomplete and secondary employment, poor flow of labor reallocation between sectors of economic activity, the practice of granting administrative leave due to low capacity utilization, territorial uncontrolled circulation of labor. In regions of Ukraine growth in total labor turnover and labor mobility observed uAvtonomniy Republic of Crimea, Kyiv, Sevastopol and in Kyiv, Mykolaiv, Odesa, Kharkiv regions. From half-day (week) occupied much of the staff of leading regional industries of transport and communications, industry, construction, high labor turnover has been generated in the field of hotels and restaurants, trade, repair services.
Assessment of circulation areas of labor, the use of informal employment and underemployment, as well as their low productivity suggest the need to strengthen institutional foundations of employment as an important task for modern economic policy and its regions. Significant expansion of the boundaries of informal sector employment is contrary to the requirements of effective management. Its existence makes it possible to satisfy consumer demand for inexpensive goods and services, and even compete through low cost to other sectors of the economy, on the other hand — one of the primitive self of the population that nespryyaye increase productivity, modernize employment and strengthen the position of on міжнародномутоварномуринку. Pidtrymuyuchyzhyttyevyy levels for certain categories of people (usually nyzkodohodnyh), the industry focuses quite primitive production, its development will not solve urgent social problems.
In order to prepare socially secure type of employment offered are:
— To carry out the development and implementation of national and regional levels of government programs to improve working conditions in the leading sectors with a clear explanation of sources of funding for these activities, responsible contractors and the desired effect;
— To increase the interest of employers to increase spending on health and safety, change its terms in accordance with sanitary hihiyenichnyhnorm through tax preferences tymsub'yektam entities that achieve significant improvement in these indicators increase in the current labor laws penalties against entities ignore the demands of work and try to minimize the cost of providing proper conditions.
Expected social impact on the transformation mechanism proposed areas of employment — a health and disability population, the development of his professional abilities, increase productivity and work efficiency. This, ultimately, provide growth potential of labor and its regions, its qualitative characteristics.
2. Modern approaches to productivity
Productivity as an inherent attribute of the source and principle of the market economic system creates the relevant socio-economic requirements for human resources related, first of all, efficiency of labor, its conformity to social needs and employment guidelines and orientation of the population itself. With the productive use of human resources provided by a national product, sufficient to satisfy the material and spiritual needs of society and then realized conditions necessary for social and economic progress in the country.
In economic science its business practices in our country and abroad for the performance characteristics of groups of people and assess its level for many years used a category of «productivity», which shows the ratio of products produced in the process of labor and labor costs of its production.
However, while having great difficulty in measuring both labor costs and in evaluating its financial results.
First, there is discussion about what labor costs should be considered: only directly employed in manufacturing production workers (the so-called cost of living wage) or the costs of labor to create the means of production used in the work (ie, reified labor costs). In the first case referred to the expense of working time, and the second — about the impact of production. But both kinds of labor costs may be within the enterprise Extent.
Second, whether included in the productivity of labor intensity. This category reflects the intensity of employment both in terms of «density» load fund working hours, and in terms of speed of labor operations. We note immediately that the distinction between the categories of «intensity» and «tension» is that the former includes a qualitative aspect to increase labor effort per unit time. So, to perform a number robitprosto require the highest level of intensity: as long as playing a little hard work will lead not to a useful result, its volume change means a change effort that the employee pays the labor process.
With the growth of the intensity of labor becomes more intense, requiring return of all the forces of the individual. Addressing this issue from a theoretical point of view is quite complex. However, in practice, you can use indicators that reflect both her, and so another position. Indeed, the aggregate of the applicable means of production, existing production and labor organization clearly define objectively possible (potential) productivity (it is often called productive labor force). But the specific level of labor intensity can significantly reject the actual (real) volume production of its perceived value. Naturally, the various management decisions differently affect both the productive force and the intensity of labor. [1, s.222]
In today's economic and social life is changing, requiring new conceptual approach to understanding assessment study results while maintaining the role and importance of the category «labor productivity».
First, the developed market economy orients public production to meet the specific needs of consumers. This forces producers to constantly update products, expand its product range and improve quality and to maximize profits from its activities to reduce the cost of labor. In addition, entrepreneurs profit depends on whether you want consumer products they produce. Such conditions impose new requirements for the assessment study results and determine the need for volume becomes larger than labor productivity, a category which, in our opinion, is effectiveness.
Second, modern science and technology revolution provides developing and manufacturing various kinds of high quality products, increased its production and reducing labor costs. This multifaceted study results are not considered and not fully evaluated the category «labor productivity», which requires the use of other categories, which in our opinion, may be «business performance». In the current revolution naukovoehnichnoyi increasing number and role of the work of scientists, designers, workers and technicians involved in the pilot production of new models of machinery, equipment, consumer goods, which also expands the scope of the category of «business performance».
Third, in modern society are increasing the number and value of labor in the intangible areas of social production, the result of which has a variety of concrete forms. Evaluation of effectiveness of work in the field of intangible social production can be made, we believe, based on the category of «business performance».
The overall level of socio-economic development area (estimated in terms of gross value added per capita, the structure of economic complex, the level of unemployment by ILO, the volume of investment per capita, etc.). Determines the potential of productive employment, which can be realized or unrealized, depending effectiveness of social policy pursued, including employment policy.
Thus, summarizing the assessment of the real possibilities of productive employment in Ukraine, it is possible to draw conclusions about what productive employment to meet the following changes:
● full compliance with changes in regional and sectoral employment proportions progressive directions of structural transformation of the economy — growth in employment in knowledge-intensive and eksportospromozhnyh industries, social infrastructure, and consumer sectors of the economy;
● increase the release of labor from industries that optimizes the structural characteristics of employment, combined with the expansion of employment opportunities through job creation in areas of promising high-yield entities, including small and medium enterprise;
● dominance directions and measures of active employment policy over the passive one that finds its concrete embodiment in the creation of effective new jobs, increased training and retraining, improving the effectiveness of public works, etc.;
● improvements in infrastructure quality (informational, organizational, technical) Support of employment of the population, thereby decreasing time job, average length of stay in the status of unemployed decreased amounts of stagnant unemployment;
● productivity growth in industries due to updated technical and technological base of production, reduction in direct losses of working time and its inefficient use, optimizing the number of employees, increase the intensity of labor;
● significant reduction in hidden unemployment and unregulated employment due to the active promotion of self-employment, increasing labor force training with a focus on labor market needs and prospects of modernization of the economic system;
● overall improvements in geographically-branch system of employment should be accompanied by adequate growth in real wages across the economy, its approach to the needs of the expanded reproduction of labor, improve the distribution of income.
Current employment status of Ukraine, which primarily characterized by a sharp decline in demand for labor, the closure or temporary closure of businesses, reduction of employees, part-time day, and as a result — the completion of the ranks of the unemployed directly due to financial and economic crisis that began in the second half of 2008 and continues today. For example, in November 2008 was 639.9 thousand registered unemployed, then in January 2009 — 919.7 thousand [1, p.24]
economic growth productive
Thus, the current period of economic and social transformation characterized primarily crisis that has manifested in a decline in production and investment activity, inflationary processes falling living standards of majority of the population. At the same time, the crisis carries a positive role, namely, as outlined in the scientific literature «cuts obsolete, not needed for the new stage of development of production chains and structures.
So state, which emerged in the labor market in Ukraine financial crisis is a result of insufficient effective combination of economic reform and government employment policy. Measures taken to improve the economy, creating conditions for productive work, jobs are not adequate to the real situation. Employment policy is formed without the imagination of an integrated model to be achieved in future.
Much of the working state of naselennyavnaslidok removal from the process of professional adaptation simply not prepared to work under market conditions. Psychological discomfort, uncertainty in the future reduces the overall atmosphere in the society, strengthen social tension. The level of training and its directions do not meet modern requirements and needs of the labor market.
Productivity as an inherent attribute of the source and principle of the market economic system creates the relevant socio-economic requirements for human resources related, first of all, efficiency of labor, its conformity to social needs and employment guidelines and orientation of the population itself. With theproductive use of human resources provided by a national product, sufficient to satisfy the material and spiritual needs of society and then realized conditions necessary for social and economic progress in the country.