Реферат: The history of Moscow
R E V I E W
“The history of Moscow”
Leonova Nastya, 8 “B”
Moscow was fist mentioned in the chronicles in 1147. At that time it was a small frontier post. It is the official date of the foundation of Moscow; Thought the settlement had been there for some time before. It was fortified and became a market town in the late 12th century. The town was almost to tally destroyed in 1237 and 1293 during the Tatar invasion. It was again captured by the Tatars in 1382. And it was Moscow Prince Dmitry Donskoy who led the Russian troops to a decisive victory over the invader in the battle of Kulikovo field in 1380.
By the 15th century Moscow turned into a wealthy city. It was under Ivan Шthat Moscow became the capital of the state of Muscovy. At that time the Kremlin
Was rebuilt and the Kremlin Cathedrals were erected.
By the 15th century Moscow turned into a wealthy city. It was under Ivan Ш that Moscow became the capital of the state of Muscovy at the time the Kremlin was rebuilt and the Kremlin Cathedrals were erected.
During the time of Troubles Moscow was occupied by the Polish invaders but they were routed by the popular levy headed by Minin and Pozharsky.
By the end of the 15th century Moscow extended its rule over most of central and northern Russia. Its rulers continued to build fortifications around it.
The transfer of the capital by Peter the Great to St.Petersburg in 1712 brought a period of decline to Moscow.
Moscow is known for its beautiful old Cathedrals, churches and monasteries. Some of them date from the 15th to the 17th centuries. The oldest part of Moscow is the Kremlin. This is the main tourist attraction in Moscow the Kremlin stands at the heart of the city. The word “Kremlin” means “fortress”, and the Moscow Kremlin use to be a fortress. In the 15th century, by order of grand duke Ivan Шthe Kremlin was surrounded by a new red-brick wall.
I have a special liking for the Kremlin and St. Basil’s Cathedral. They are masterpieces of ancient Russian architecture. The main Kremlin tower, the Spasskaya Tower, has become the symbol of the country. On the territory of the Kremlin you can see old Cathedrals. The Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, the Palace of Congresses, the Tsar-Cannon and the Tsar-Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world. St. Basil’s Cathedral was built in the mid – 16th century in memory of the victory over Kazan. There is a legend that Ivan the Terrible blinded the architects Burma and Postnik, because he didn’t want them to create another masterpiece.
The Moscow Kremlin is the ancient centre of Moscow. It is located on Borovitsky Hill on the left lank the Moskva river and considered one of the most beautiful architectural ensembles in the world.
In 1156 the Kremlin was fortified with ramparts and in 1367 white stone towers and walls were erected. Brick buildings were added between 1485 and 1495.
The Moscow Kremlin contains fine examples of Russian architecture of the 15th to 17th centuries the Cathedrals of the Domination, the Annunciation and the Archangel. Ivan the Great’s Bell Tower, the Faceted Palace, the Terem Palace, the Senate Building, the Nikolskaya, the Trinity and the Boroviskaya Towers. The Tsar Cannon and the Tsar Bell are remarkable achievements of Russian cost ironwork.
Cathedral Square is the ancient centre of the Kremlin Architectural ensemble. The main Kremlin cathedrals are located here. The Tsars were crowned in the Cathedral of the Domination and buried in the Archangel Cathedral.
The Tsar would leave the Facetted Palace from the Red Porch. After services in the Cathedral of the Domination a procession would cross Cathedral Square.
The Cathedral of the Domination was built by Halian architect Aristotle Fioravanti from 1475-1479 in the style of the Russian 12th century The Cathedral of the Domination at Vladimir. Unique examples of ancient art are preserved here; the Byzantine icon of the Virgin of
Vladimir and the icons of St. George and the Holy Trinity. The Cathedral of the Domination was the most important in Ancient Rus. The first Russian Tsar Ivan the Great was crowned here.
The Archangel Cathedral, built by Halian architect Alevisio Nove in 1505-1509 served as the burial place of Russian Tsars and grand princes. Here you can see the ancient head-stone of Ivan Kalita.
The cathedral contains the priceless 15th -century icon of the Archangel Michael, assumed to be the work of Andrei Rublyov.
The Cathedral of the Annunciation was built in the Late 14th and early 15th centuries. In the 1480s, during the reign of Ivan Ш, Pskov master craftsmen constructed a new three domed brick church on the foundations of on older structure. The church was rebuilt in 1562-1564 after
A fire, and another two domes and four corner side-chapels with cupolas were added. The Cathedral walls were pointed by Feodosii and his followers in 1508. The second and third tier of icons were pointed in 1405 by Andrei Rublyov, Theophanes the Greek and Prokhor of Gorodets.
Ivan the Great’s Bell Tower is regarded as a marvel of early 16th -century architecture. It was built in 1505-08 by Bon Friazin, and two additional tiers were added in 1600 by order of Boris Godunov. This was the Kremlin’s main watch tower. The Faceted Palace is the oldest secular building in Moscow, erected by architects Marco Ruffo and Pietro Antonio Solari in 1487-91. The faceted stone facade after which named overlooks Cathedral Palace.
The Kremlin is the heart of Moscow. It is the oldest historical and architectural centre of Moscow.