Реферат: Scotland


Chapter I:Scotland as an original country

1.1. Somewords about General information

1.2. Tragichistory of Scotland

1.3. Symbolof Scotland

Chapter II:Scotland pride

2.1. The mainScotland cities

2.2. Worldhistory is full of Scottish names

Chapter III:The Scots

3.1.Peculiarities of Scottish character

3.2. Clans andtartans

3.3. Customsand traditions

Chapter IV:The Practical part

4.1. Theresearch on Scottish and Russian traditions




You know thatthe United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland consist of four parts,of four countries. There are four different nations: the English, the Scots,the Welsh and the Irish. Every nation has its own unique culture, history,literature and even languages. These people have different customs andtraditions and even food changes from region to region.

Having studiedmakes English-speaking countries rather deeply we became interested in cultureof not so large country but also very rich of its traditions is Scotland. Theknowledge about it is not full enough among Russian pupils. That’s why thetheme of this research is the following: “Scotland. Its customs and traditions”

The object:The research of Scottish customs and traditions, their way of life.

The subject:The discovery of influence of knowledge about customs and traditions of one ofthe countries on the formation of respect to other nations.

The aim: To searchand to systematize the material about Scottish character and traditions of thiscountry.

Coming fromthe aim, object and subject we put forward the hypothesis:

If theknowledge about culture, history, customs and traditions of the country aresystematized we can achieve:

· Theformation of deep understanding of the nation’s character

· Theimprovement of mutual understanding between different nations

· Theincreasing of the cultural level

Our aim can beachieved and the hypothesis can be checked up by using the following methods ofresearch:

· Analysisof information from different sources

· Abstraction

· Compilationthe charts


· Thecollected materials make it possible to increase the interest of studyingEnglish at school, to broaden the outlook, to understand the peculiarities ofScottish character

ChapterI: Scotland as an original country


1.1. Somewords about General information

He who has notseen Scotland

does notreally know Great Britain

Scotland is aland of paradox. A small nation, its presence is felt all over the world. It isa country of preachers and poets, warriors and dreamers, inventors andexplorers. This is the land of tartans and fine whisky, of romantic castles andthe melodies of bagpipes. Scotland also has a rich cultural heritage. Theappeals of Scotland are undoubtedly unique and the hospitality of the Scottishpeople will make your visit one to be remembered. Scotland is a country in theUnited Kingdom to the north of England. Its symbol is a thistle, its patronsaint is St. Andrew. The country is consisting of the Highland – a northernarea with a harsh climate and the Lowlands – an industrial region with aboutthree quarters of population.

1.2. Tragichistory of Scotland

Theunification of England and Scotland showed that religious differences were nowmore important than old national ones. England and Scotland remained separateduring the seventeenth century, except for a period under Oliver Cromwell. In1707, both countries agreed on a single parliament for Great Britain. Scotlandretained its own system of law and the church.

Some factsfrom Scottish History.


Scotland wasunited with England and Welsh although it kept its own parliament.


England andScotland were joined by an Act of Union

1715 and 1745

Rebellions by“Jacobites” who wanted a Catholic King. In 1745 the Jacobite hope was PrinceCharles Edward Stuart “Bonny Prince Charlie”

My Bonny

A folk song

1. My Bonny isover the ocean,

my Bonny isover the sea.

My Bonny isover the ocean.

Oh, bring backmy Bonny to me.

Chorus: Bringback, bring back,

Bring back myBonny to me, to me.

2. Oh, blow yewinds over the ocean,

Oh, blow yewinds over the sea,

Oh, blow yewinds over the ocean,

Oh, bring backmy Bonny to me.

3. Last nightas I lay on my pillow,

Last night asI lay in my bed.

Last night asI lay on my pillow,

I dreamed thatmy Bonny was dead.

4. The windshave blown over the ocean,

The winds haveblown over the sea,

The winds haveblown over the ocean,

And broughtback my Bonny to me.


Prince Charleswas finally defeated and the people of the Highlands were forced to emigrate.

1.3. Symbolof Scotland

The thistlehas nothing pleasant in it, especially if you carelessly touch its thorns. Butit has an important meaning for the people of Scotland. It is the Scottishnational emblem. Scotland, as you may know, is now part of Great Britain. Whydid the Scottish people choose this thorny plant as the national emblem oftheir country? The answer is interesting, and it can be found in the history ofScotland. The people of that country chose the thistle as their national emblembecause it saved their land from foreign invaders many years ago.

A wonderfulway to sample the spirit of Scotland is so to follow the Malt Whisky Trailwhich takes you through the Grampian Highlands. The magical combination of puresnow-melt water from the Highlands and carefully matted barley has produced theunique, essentially Scottish taste which no other country can match.

The mostimportant musical instrument of Scots is a unique bagpipe. It appeared in theHighland in the XVI-XIX centuries. The bagpipe is a loud instrument. Its soundsspread fairways to two miles around. For making the instrument serve a leatherskin, a blander (bull or horse) and reed (or any other hollow tubes) areneeded. In Scotland people say, that sounds of bagpipes must contain sound ofman and sound of animal.

ChapterII: Scotland pride


2.1.The main Scotland cities


Edinburgh, thecapital city of Scotland, is associated with science, law and administration.It is internationally famous too as one of the most beautiful cities in Europeand is popularly known as “the Athens of the North”. In the old town houseswith narrow windows are climbing up by narrow streets towards the ancientEdinburgh Castle in the middle of the city. This famous fortress overlookingthe town from the 150 meters high Castle Rock is one thousand years old. AsScots say, St. Petersburg and Edinburgh are the only cities in the world withsuch a splendid layout.

Manchester isthe second biggest city. Manchester was the first city in England to build itsown airport in 1919. The city is an important cultural centre, famous forpublishing books and magazines. It is also noted for its excellent libraries,magnificent museums and arts.

Glasgow is itslargest and busiest town. Glasgow is the heart of industry. It is a centre ofbusiness and trade. It is a very busy, prosperous, dirty in some part and smartin others, it is beautiful and ugly with its large port and busy streets.

2.2.World history is full of Scottish names

In Scotlandwere born many people, became famous in the future.

Sir WalterScott (1771-1832) – writer and poet, one of the greatest historical novelists,whose favorite subject was his native Scotland.

Robert Burns(1759-1796) – Burn’s poetry falls into two main groups: English and Scottish.His English poems are, for the most part, interior specimens of conventionaleighteenth century verse. But in Scottish poetry he achieved triumphs of aquite extraordinary kind.

My heart’s inthe Highlands, my heart is not here,

My heart’s inthe Highlands a-chasing the deer,

A-chasing thewild deer and following the roe –

My heart’s inthe Highlands, wherever I go!

Farewell tothe Highlands, farewell to the North,

The birthplaceof valour, the country of worth!

Wherever Iwander, wherever I rove,

The hills ofthe Highlands for ever I love.

Farewell tothe mountains high cover’d with snow,

Farewell tothe straths and green valleys below,

Farewell tothe forests and wild-hanging woods,

Farewell tothe torrents and long-pouring floods!

There are manyScottish names it can tell:

DavidLivingstone (1813-1873) – famous Scottish explorer.

AlexanderGraham Bell (1847-1922) – inventor of the telephone.

Robert LouisStevenson (1850-1894) – famous Scottish writer.

ChapterIII: The Scots


3.1.Peculiarities of Scottish character

The Scots,particularly the “Highlanders” from the mountainous north, try to maintaintheir separate identity. They object to being called “English”. Their earliestknown ancestors were the Celts and the Gaelic language, still spoken in remoteparts, comes from the ancient language of the Celtic tribes. The Scots have areputation for being inventive, hardworking, serious minded and cautious withmoney. In the past they were pioneer settlers and empire builders in placeslike America, Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand. They have also providedthe British Army with some of its most famous regiments. Over the centuries,enemy troops have often been terrified at the sight and sound of Highlanders inKilts marching into battle accompanied by the blood-curdling music of thebagpipes. Some even nicknamed the Scottish soldiers “devils in skirts” and also“ladies from hell”.

3.2.Clans and tartans

The ScottishHighlander considers himself the “true” Scot and he wears his national dress,the “kilt”, with pride. Kilts, the pleated skirts made of the material with asquared, colored design called a tartan, probably derive from the costume ofthe Roman conquerors. Each Scottish clan (a Gaelic word for “tribe” or“family”) has its own tartan with specific colors and design and only membersof that clan are entitled to wear it. Clans, the traditional keystone ofScottish society, are no longer powerful. Originally, the clan, a grouping ofan entire family with one head, or laird, was also important as a fightingunit. The solidarity associated with clan membership has been expanded into astrong national pride. The Black Watch tartan and the Royal Stewart tartan arethe most popular tartans. They are more popular with tourists than with theScots. If your name is Mac-something you probably descend from clansmen. “Mac”is part of a great many Scottish surnames, and its meaning is “son”. It issometimes spelt “M” or “Mc”, but it is pronounced just the same as “Mac”. Insome places “son” is used instead of “Mac”: MacDonald, Donaldson. The clanMacDonald is one of the oldest, it dates back to the 13th century.

3.3.Customs and traditions

They say,Scots are stingy and unfriendly people. It is true, but we can understand them,after all during all their history, they had numerous wars for liberty. Likeother peoples, Scots severely stick to their traditions. The important part oftheir house is a fire-place, which gives comfort and quietness to house. As anecessary attribution in each home must be a checked fabric, maybe atable-cloth, or a plaid on a sofa, or blinds on the wall.

Almost inevery house on the wall there is a knife, which has on the hilt the engravingof a thistle and set a topaz. Scots had the older tradition – wearing a knifeover the right stocking. If a man put a knife out on inner side of leg that itmeans he declared the war. Peaceful people used to wear a knife on the rightoutside.

Scots verylike plants. There are many plants in their rooms. Behind house there is asmall garden. Owners carefully look after all plants, that’s why Scots havegood and splendid gardens. In good weather people like spending a lot of timein fresh air, in their gardens.

Before theXVII century Scottish national dress was as follow a white linen shirt and a 8meter long plaid, which was fringed over one’s shoulder, a fastened brooch, andclasped it around the waist. In the fighting days to poron helped to soldiers –it’s a big fur bag. The bag was decorated with head of animal – fox or badger –and long fringe.

Really, onlypeople, who lived beside hills, wore a kilt. Inhabitants of plain preferredtrousers. Highlanders wore a kilt and gaiters. Mainly because, it was acomfortable.

Earlier Scotswere divided into: cattle – breeders and land people. The most of bright pagancelebrations for grain farmers was a Midsummer’s Day (June 21st). Onthat day there is a fire going, around that there are rituals. Sheep-breederscelebrated their holiday in June – they celebrated the end of washing, shearingand branded sheep.

That day thehostess makes a special pie from barley or oat flour and shares it withchildren, who must raise and care for sheep.

ChapterIV: The Practical part


4.1.The research on Scottish and Russian traditions

As a practicalpart I chose a comparison Russia and Scotland. This comparison with not manyaspects, can give us a chance to understand the difference between countries.To my mind these countries were united due to thing only one – the origin ofancient traditions. But even in such a conservative country as Scotland, sometraditions are forgotten or lost their meanings. For example we can take intoconsideration the present Scottish religion.

You can seethat nowadays Scotland has many religions, that’s why instead of oldtraditions, new different sects have appeared. So to know the present situationof Scotland, you must open all secrets of history of Scotland and then, may beyou will see that their customs are distinctive.


Today Scotlandis very popular. Tourists can see and do so much: high hills to walk on, oldcastles to visit, mysterious lakes to cross by boat and… legendary monsters tolook out for! Scotland is famous for people from all over the world come thereto admire it.


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5. http://www.altavista.com

6. http://www.yahoo.com

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