Реферат: Russia


Introduction_ 2

Russia 3

History of Russia 3

Hymn, flag, emblem_ 3

Geographic Landmarks 4

The Russians 5

The tourism and rate in Russia 8

Conclusion_ 11

Literature 12


Russia is situated in the North part of Eurasian continentand has the area of 17,1 million square kilometres. About 1/3 of the Russianterritory is situated in Europe, and occupies the main part of the Russian(East-Europe) plain, and also Ural, Pre-Caucasus and north slope of the BigCaucasus. The Asiatic part of Russia is 2/3 of the territory and it includesSiberia and Far East. Russia has outlets to the seas of the Atlantic, Pacificand Arctic Oceans.

The west extremity of Russia is near Kaliningrad city (inlongitude 19'38» West), and the east extremity is in the Bering Sea, RatmanovIsland (east boundary of Russia with the USA). Because of the huge length ofthe country by longitude, there is the great difference in time between thewest and east parts of the country (there are 11 time zones there). The northextremity is on the Rudolf island in Frans-Iosif land archipelago (in latitude81'49» North), and the south extremity in on the ridge of the Main CaucasusRidge (in latitude 41'12» South). And the highest point of Russia is alsosituated on Caucasus Elbrus Mountain (5642 metres).

Russia has the origin in Kiev Russia, which many lands ofNorthwest and Central Russia belonged to. Moscow principality arose in XIII XVcenturies, which was the first core of forming the new state, the territory ofwhich was from Baltic Sea to the Pacific to the beginning of XVIII century. Inthe middle of XIII century Russia was under the Mongol-Tatar yoke, and Russiawas fighting for its overthrow for 250 years. In XVI–XVII centuries Russiastarted to be multinational: nations of Volga region, Ural, Siberia became thepart of it. During XVII–XVIII centuries Russia tried to return lands, whichwere lost before and got the outlet to the Baltic Sea and secured its southboundaries. In 1654 Russia was consolidated with Ukraine.

RussiaHistoryof Russia

With the dissolution of the Soviet Union there has been anenormous resurgence of interest in Russia's pre-Soviet past, as well as a greatdeal of debate and reconsideration of the Soviet era itself. This shift has notresulted in a simple vilification of everything Soviet or a naive embrace ofall that preceded it, but it has spurred an unprecedented effort to regain theancient Russian national heritage. Churches are being restored all across thecountry, great Russian writers and artists whose works were banned are onceagain being honored, and the individual character of ancient cities and communitiesis once again becoming established. Next year, the city of Moscow iscelebrating its 850th Anniversary, a celebration that will mark the recovery,as well as the commemoration, of its glorious past.

For most western visitors, the bulk of Russia's history isnothing more than a compendium of hazy legends and sensationalist rumours–fromscurrilous stories about Catherine the Great to tabloid television reports ofthe miraculous survival of the children of Nicholas II. However, the factualhistory of the country is no less compelling than its fabulous history, andeven a brief introduction to the great and not-so-great figures of its pastmake a visit far more rewarding.

Hymn,flag, emblem

The State Emblem of Russian Empire since XV century hadbeen a double eagle. Its shape changed lots of times & the lastvariant (1883) was close to the Russian Federation Emblem that is in forcenowadays (with significant difference – there were emblems of provinces on theeagle's wings).

At the time of Provisional Government (from March tillNovember of 1917) the Emblem had been a double eagle without the symbols ofroyal power (now it is on the coins of 1, 2 & 5 rublesvalue). The State Emblem of Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic(picture of golden Sickle & Hummer crisscross, their shafts down, inthe red background, in the sun rays, in the setting of ears, with the legend'RSFSR' & 'Proletarians of all countries unite!', with thefive-point star on the top of the Emblem) was confirmed by the Constitution ofRSFSR accepted on the 10th of July, 1918, that came into force on the 19th ofJuly, 1918; then it was described in the RSFSR Constitutions of 1937 &1978 (the 'RSFSR' legend was changed to 'Russian Federation' by the amendmentsto the Constitution of the 21st of April, 1992).

In fact, since the 3rd of December, 1993 the Emblem (thegolden double eagle on the red shield, topped with three crowns, with thescepter & orb in its clutches, with the horseman striking thedragon, on the red shield on his breast), confirmed by the B.N. Yeltsindecree N2050 of the 30th of November, 1993 (in the period of 'step-by-stepconstitutional reform'). The shield with the double eagle (in force since 1993)was confirmed by the federal constitutional law 'About State Emblem of RussianFederation' of the 27th of December, 2000; it was published & cameinto force on the 27th of December, 2000.


As the world's largest country, Russian has a very diversegeography.

Northern Russian extends into the Arctic Circle. This areais primarily tundra and forests, with thousands of lakes.

Russia has many mountain areas. The Ural mountains cover 2,500 miles of eastern Russia. The Caucasus mountains cross the southern part of Russia, from theBlack Sea to the Caspia Sea.

From the western boarder to the Ural mountains is the NorthEuropean Plain. This is a large rolling plain with rich soil and grasslands.

Three quarters of the Russian population lives in thecities and towns of western Russia.About 25% of the population stilllive in rural areas.


Russian nation is the basic population of the RussianFederation (119865,9 thousand people), the most numerous of Slavic tribes.Outside the Russian Federation they live in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan,Byelorussia, Kirghizia, Latvia, Moldova, Estonia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan,Lithuania, Turkmenistan, Georgia, Armenia, and also in USA, Canada, thecountries of the Western Europe etc. The Russian Language is of east group ofSlavic languages of Indo-European family of languages. Writing is on the basisof the Russian alphabet which is going back to Cyrillic. Religion is basicallyorthodox.

The history of the Russians is very much a history ofterritorial and ethnic expansion.

In the pre-Christian era, the region that is today calledRussia, was inhabited by a variety of nomadic tribes. The Slavic tribes residedin the north. In the 6th c., they started migrating. Gradually they evolvedinto three basic groups, from which with time different with sub-groups wouldevolve; the western Slavs (Poles, Slovaks, Czechs), southern Slavs (Slovenes,Croats, Serbs, Bulgars) and eastern Slavs (Belarusians, Russians, Ukrainians).The eastern Slavs expanded easily from the Baltic to the Black Sea, with Kievand Novgorod as the most important centres.

According to Russian tradition, the first Russian dynastybegan as warring Slavic tribes in 862 invited Rurik, a Scandinavian leader, torule over them. Under the Rurik dynasty, Russia expanded northeast andnorthwest. Kiev soon became the centre of what is known as Kievan Rus', whichreached its imperial peak in the middle of the 11th c. In 988, Prince Vladimirof the Kievan Rus' had decided to convert the empire to Byzantine OrthodoxChristianity instead of Roman Catholisism. This contributed to isolate Russiafrom the West. This isolation was furthered by the Mongol invasion which beganin 1223. The Mongols controlled Russia during the two centuries when theRenaissance, the Reformation and the commercial revolution spread acrossWestern Europe. Mongol rule also made the westernmost Russians flee farther tothe West to escape. These people eventually became known as Belarusians. Thepeople of Kiev also developed a separate culture and evolved into Ukrainians.

Russian, as well as Ukrainians and Byelorussians, came fromthe ancient Russian nationality (9–13 centuries), existent from East Slavic tribesduring the period of disintegration of tribe relations and creation of theancient Russian state around Kiev. In opinion of many researchers, the name'Russian' goes back to the name of one of Slavic tribe – Rodii, Rossy, or Rusy.Alongside with the ancient self-name in 19 – beginning of 20 centuries the nameVelikorusy or Velikorossy was used.

Formation of Russian, or Great Russian, nationality tookplace in severe struggle against the hardest Tatar yoke and during the creationof the Russian centralized state around Moscow in 14–15 centuries. In 16–17centuries borders of Russian state considerably extended; at this time Russiansbegan to occupy the Lower Volga region, Ural, Northern Caucasus and Siberia. In18–19 centuries the further expansion of borders of the state was accompaniedby moving Russian into the Baltic, Black Sea region, Transcaucasia, CentralAsia, Kazakhstan, Far East. Russians came into close contact with peoplesliving here, influenced them economically and culturally and perceivedachievements of their culture and skills of economy.

The Russian empire had now stretched beyond the original «Russian»areas and included many other nationalities. This triggered a series ofRussification campaigns under Nicholas I and his successor Alexander II withthe slogan «Autocracy, Orthodoxy and Nationality». In 1839 the Uniate church ofUkraine and Belorussia was suppressed, and in the 1860s, the state ordered thatall teaching in public schools be conducted in Russian and prohibitednon-Russian newspapers and magazines. In the second half of the century,Russian expansion in Caucasus and Central Asia began again. By the mid‑1860s,the Caucasians were defeated, and 20 years later the Russians also controlledCentral Asia.

In the Far East, the city of Vladivostok was established in1860 on the coast near the Korean border, after Russia gained the territorybetween the Amur river and the Korean border through the Treaty of Beijing thesame year. The cost of these operations led the tsar to sell Alaska to the USAfor a ridiculously low amount of money.

With World War I and the Bolshevik revolution, Russia lostcontrol of Poland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, Ukraine, and parts ofthe Caucasus, as established in the 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. As theBolsheviks gained the upper hand in 1919, they by force established Sovietrepublics in Belarus, Ukraine (both in 1919), Azerbaijan, Armenia (1920) andGeorgia (1921). With World War II, the Soviet Union regained most of the lostterritories and pushed its sphere of influence further west than ever before.

In the beginning of 20 century on fragments of RussianEmpire, the new state Soviet Union, united set of various nationalities, wascreated. The most numerous nation, however, remained Russians. In 1991 the USSRceased its existence.

By virtue of specific conditions of development indifferent areas of the country, in the middle of 19 century there was a numberof ethnographic groups among Russians. Largest of them, differing in dialectsof language and features in buildings, clothes, some ceremonies etc., – northernand southern Velikorussy. A link between them – middle great Russian groupoccupying the central area – part of the Volga-Oka rivers land (includingMoscow) and the Volga region; it had in its language and culture both north andsouth great Russian features. Smaller ethnographic groups of Russians – Pomors(on the coast of the White sea), Meshera (in the northern part of Ryazanskayaoblast), various groups of Cossacks and their descendants (on the rivers ofDon, Kuban, Ural, Terek, and also in Siberia); old believe groups – «Polyaks» (inAltai), Semeyskiye (in Transbaikalia), «Kamenshiki» (on the river Buhtarma inKazakhstan); Russians make up special groups in Far North (on the riversAnadyrs, Indigirka, Kolyma), apprehending many features of environmentalpeoples. Now these ethnographic groups in many respects have lost the uniquefeatures, because of a number of historic and political reasons.

Thetourism and rate in Russia

The man never stay at one place. At all times there weretravellers that discovered new lands, animals, minerals. They studied ourplanet for their descendants to know all about it.

As known from historic sources, in the antiquity ourancestors travelled to other countries. So, groups of Krivichi (in thestructure of teams of the Kiev princes) went to Tsargrad, i.e. to the Byzantianempire; this reflected in the annals.

Peculiarities of Russian tourism development.

The aspiration to «enlargement of horizon» was initiallypeculiar to inhabitants of Russia. «The desire to change of places» as afeature of Russian national character was inherent to representatives of differentlayers of the society.

Because of prevalence of agricultural population overRussia, for a long time there were no conditions for development of masscognitive tourism. Practically the only kind of travels remained pilgrimage.

Only since Peter's I time it is possible to speak aboutformation of the all-European tradition of travels in Russia. It is considered,that exactly Peter I, having visited with the purpose of treatment mineralsources of Spa in Belgium, became the first Russian health-resort visitor.

During the reign of Catherine the Great each nobleman hadthe right to go abroad and return at any time.

From the beginning of XIX century, it is possible to speakabout travels abroad as about the usual form of leisure of aristocracy. At thistime Russian cultural tradition of travels responded to all leading ideologicalcurrents of Europe. Close communications with Germany (because of geographicalaffinity and traditions) were characteristic. Many figures of Russian culturestudied at German universities.

Dynastic communications of Russian imperial family withGerman ruling houses played the great role in tourist preferences ofaristocracy.

Trip abroad was perceived, first of all, by nobiliary youthas a way to escape from class norms and decencies. It was not simple to goabroad at that time. One of memoirists of that time wrote: «Passport for travelabroad costs 500 roubles in silver, it was permitted to go abroad only onbusiness or with the purpose of medical treatment, and in the first case theguarantee of trading firms in reliability of the traveller was required».

To go to travel was possible only under the specialsanction of the Emperor, i.e. travel became a symbol of freedom. The Germaninnkeeper from frontier city noticed, that Russians, leaving Russia, are happy «asschoolboys sent on vacation, and coming back, they are sad as people which hada misfortune».

From the beginning of Alexander II reign, to go abroadbecame much easier, and resort tourism ceased to be the privilege of aristocracy.Travels abroad were included in culture of leisure of the educated and solventpublic.

In the whole scale of the international tourism in Russiawas significant. At the end of XIX – the beginning of XX century Russians madea considerable part of having a rest on the French sea resorts. The pricesthere were at that time quite accessible to the average-income person. The sameas now, rest abroad frequently was cheaper, than in Yalta. Local touristbusiness was guided by Russian tourists. In Nice a newspaper in Russian wasissued.

Trips abroad were more distributed, than travels overRussia and were more comfortable.

In Russia the first tourist organization appeared in St.Petersburg in 1885. It was «Enterprise for Public Travels to All World Countries»which acquainted compatriots with European countries. It had commercialcharacter and was engaged in the organization of collective trips abroad,creation of hotels for tourists.

The most mass tourist organization in pre-revolutionaryRussia became Russian Touring-Club in St. Petersburg, based in 1895 and latertransformed in the Russian Society of Tourists. The organization was a memberof the international tourist league and united about 5 thousand persons.Magazine «Russian tourist» was issued.

After the first Russian revolution, in the country theperiod of relatively political stability and economic growth came. The publicorganizations engaged in socially focused tourism appeared.

After 1917 tourist and excursion activity in the countrywas continued, but its submission to the purposes and problems of the statebecame a characteristic feature of Russian tourism. Up to the end of 80th yearsthe distributive system of trips abroad (at which people did not have freechoice) operated.

«Shopping-tourism» – old tradition.

The opportunity (which has appeared in the last years) offree choice of route forms usual for the majority of the European countriesculture of mass tourism which assumes variety of kinds of tourism on purposes,functions and motives. The increasing number of people get the opportunity ofchoice of travels to their taste. Influence of tourism on people, economy andenvironment has got such scales, that it is possible to speak about touristrevolution.


Russian has a rich history. It has a wealth of naturalresources including oil, natural gas, minerals and timber. Moscow is the centerfor many manufacturing industries including cars, steel and other heavymanufacturing.

The southwest has rich farm land. Crops include wheat,barley, oats, potatoes and sunflowers. Some areas include cattle farming.Russia also has a large ocean fishing fleet. Many of these ships have fullcapabilities to clean, freeze and process the catch.

From the 1500s, Russia was under control of Tsars. In 1917,communist revolutionaries overthrew the Tsar to establish the Soviet Union.Russia was the largest republic in the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union wentthrough considerable political turmoil, and in 1991 abandoned communism for acapitalist style of government. Old state industries were replaced by privateenterprise.

The majority of Russians live in the area between St.Petersburg and Moscow. Southeast Russia is also heavily populated.

Russia has a broad mix of ethnic groups.

Russia's large geographical territory gives it a verydiverse climate. Its northern coastline borders on the Arctic Ocean, whichgives it severe winters. In the south, Russia has hot desert areas.



1. Rybkin I. Consent in Chechnya.Consent in Russia. – Б. м.: Б. и., 1998

2. Lissin V.S. Economic Reformsin Russia: In Search of a New Strategy/Ed.: R. Edgington.-Moscow: VysshayaShkola, 1999

3. Moudrykh V. Russian ContractLaw: A Comparative Study. — Moscow: RDL,2004

4. Russia after the Fall/Ed. byA.C. Kuchins. – Washington: Carnegia Endowment, 2007

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