Реферат: Problem of sraff (personnel) adaptationSubject: BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
“PROBLEMOF STAFF (PERSONELL) ADAPTATION”
Authors:Chek Cherk Lyah
23 pages, 2 tables, 17 sources.
Thedefinition of the problem is the adaptation of personal in the Publishing House“Prapor”.
Object of research–the process of adaptation of personal inthe Publishing House “Prapor”.
The purpose of work – to analyse a industrial-economicactivities, a control system and a condition of processes of adaptation in thePublishing House “Prapor” and developing the project on perfection of processof adaptation.
The method of research – qualitative analysis of theadaptation of personal.
The main idea of the report is the analysis of the plan ofpreparation of the personnel for leading in the project of adaptation. In thiscourse paper is talked about adaptation by personnel on the enterprise, aboutmain aspects and stages of adaptation. Here are analysed the industrial-economicactivity, the system of management and the condition of adaptation process onthe publishing house “Prapor”. Also here is uncovered problems of adaptation,problems of the hiring and selection the staff.
1.Methodologicalcharacteristics of the adaptation process nowadays
1.1.Essence and main Aspects of Adaptation
1.2.STAGES of Adaptation
2.Analysis of the industrial-economic activity, the system of
management and the condition of adaptation process
2.1.Brief characteristics of the Publishing House “Prapor”
2.2.Analysis of the hiring and selecting the Staff and Adaptation
Processin the Publishing House “Prapor”
2.3.Inference of the Results after the Analysis of the hiring and
2.4.The Project of increasing the corporate Attention to Problems
ofthe Staff Adaptation
3.Elaboration of the improving project of adaptation in the
3.1.Standard of the Staff Adaptation
3.2.The functionary Regulations of the Expert on Adaptation of the Personnel
3.3The Plan and the Schedule of Introduction of the Project
3.4.The Plan of Preparation of the Personnel for Introduction of the ProjectConclusion
Adaptation is a dynamic process owing to which mobile systemsof alive organisms, despite of variability of conditions, support the stabilitynecessary for existence, development and continuation of a sort. The mechanismof staff adaptation developed as a result of long evolution, provides anopportunity of existence of an organism in constantly varying conditions ofenvironment. Owing to process of adaptation preservation of a homeostasis isreached at interaction of an organism with an external world. In thisconnection processes of adaptation include not only optimization of functioningof an organism, but also maintenance of equation in system«organism-environment». Process of adaptation is realized every timewhen in system «organism-environment» there are significant changes,and provides formation new гомеостатического a condition which allows to reach peak efficiency ofphysiological functions and behavioural reactions. As the organism andenvironment are not in static, and in dynamic balance, their parities varyconstantly and consequently, also constantly should process of adaptation iscarried out.
Thedefinition of the problem is the adaptation in the Publishing House “Prapor”.
In our course paper we try to analise the plan of preparationof the personnel for introduction of the project of adaptation. In this workwe will tell about adaptation by personnel on the enterprise, about mainaspects and stages of adaptation. We tried to analise the industrial-economicactivity, the system of management and the condition of adaptation process onthe publishing house “Prapor”. Also here we uncovere problems of adaptation,problems of the hiring and selection the staff.
For 15 years of work the Publishing House «Prapor»faces a problem of adaptation and a problem of management of the personnelrepeatedly. Management of the personnel of the organization for a long time isrecognized by one of «whales» of efficient control the managingsubject irrespective of scales of business and its organizational-legal forms,efficient control the personnel becomes the mortgage of durability and successof any commercial undertaking. In management of the personnel one of prioritydirections — creation and development of systems of adaptation of the personnelin the organization. The decision of this problem with application of modernscientifically-practical methods allows to level the majority of negativefactors of the internal environment of the organization in the field of groupdynamics of collective, labour productivity, turnover of staff and otherdefining parameters of activity of firm.
Nevertheless in modern Ukraine not enough attention is giventhese problems noticeably. Unlike world experience, in Ukraine of theorganizations with the solved problems of corporate culture and, as itscomponents, systems of adaptation of the personnel, no. Same concerns also tobranch of a press in which carries out the activity the Publishing House«Prapor».
1.Methodological characteristics of the adaptationprocess nowadays
In this chapter will be described the adaptation with itsessence, main aspects, stages and methods. It will be uncovered the essence ofthe process of the mutual adaptation or labour adaptation between employee andorganization, and employee with collective. In this chapter will be turned ourattention to the organizational mechanism of management of process ofadaptation as key condition of its successful realization and to an importanceof a problem of management of innovations.
1.1. Essence and main aspects of adaptation
The modern organizations in which business of management iswell put, consider, that the engaging of suitable people is only the beginning.For the blessing of the organisation the management should work constantlyabove the increase of potential of the staff. Development of the staff,increase of potential leads to growth of labour productivity and profitablenessof the enterprise.
For development of potential of a labour use followingmethods:
- professionalorientation and social adaptation in collective;
- anestimation of industrial activity;
- systemof compensation;
- professionaltraining, instruction, improvement of professional skill;
- managementof career.
One of problems of work with the personnel in theorganization at attraction of the staff is management of labour adaptation.There is their mutual adaptation during interaction of the worker and theorganisation which basis is made with gradual occurrence of workers in newprofessional and social — economic working conditions.
Adaptation is a mutual adaptation of the worker and theorganization, based on gradual work-in the employee in new professional, social andorganizational-economic working conditions.[1;32] Again gone to worksimultaneously employee joins inside in the system of organizational attitudes,borrowing in it several positions simultaneously. To each position correspondsto set of requirements, norms, the rules of behaviour defining a social role ofthe person in collective as the worker, the colleague, The subordinate, thehead, a member of collective controls, a public organisation, etc. From theperson borrowing each named positions, the behaviour corresponding it isexpected. Acting for work in this or that organization, the person has definitepurposes, needs, norms of behaviour. According to them the employee makes thecertain demands to the organization: to working conditions and its motivation. The process of the mutual adaptationor labour adaptation of the employee and the organization by that will be moresuccessful, than in a greater degree of norm and value of collective are orbecome norms and values of the separate employee, than more quickly and betterit accepts, acquires the social roles in collective.
Two directions of adaptation are allocated:[2;114-116]
- primary, i.e. the adaptation of the young employees whoare not having experience of professional work (as a rule, it is a question inthis case of graduates of a various level);
- secondary,i.e. the adaptation of the employees having experience of professional work (asa rule, changing object of activity or the professional role, for example,passing in a rank of the head).
It is necessary to note, that the role of secondaryadaptation increases in conditions of formation and functioning of a labourmarket. On the other hand, it is necessary for domestic personnel services toaddress to experience of foreign firms which give traditionally enhancedattention of primary adaptation of young employees. This category of workersrequires special care of them from administration.
In the theoretical and practical plan some aspects ofadaptation are allocated:[3;35-36]
- psycho-physiologicalis the adaptationto the new physical and psychological loadings and physiological workingconditions;
- socially-psychologicalis the adaptation to rather new society, norms of behaviour and mutualrelations in new collective;
- professionalis the gradual completion of labour abilities (professional skills, additionalknowledge, skills of cooperation, etc.);
- organizationalis the mastering of a role and the organizational status of a workplace anddivision in the general organizational structure, and also understanding offeatures of the organizational and economic mechanism of management of firm.
There is a development of set of all conditions during psycho-physiological adaptations which rendered various psycho-physiological influence on the workerduring work. It is necessary to carry to these conditions: physical and mentalloadings, a level of monotony of work, sanitary-and-hygienic norms ofindustrial conditions, a rhythm of work, convenience of a workplace, externalfactors of influence (noise, light exposure, vibration, etc.). During socialadaptation-psychological there is an inclusion of the worker in system ofrelations of collective to its traditions, norms of a life, valuableorientations. During such adaptation the employee receives the information onsystem of business and personal mutual relations in collective and separateformal and informal groups about social positions of separate members of group.It perceives this information actively, correlating it with the last socialexperience and with the valuable orientations. There is a process ofidentification of the person or to collective as a whole at acceptance by theemployee of group norms or with any formal or informal group Professional adaptation ischaracterized by additional development of professional opportunities(knowledge and skills), and also formation of professionally necessaryqualities of the person, the positive attitude to the work. As a rule,satisfaction work comes at achievement of the certain results, and the lastcome in process of development by the employee of specificity of work on aconcrete workplace.
During organizational adaptation the employee gets acquaintedwith features of the organizational-economic mechanism of management of firm, aplace of the division and a post in the general system of the purposes and inorganisational to structure. At the given adaptation at the employee theunderstanding of own role in the general production should be generated. It isnecessary to allocate one more important and specific party of organizationaladaptation. This is readiness of the employee to perception and realisations ofinnovations (technical or organisational-economic character). Despite ofdistinction between aspects of adaptation, all of them are in constant interaction,therefore managerial process demands presence of uniform system of tools of theinfluence providing speed and success of adaptation.
Success of adaptation depends on the whole row of conditions.The main things from which are:
- aqualitative level of work on professional orientation of potential employees;
- objectivityof a business estimation of the personnel (both at selection, and during of thelabour adaptation of workers);
- workof the organizational mechanism of management of process of adaptation;
- prestigeand appeal of a trade, work on the certain speciality in the givenorganisation;
- featuresof the organisation of the work which realising a motivational installations ofthe employee;
- presenceof the fulfilled system of introduction of innovations;
- flexibilityof system of training of the personnel which operated inside of theorganization;
- featuresof the socially-psychological climate which has developed in collective;
- the personal properties ofthe adapted employee connected with its psychological features, age, themarital status, etc.
Especially it is necessary to stop on a question of theorganizational mechanism of management of process of adaptation as keycondition of its successful realization. Non-work of the given mechanism forthe domestic organisations is one of the main reasons of pretentiousness ofmanagement of adaptation and slogan declaration of its necessity.
Management of labour adaptation demands the study, first ofall, of three organizational elements:
- structuralfastening function of management of adaptation;
- technologyof managerial process of adaptation;
- asupply with information of this process.
As possible organizational decisions of a problem ofstructural fastening functions of management by adaptation the following can beoffered:
1) Allocationof corresponding division (a group, a department) in structure of controlsystems of the personnel. More often functions on management of adaptation area part of division on training the personnel.
2) Distributionof the experts who engaged in management of adaptation, on divisions (to shops,departments) or to groups of divisions. In this case the expert on thepersonnel becomes the curator of the certain divisions. It is necessary tonotice, that the expert on management of adaptation can be as the employee ofone of divisions of a control system of the personnel, and the employee ofother functional division prepared for this role.
3) )Development of preceptor ship which is forgotten in the domestic organizationslast years. Foreign firms consider the preceptor ship as actively applicationof the form of trust to the skilled employee, and also as the certain stage inits service promotion. Thus preceptor ship is supported by material stimulus..As instructors can heads, and the young employees who worked of some years andhave positively proved can act as skilled workers with the experience. Thisexperience originating in Japan, successfully develops in last years in theEuropean firms.
4) Developmentof structural interrelations of a control system by the personnel (inparticular, divisions of management of adaptation) with service of theorganization of management. In many foreign firms this service is structurallyincluded in system of controlling. A subject of functional interrelations betweendivisions of management of adaptation and the organizations of management aremainly questions of forms and principles of the organisation of work, system ofintroduction of innovations, etc.[4;68-69]
It is necessary to pay attention to importance of a problemof management of innovations. The thought over realisation of the givenfunction becomes the factor of successful adaptation of workers to newconditions. As possible organizational decisions on technology of managerialprocess by adaptation the following can be offered:
- theorganisation of seminars, rates, etc. on various aspects of adaptation;
- carryingout of individual conversations of the head, the instructor with the newemployee;
- intensiveshort-term rates for the heads for the first time entering this post;
- carryingout organizational-spadework at introduction of innovations;
- specialrates of preparation of instructors;
- useof a method of gradual complication of the tasks which are carried out by thenew worker. The control over the constructive analysis of the mistakes admittedat performance of tasks is simultaneously necessary. Expediently thus to thinkover system of additional encouragement of the employee for the successfuldecision of tasks in view;
- performanceof single public assignments for an establishment of contacts of the new workerwith collective;
- performanceof single assignments on the organization of work of controls (a productionmeeting, board of directors, etc.);
- preparationof replacement of the staff at their rotation;
- carryingout in collective of division of special role games on rallying employees anddevelopment of group dynamics.
Besides this, it is necessary to pay attention to realizationof principles of the organisation of the work which are rendered motivationalinfluence on the personnel and facilitated process of adaptation of employees.It is possible to carry to such principles of the organization of work:
— creation of target problem groups, creative brigades, avariation of their structure, time and a problematic of work;
— definition of a rational degree of freedom of a mode ofwork, wide use of an accord principle of work;
- optimum duplication of problems of divisions, introductionof competitive divisions, projects, etc.;
- publicity of results of work (both group, andindividual);
- participationof workers in management (use of methods of group development of decisions,collective participation in development of strategic programs, delegation ofpowers and the responsibility, etc.);
- carryingout of meetings with rational periodicity and duration;
- rationaluse of the arising referential groups;
- useof creative methods of development of decisions;
- maintenanceof a feedback with administration and colleagues concerning the reached resultsof work and adequacy of their estimation.[5;83]
The centre of gravity of a supply with information of processof adaptation lays on gathering and an estimation of parameters of its leveland duration. These parameters conditionally share on objective and subjective.To objective what characterise efficiency of labour activity concern, activityof participation of employees in its various spheres.
Besides this, parameters of adaptation are subdivided on anaccessory to one of its aspects, for example, to professional aspect(conformity of qualifying skills to requirements of a workplace); tosocially-psychological (a degree of conformity of behaviour of the person to thenorms which have developed in given collective); to psycho-physiological (adegree of fatigue, a level of a nervous overload).
Subjective parameters characterise satisfaction of theemployee work as a whole or its separate displays. They are subdividedsimilarly objective on an accessory to one of aspects of adaptation and defineown estimation the worker. Exactly, the attitude to a trade and qualification;attitudes with collective of employees, with a management; state of health,conditions and weight of work; understanding of a role of individual problemsin the decision of the general problems of the organization. Gathering andprocessing of the information on a level and duration of adaptation isexpedient for spending within the limits of procedure of a current businessestimation of the personnel. Here difference consists that in relation to newemployees procedure of a business estimation should have higher periodicitywithin the limits of term of adaptation. For the domestic organizations the mainproblem of a supply with information of adaptation consists in necessity ofaccumulation of normative parameters of a level and duration of adaptation. Theconclusion about its successful carrying out is done on the basis of comparisonof actual and normative parameters.
1.2. Stages of adaptation.
Each enterprise or its collective possesses specific, only toit inherent features on which account successful or less successful work ofcollective as a whole depends. Procedures of adaptation of the personnel arecalled to facilitate occurrence of new employees during a life of theorganization. Practice shows that 90 % of the people discharged from officewithin the first year have made this decision already in the first day of thestay in the new organisation. As a rule, the beginner in the organizationcollides from greater quantity of difficulties which great bulk is generated byabsence of the information on the operating procedure, the location, featuresof colleagues, etc. That is special procedure of introduction of the newemployee in the organization can promote removal of a lot of the problemsarising in the beginning of work. Conditionally process of adaptation can bedivided into four stages:
The estimation of a level of readiness of the beginner isnecessary for development of the most effective program of adaptation.
If the employee has not only special preparation, but also anoperational experience in similar divisions of other companies, the period ofits adaptation will be minimal. However it is necessary to remember that evenin these cases in the organisation variants of the decision of problems alreadyknown to it are possible unusual for it. As the organizational structuredepends on some parameters such as technology of activity, an externalinfrastructure and of the personnel. The beginner inevitably gets to someextent in a situation unfamiliar to it. Adaptation should assume bothacquaintance to industrial features of the organization, and inclusion incommunicative networks, acquaintance to the personnel, corporate features ofthe communications, etc.
Table 1.1. Distribution of duties on orientation [6;76-78].Functions and actions of the organization Duties Of the direct head Of the manager of the personnel Drawing up of the program of the orientation Carries out assists Acquaintance of beginners with firm and its history Carries out Carries out the Explanation of problems and requirements which are shown to work Carries out Functions and actions of the organization Duties Of the direct head Of the manager of the personnel Put beginner in the work group Carries out Stimulation the help to beginners from the experienced employees Carries out
Stage 2. Orientation.
Orientation is the practical acquaintance of the new employeewith its duties and requirements which are presented by organization. To thiswork are attracted not only direct heads but also managers of personnel. Asusually the duties are distributed like we see in the table 0.1. Usually theprogram of orientation consists of the row of not big lectures, excursions,practices (the work on the some work places or with some equipment).
Stage 3. Actually adaptation.
This stage consists in the adaptation of the recruit to itsstatus and in the inclusion of the recruit in relation with collective. Inlimits of this stage necessary to give the recruit a opportunity to be activein different shares, to check in itself the given knowledge aboutorganization. It is important, in this stage, to give a maximum help torecruit, regularly to conduct the appraisal of effectiveness of activity andpeculiarities interactions with colleges.
Stage 4. Functionality.
This is the last process of adaptation. It is characterized bygradual decision of productive and interpersonal problems. It alsocharacterized by crossing to the stable work. As a rule, this process ofadaptation comes after 1-1.5 years of the work. If it process is regular, itwill be more effective in few months of work.
In this chapter we considered methods for development ofpotential of a labour power. Also it were noted two directions of adaptationand some aspects of adaptation. We showed the success of adaptation depends onthe row of conditions. It were offered organizational decisions of problem ofstructural fastening functions of management of adaptation. Also it wereoffered possible decisions on technology of managerial process of adaptation.Besides this, we paid attention to realization of principles of theorganization of the work which are rendered motivational influence on thepersonnel and facilitated process of adaptation of employees. On example table1.1., we showed distribution of duties on dentition.
2. Analysis of the industrial-economic activity, thesystem of
management and the condition of adaptation process
Inthis chapter we will give the inormation about the Publishing Hause “Prapor”.The main industrial problem of the Publishing House “Prapor” — satisfaction ofneeds of the market in release of the various book and periodic literature, andalso in manufacture of other kinds of the printed matter corresponding astructure of a printing house. After the brief characteristics of the PH“Prapor” will be given the analysis oh hiring and selection staff. Planning ofthe personnel in the organization actually is absent. The list of staff andfunds of a payment affirm annually. On selection of the personnel thePublishing House does not resort to services of specialized firms.
TheAdaptation sutuation in the PH“Prapor” will be described. Such a difficuldsituation will show that the process of adaptation has to be improved. Purposeof development of the project which character can be defined as mainly social,is increase of corporate attention to problems of adaptation of again stayingpersonnel, decrease in turnover of staff, growth of satisfaction by work.
2.1. Brief characteristics of the Publishing House“Prapor”
The Publishing House «Prapor» is opened joint-stockcompany, the polygraphic enterprise created in 1991. Its history totals 11years in the market of polygraphic works in Ukraine, and the organizationcontinues development and expansion of activity, rendering any more onlypolygraphic services to publishing houses, but also making own editions, theconsumer goods.
The main industrial problem of the Publishing House “Prapor” - satisfaction of needs of the market in release of the various book andperiodic literature, and also in manufacture of other kinds of the printedmatter corresponding a structure of a printing house.
The open joint-stock company the society which actions aredistributed among its founders or other, in advance certain circle of personsadmits. Such society has the right to spend the open subscription to actionslet out by it or to offer them for purchase to a unlimited circle of persons.The Publishing House «Prapor» specializes basically on release of theart, study of local lore literature, dictionaries, directories. [7; interview]
2.2. Analysis of the hiring and selecting the staffand adaptation process in the Publishing House “Prapor”
Planning of the personnel in the organization actually isabsent. The list of staff and funds of a payment affirm annually. On selectionof the personnel the Publishing House does not resort to services ofspecialized firms. Each post (trade) of the list of staff has the correspondingduty regulations corresponding ETKS. The competition of candidates at selectionof the staff on vacant posts practically is not present. Exception is made witha trade «printer» owing to the highest wages. Selection is madeaccording to a work-record card of the candidate. The requirement ofrecommendations, characteristics from the previous place of work, gathering ofthe information on candidates does not practise. With employed the typicallabour contract consists.
The basic directions of perfection of selection and hiring ofworkers can be development of an individual approach to the candidate, carryingout of testing at employment, application of a trial period, anindividualization of the labour contract regarding granting guarantees andindemnifications, payments of the most valuable employees. Process of adaptationof the personnel in the Publishing House «Prapor» is ignored. So,there is no technology of adaptation, the documentation on process ofadaptation, there is no expert which official duties would include functions onadaptation of new workers. The institute of preceptorship is not developed.Thus, process of adaptation should be constructed from the basis.
The estimation of candidates at employment actually is notmade by ways others, rather than documentary acknowledgement of qualification.During work periodic certification of the personnel to which surcharges forharmful working conditions (printers, type-setters, programmers, etc.) areappointed is spent, And also certification with a view of:
- planning and carrying out of actions on protection and workingconditions according to operating normative legal documents;
- certificationsof industrial objects on conformity to requirements on a labour safety;
- decisionsof a question on communication of disease with a trade at suspicion onoccupational disease, establishments of the diagnosis of an occupationaldisease, including at the decision of disputes, disagreements in the judicialorder;
- considerationsof a question on the termination (stay) of operation of shop, a site, theindustrial equipment, change of the technologies representing direct threat fora life and (or) health of workers;
- inclusionsin the labour contract (contract) of working conditions of workers;
- acquaintanceworking with working conditions on workplaces;
- applicationsof is administrative-economic sanctions (measures of influence) to guiltyofficials in connection with infringement of the legislation on a laboursafety.
To an estimation of the personnel it is possible to considerthe approach traditionally limited and demanding perfection with a view ofoptimization of an estimation at a stage of selection of the personnel.[8;48-51]
2.3. Inference of the results after the analysis of thehiring and selecting
The publishing House «Prapor» has set while notused opportunities of improvement of the financial, economic and socialcondition. There are positive tendencies — updating of working machines and theequipment, development of the thought over system of a payment and awarding. Atthe same time, the general condition of means of work unfavourably — the degreeof deterioration of the basic means is great, the supply with information ofmanagement is ineffective, the organizational structure of a printing housedemands completion. The approach to loan of means can be reconsidered also.Practically others are not developed, except for material, ways of stimulationand adaptation of the personnel, consequence of that, apparently, became highfluidity of again accepted workers and «ageing» of collective.[9;114-115]
The further studying of questions of adaptation of workers incollective can be directed on development of the project of perfection ofsystem of adaptation of the personnel and calculation of economic efficiency ofsuch project, development of concrete actions on its introduction.
As the basis for fulfilment of process of adaptation of thestaff objective necessity of creation at the enterprise of effective system ofadaptation of the personnel which by the moment of a writing of the given workactually is absent has served. But such necessity for a long time has ripened.So, the parameter of turnover of staff reaches 3,1 % (one worker has alreadyleft three newcomers — 33 %). Relative density of workers of a pension age — among workers-men — 15 %, as a whole on a printing house — 14,5 % is greatenough. Ageing of collective can speak low enough parameter of average earnings
2.4. The project of increasing the corporate attentionto problems of the
Purpose of development of the project which character can bedefined as mainly social, is increase of corporate attention to problems ofadaptation of again staying personnel, decrease in turnover of staff, growth ofsatisfaction by work. Via these factors the system of adaptation will renderpositive influence on achievement economic and is industrial-commercialobjectives the organizations. Design offers consist in development of followingdocuments:
1. Thestandard of adaptation of the personnel
2. TheDuty regulations of the expert on adaptation of the personnel
3. Theplan and the schedule of introduction of the project
4. Calculationof social and economic efficiency of the project
5. Theplan of preparation of the personnel to introduction of the project [10;32]
Basis for development of the project is necessity of creationat the enterprise of effective system of adaptation of the personnel which bythe moment of a writing of the given work actually is absent has served. Theparameter of turnover of staff reaches 3,1 % (one worker has already left threenewcomers — 33 %). Relative density of workers of a pension age — amongworkers-men — 15 %, as a whole on a printing house — 14,5 % is great enough.Ageing of collective can speak low enough parameter of average earnings. Theproject for achievement of an object in view should be under construction inview of the situation which have developed in the Publishing House operating ofmethodical base, safety requirements of work, conditions labour and thecollective agreement of the organization, achievements of a modern science. So,the Standard of adaptation of the personnel should contain the detailed rulesof process of adaptation with breakdown on stages and the detailed descriptionof purpose of each of them. The list of functions of management of adaptationof the personnel should reveal functional interrelations of divisions of theorganization during functioning system of adaptation.
The duty regulations of the expert on adaptation of thepersonnel regulates activity of the expert and contains requirements to theworker replacing this post. It is made on the basis of deep studying work onthe given post with definition of concrete requirements to the workerconcerning its knowledge, experience, skills (the personal specification).Contains sections: the general parts, the purposes, functions, the information,the rights, the responsibility. [11;35-36]
The operational program of functions of management ofadaptation of workers is called to break process of adaptation of workers andsequence of actions of various persons and divisions within the limits offunctioning system of adaptation. Calculation of social and economic efficiencyof the project pursues the purpose of an estimation of economic benefit of itsintroduction and quality standard of the remote social and economicconsequences.
The plan of preparation of the personnel to introduction ofthe project is made in view of the requirement of creation at the personnel ofa positive image of system of adaptation, positive expectations and readinessfully to participate in realization of process of adaptation of the personnel.
In the second chapter we opened the problem of adaptation inPublishing House ‘Prapor’. The main problem is that there is no technology ofadaptation, the documentation on process of adaptation, there is no expertwhich official duties would include functions on adaptation of new workers. Theinstitute of preceptorship is not developed. Thus, process of adaptation shouldbe constructed from the basis. The operational program of functions ofmanagement of adaptation of workers is called to break process of adaptation ofworkers and sequence of actions of various persons and divisions within thelimits of functioning system of adaptation. Calculation of social and economicefficiency of the project pursues the purpose of an estimation of economicbenefit of its introduction and quality standard of the remote social andeconomic consequences.
3. Elaboration of the improvingproject of adaptation in the Publishing
This chapter reviews the elaboration of the improvingproject of adaptation in the Publishing House “Prapor”stage by stage oncorresponding standards of the staff adaptation, also will be opened thefunctionary regulations of the expert on adaptation of the personnel, the planand the schedule of introduction of the project, and also will be shown theplan of preparation of the personnel for introduction of the project.
3.1. Standard of the staff adaptation
Stage 1. Acquaintance with industrial peculiarities theorganizations, inclusion in communicative networks, acquaintance to thepersonnel, corporate peculiarity of communications, corporate ethics, rules ofbehaviour.
Stage 2. Practical acquaintance of new worker to the dutiesand requirements which to him are shown from the organization. The direct headspends acquaintance of beginners with firm and its history, personnel selection,conditions of work and rules, explains problems and the requirements shown towork, enters the worker into working group, encourages the help to beginnersfrom skilled workers. [12;69-74]
The program of orientation includes a number small lectures,excursion, practical works (work on certain workplaces or with the certainequipment). Are without fail made instructing under the safety precautions anda labour safety.
During carrying out of the program of orientation followingquestions should be mentioned:
1. Thegeneral representation about the company
2. Apolicy of the organization
5. TheLabour safety and observance of the safety precautions
6. Theworker and its attitudes with trade union
7. TheConsumer services
After passage of the general program of orientation thespecial program in which following questions can be mentioned can be lead:
1. Functionsof division
2. Workingduties and the responsibility
3. Thedemanded reporting
4. Procedures,rules, instructions
Stage 3. Effective adaptation. For increase of efficiency ofeffective adaptation to the beginner the instructor is appointed.
A stage 4. Functioning. Process of adaptation comes to theend with this stage, it is characterized by gradual overcoming industrial andinterpersonal problems and transition to stable work.
The standard of adaptation can assume also testing ofbeginners for adaptation in group, for example, with application of the questionnairewhich allows to reveal type of behaviour of the individual in group.
As a parameter of type of the given perception the role ofgroup in individual activity perceiving acts:
· theIndividual perceives group as a handicap of the activity or concerns to itneutrally. The group does not represent independent value for the individual.It is shown in evasion from joint forms of activity, in preference ofindividual work, in restriction of contacts. This type of perception can benamed the individual of group «individualisticheskim».
· theIndividual perceives group as the means promoting achievement of those or otherindividual purposes. Thus the group is perceived and estimated from the pointof view of its «utility» for the individual. Is preferred morecompetent members of the group, capable to assist, incur the decision of achallenge or to be a source of the necessary information. The given type ofperception can be named the individual of group «pragmatical».
· theindividual perceives group as independent value. On the foreground for theindividual problems of group and its separate members act, interest as insuccesses of each member of group, and group as a whole, aspiration to bringthe contribution to group activity is observed. The need for collective formsof work takes place. This type of perception can be named by the individual ofthe group «collectivistic».
On the basis of three described hypothetical«types» of perception the individual of group had been created thespecial questionnaire revealing prevalence of this or that type of perceptionof group at the investigated individual. [13;103-105]
The questionnaire consists from 10 items-judgementscontaining three alternative choices. In each item of the questionnaire ofalternative are randomized. Each alternative corresponds to the certain type ofperception the individual of group. On each item of the questionnaire examineesshould choose the alternative most suitable them according to the offeredinstruction. On the basis of answers, examinees by means of «key»,calculation of points on each type of perception is made. Prevailing considerthe type of the perception which has typed the greatest quantity of points.3.2. />The functionary regulations of the expert on adaptation ofthe personnel
The expert on adaptation of the personnel in the PublishingHouse «Prapor» should know organizational structure of Open Society,technological features and needs of manufacture, corporate requirements to workand ethics, psychological features of process of primary and secondaryadaptation.
The expert should manage with basics of psychology onadaptation in group, abilities of suggestion and belief in the importance ofadaptation, skills of recognition of the concealed problems of adaptation andthe reasons of their origin.
The expert should be able to reveal and resolve conflictsituations before deep crisis, the way out of which can become dismissal of theworker, falling of a labour discipline, labour productivity; to find outinternal reserves of fast and free adaptation of new workers in collective.
The expert should superviseperiodically process of adaptation in the organization, develop explanatorywork, consultations, lectures, « round tables », to inform about necessity ofactions on adaptation for all workers of the organization.[14;85-88]
The typical functionary regulationsof the expert on adaptation of the personnel in the Publishing House «Prapor»can look as follows:
1. Thegeneral part
1.1. Department– a personnel department
1.2. Fullname of a post – the inspector on adaptation of the personnel
1.3. Thepost is subordinated and receives orders and instructions from the chief of thepersonnel department
1.4. Youcan receive additional orders from heads of groups of inspectors, of functionalgroups of a staff department.
1.5. Thepost gives the order and methodical instructions to all subdivisions of theorganization within the limits of the competence.
1.6. Workin the given post demands from the worker:Features of strengthening in a post Requirements Education Higher education Speciality The psychologist and/or the expert on work The minimum work experience in a speciality -
The management of the organization for the given post has putforward the following purposes:
2.1. Theorganization and current regulation of actions on adaptation of the personnel
2.2. Consultationof workers and officials on problems of adaptation.
3. FunctionsThe list of functions Periodicity and term of execution 1. The organization of training of heads of subdivisions on problems of adaptation
Monthly – during term of introduction of the project and in the first year of its application;
As required, but not less often than two yearly – the next years2. Consultation of workers on social, economic, psychological, juridical questions of adaptation As required – in the individual and group order 3. Drawing up of plans of measures on adaptation of the personnel Annually – in the end of year for the next calendar year 4. Drawing up of the report on results of activity Quarterly, more often – by requirement of the head of the organization or one of subdivisions
4.1. Performanceof official duties assumes information interchange with all subdivisions:Receiving Delivering The content of the information The form Term and periodicity of receiving The content of the information The form Term and periodicity of delivery 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. The notice on presence of conflicts or other problems in a realization of planned arrangements on adaptation Memo As required 1. A plan of arrangements within the limits of the program of adaptation for a year Plan of arrangements Annually – in the beginning of year 2. The request for carrying out of training Inquiry As required 2. Data on optimization of processes of adaptation of new workers for subdivisions Recommendations, methodical materials As required 3. Data on turnover of staff and other qualitative and quantity characteristics of success of adaptation The report on turnover of staff As required, but not less often than 1 time a quarter 3. The report on the done work and results The report As required, but not less often than 1 time for a quarter 4. The request for consultation from the worker Oral As required 4. Answers to questions of workers Oral/written As required
4.2. You are obliged to note an account log of worker’sreferences for consultation, log of actions within the limits of the programof adaptation of new workers, personal cards of the workers, who applied forconsultations or with complaints with reflection in them of results of donework.
5.1. Tooffer actions within the limits of the program of adaptation of the personnel
5.2. Toinitiate consideration by a management of problems of adaptation
5.3. Toorganize training the staff
5.4. Toadopt experience of other organizations
5.5. Todevelop and put forward under consideration to a management a methodicalmaterials on problems of the adaptation, addressed to heads of subdivisions andthe organization, the collective, separate workers.
5.6. Toinitiate imposing discipline penalties on workers or the officials, who interfere with the processes of adaptation of the new personnel.
6.1. On thegiven post you account for poor work, delays in realizations of the establishedpurposes, incomplete use of the given rights.
6.2. Yourwork is estimated by the direct head on the basis of data about turnover ofstaff, quantity and content-richness of the hold actions, responses of theworkers who have applied for consultation.
7. Additionsand changes[15;74-76]3.3 />Theplan and the schedule of introduction of the project
The project, in our opinion, can be introduced within a year.This time is required on creation of service of adaptation (attraction of theexpert or investment of one of inspectors of a staff department correspondingfunctions); on creation at workers of a positive image and positiveexpectations from introduction of system of adaptation; a choice of instructorsand their instructing; creation of the program of actions on adaptation and theevident information in this sphere.
Thetable 3.2. The schedule of introduction of the project for the Publishing House«Prapor» in 2008 year.Month Action January Selection of the expert on adaptations, the statement of the standard of adaptation and the functionary regulations of the expert February Establishment of instructors, training of instructors March
Explanatory work in the organization,
Creation of a corporate standard of work,
Efficient formulation and explanation to collective of the purposes of the organization, both long-term, and current,
Instructing of workers,
Enhancement of a financial interest in work,
Detection of a role of the individual in a group,
Interrogation of workers for their readiness for introduction of system of adaptationApril May June July August September October November December
/>3.4. The plan of preparation of the personnel forintroduction of the project
Preparation of the personnel for introduction of the projectassumes the creation of a positive image of actions of the project for eachworker, development of understanding of its importance not only for againarriving workers, but also for all workers of the organization, whereas, fastadaptation and a low parameter of turnover of staff promotes the growth oflabour productivity and a production efficiency.
The plan of preparation of the personnel to introduction ofthe project should correspond on terms and a set of actions to the schedule ofintroduction of the project (see above):
[17;22-28]Action The responsible executor Terms Selection of the expert on adaptation The personnel department manager The first stage of introduction of the project The statement of the standard of adaptation The personnel department manager The first stage of introduction of the project The statement of the functionary regulations of the expert The personnel department manager, director The first stage of introduction of the project Establishment of instructors, training of instructors The personnel department manager, the expert on adaptation The first stage of introduction of the project Explanatory work in the organization The expert on adaptation Constantly Creation of a corporate standard of work Director, the expert on adaptations, collective Constantly Efficient formulation and explanation to collective of the purposes of the organization, both long-term, and current Director Constantly Evident propaganda The expert on adaptation Constantly Instructing of workers The expert on adaptation, heads of divisions, instructors Constantly Enhancement of a financial interest in work Director, financial service, the expert on adaptation Constantly (revision not less often, than one time in 2-3 years) Detection of a role of the individual in a group The head of subdivision, the direct head of the worker, the expert on adaptation Constantly Interrogation of workers for their readiness for introduction of system of adaptation The expert on adaptation Anticipates introduction of the project
In this chapter was opened the elaboration of the improvingproject of adaptation in the Publishing House “Prapor”. And we can draw aconclusion that there are four stages of standard of the staff adaptation:acquaintance, practical acquaintance of new worker to the duties andrequirements, effective adaptation and functioning.
The second stage of the standard includes the program oforientation during the carrying out of which should be mentioned the followingquestions:
1. The general representation about the company
2. A policy of the organization
3. The Payment
4. Side benefits
5. The Labour safety and observance of the safetyprecautions
6. The worker and its attitudes with trade union
7. The Consumer services
After this program of orientation could be carried out thespecial program.
The standard of adaptation can assume also testing ofbeginners for adaptation in group, which allows to reveal one of the three typesof behaviour of the individual in group: «individualisticheskim»,«pragmatical» or «collectivistic».
In the functionary regulations of the expert on adaptation ofthe personnel there are many duties, which the expert should be able to do andto control.
The functionary regulations consist of the general part,purposes, functions, information, rights, responsibility, and additions andchanges.
In this chapter was shown the possible plan and schedule ofintroduction of the project for the Publishing House «Prapor» in 2008 year.
And we can notice that the plan of preparation of thepersonnel to introduction of the project should correspond on terms and a setof actions to the schedule of introduction of the project.
During course paper we have tried to find the cause ofproblem of adaptation of personal at the base enterprise — the Publishing House«Prapor», and we have considered that this problem based on modernapproaches to systems of adaptation of the staff. Work pursues the purposes ofcreation of effective system of adaptation in the organization providingdecrease of turnover of staff, growth of labour productivity, motivation,social guarantees for the personnel. Overall objectives of work can be named:
· decreasein negative labour parameters due to formation of corporate labour culture andhealthy competition during work;
· maintenanceof manufacture with qualified personnel;
· developmentof the mechanism of adaptation of the personnel to collective and process ofwork;
· thegeneral increase of efficiency of activity of the base enterprise, etc.
In our opinion, the positive result from introduction canachieve in a year after the beginning of corresponding actions. Summing up itis necessary to note, that adaptation is social process of development by theperson but-howl a labour situation when the person and the labour environmentactively cooperate with each other. It has complex structure and representsunity of different kinds of adaptation socially-psychological, political andcultural and community. Efficiency of mental adaptation depends on theorganization of microsocial interaction. At disputed situations in family orindustrial sphere, difficulties in construction of informal dialogue ofinfringement of mechanical adaptation were marked much more often, than ateffective social interaction.
Also the analysis of factors of the certain environment or anenvironment, the Estimation of personal qualities of associates directly isconnected with adaptation as factor involving in overwhelming majority of casesthe estimation of the same qualities as factor pushing away — with itsinfringements was combined with effective mental adaptation. But not only theanalysis of factors of an environment defines a level of adaptation andemotional intensity. It is necessary to consider also individual qualities, acondition of a direct environment and feature of group in which microsocialinteraction is carried out.
Effective mental adaptation represents one of preconditionsto successful professional work. In professional administrative activitystressful situations can be created by dynamism of events, necessity of fastdecision-making, a mismatch between specific features, a rhythm and characterof activity. The factors promoting occurrence of emotional stress in thesesituations, can be insufficiency of the information, its discrepancy, anexcessive variety or monotony, an assessment of works as exceeding opportunityof an individual on volume or a degree of complexity, inconsistent or uncertainrequirements, critical circumstances or risk at decision-making. The importantfactors improving mental adaptation in professional groups, are social unity,ability to build interpersonal attitudes, an opportunity of the opencommunications.
In connection with the aforesaid becomes obvious, thatwithout researches of mental adaptation there will be incomplete aconsideration of any problem of mental discrepancy, and the analysis of thedescribed aspects of adaptable process is represented an integral part ofpsychology of the person. Thus, the problem of mental adaptation represents theimportant area of scientific researches located on a joint of various branchesof knowledge, getting in modern conditions all greater value. In this connectionthe adaptable concept can be considered as one of perspective approaches tocomplex studying the person.
The personal potential of the worker is closely connectedwith adaptation as set of the certain features and qualities of the worker. Thepersonal potential characterizes internal physical and spiritual energy of theperson, its active position.
However adaptation passes more quickly and more successfullyif the trade is correctly chosen. Professional selection is carried out in twostages. On first stage, on the basis- results of supervision, interrogations,testing, also the professional program is made. At the second stage bents,social, psychological displays of the young man are studied.
Purpose of our course paper was to research the problem ofadaptation of personal and to show how to avoid this problem, by example ofthe Publishing House «Prapor”. We have drawn a conclusion that thisproblem is present at all kinds of business. And it is very important to sovleit at the beginning of it origin.
For management of process of adaptation and career at theenterprise on again acted young worker the special card of adaptation andprofessional promotion is made. It helps to trace professional and qualifyingchanges of the worker and to operate this process.
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