Реферат: Темы по английскому за 9 класс
Many people like to travel because it is interesting, attractive & you can see new different places. There are few reasons why people travel. The first: they visit other counters for getting more useful information about this country, his nation, languages & so on. The second reason people travel for relax. Sometimes it is necessary to leave your house & have a rest. As usual people go trip in their holidays. I certainly like to travel too, because it is interesting for me to see new countries & places This summer I have been in Turkey in small town Marmaris. It is there pretty small town without any monuments & museums .It is situated in the southern part of Turkey in the Again sea. My parent’s &I lived in a little hotel in the seashore. Every evening in the embankment a lot of small restaurants were opened & it was very pleasant to walk along the shore & breath fresh sea air. It was a lovely picturesque place. I like it very mach. But I wasn’t impressed by it. I have more fan & relax in the Black Sea. I spend there only 2 days, but they leave in my memory more recollections that 2 weeks in Marmaris. In the morning I got up early for getting seashells but most of all I enjoy jumping over the waves .It was really impressive. But I began to miss my home other that I have so remarkable holidays in my life. Why people miss their homes? The home is the place where we live from day to day & we can not forget it. This place are always stayed in owe memory as the best & comfortable place in the world. All good recollections connected with it.
The word “family” is asocial with warm tender relations between members of the family. It is very important when there is understanding among people in the family an consideration fortress such relations became possible when people in the family show other terms with ea-ch other, do many things tougher tall joys survive troubles & living friendly. Loving people gives you felling of happiness. But nowadays young People think that family can not consist only on love & understanding. The causal position & celery are important too. When you ha-ve a good education you can easily find good work. Also if you have own flat It is easily to make family. Now Young people understand that to make a family is there sires step in life & they to do everything for make their future family happy. In our family the relations are very good & friendly. But certainly, like in every family we have quarrels specially between me & my sister, but they are very shot & soon we again live in peace. In our family relations are build on an understanding each other .I there live my parents. My mother is very kindhearted women she always help me & my sister to decide my problems. My father is kind too but some times he is strict But I most of all like my sister’s character, we are there friendly because we alike. I & me sister understand each other earthward. My family help me to live & to understand the world around me. & I very thank my parents.
Science possesses a very great creative potential which lets the people explore the world. They exploring new territories ,Always ready to face the unknown We know a lot of people who de-voted their lives to scientific work. They were sure their work was carried out for the benefit to society. Science did a lot to improve the life of society. Among them Michael Faraday-English Physicist & Chemist, Tommas Edison the inventor of electric lights & hundredth & hundredths of other scientists .in the world every year held a lot of premiums for the achievements of the year in different directions in science. The main premium of Alfred Nobel. It appeared in1896 & it is steal the main premium for scientist. Nobel himself was a very good chemist & excellent linguist His greatest wish, however ,was to see an end to wars, & thus peace between nations ,& he spend much time & money working for this course until his death in Italy in 1896.His famous will, in which he left money to provide prizes for outstanding work in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Medicine, Literature & Peace, is a memorial to his interests & ideals. There are scientist working for Good. For example Einstein devoted theories that gave birth to the atomic age. He realized that the atomic age put in-to man’s hands a power greater than he had ever known. It prove that scientists work can be useful or determined all depend from person how make discovery.
Many people have forgotten what the world was like before TV. But today it has become an integral part of our live. No can compare with TV as a means of information, entertainment & education. TV now plays such an important role in so many people's lives that it is essential for us to try to decide whether it is bad or good.On the first place TV is not only a convenient source of entertainment, but also a comparatively cheap one. For a family it is more convenient as well as cheaper to sit comfortably at home than to go out. They don't have to pay for expensive tickets to the cinema. All they have to do is to turn on TV and they can see political news ,football matches and films. TV, people often say, informs about current events & the latest developments in science and politics. A lot of good films, music programs have appeared recently on TV. We get to like watching TV so much that it begins to dominate our lives. Some-times, than TV set broke people suddenly found that they had much more time to do things. The most important thing which is really critiquing is poor quality of the programs and its harmful effect on children. For example the film " Natural Born Killers" teaches children to kill and there was one accident in France when a group of teenagers kill their parents. There are many arguments for and against TV.I think we must understand that TV in itself is neither good nor bad. TV is as good or as bad as we make it.
№5 или №20 Charecters
During our life we get in touch with many people. We all know a password: “So many characters, so many people ”& it is a real truth. I have many friends & a lot of mats & among them there is no same character. Some of them very kindhearted & friendly some not so kind but they are try friends & always help me & their friends, but they are very cold or indifferent with other people. In every character there are good & bad treats As for me I consider fair, kind, friendful, try. I think that the-re are 2 sorts of kind people. The first sort it is really try ,kindhearted people always ready to help all people in the world other their causal position & other who only try to look kind & friendly people. But they friendly only with people whom such people interested in I hate such people because you don’t know is they are really good or only want to look friendly & I can not believe them. Every character forms in society therefore in what society person bring up such character he or she will obtain. Also I believe that Symbol of Zodiac is influence on the character. Every Symbol have it’s own treats common for all people born under this symbol. For example I’m Libra ,in my Horoscope Says that in me there are 2 persons. & other good & bad treats. But I also believe that everyone can change his characters, adding more good or bad treats.
What I would like to become? This question passes me greatly. Every job has its elements of difficulties and interest. I think that nearly all the professions are very important in life But to choose the right occupation is very difficult, because we must take in to consideration many factors. We must consider our personal taste and our kind of mind. After we end school begin an independent life, it is beginning of a more serious examination. In order to pass that very serious exam we must choose the road in life which will help us best to live & work Each boy & girl has every opportunity to develop mind & use knowledge & education received at school. Some may prefer to work in factories or works, others want to go into construction: to take part in building power stations and new towns. Many opportunities to work & to satisfy at the same time the requirements of the society and your own personal interest are offered in the sphere of the services transport, communications and many others I have a specially liking for to became a lower I like this profession because it want to help people applying my knowledge. Also I want make good career Whether profession we choose to follow the greatest pleasure will surely come from filling that you occupation is useful to people.”Find a job you like & you’ll never have the work a day in your life”.
The poisoning of the world's land, air, and water is the fastest-spreading disease of civilisation. It probably produces fewer headlines than wars, earthquakes and floods but it is potentially one of history's greatest dangers to human life on earth. If present trends continue for the next several decades, our planet will become uninhabitable. Overpopulation, pollution and energy consumption have created such planet-wide problems as massive deforestation, ozone depletion, acid rains and the global warming that is believed to be coursed by the greenhouse effect. The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison: industrial and nuclear waste, chemical fertilisers and pesticides. The Mediterranean is already nearly dead; the North Sea is following. The Aral Sea is on the brink of extinction. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in the seas.Every10 minutes one kind of animal, plant or insect dies out for ever .Industrial enter-prises emit tons of harmful substances. These emissions have disastrous consequences for our planet. They are the main reason for the greenhouse effect and acid rains An even greater environmental threat are nuclear power stations. We all know how tragic the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster are. People are beginning to realise that environment problems are not somebody else's. They join and support various international organisation and green parties. If governments wake up to what is happening-perhaps we'll be able to avoid the disaster that threatens the natural world and all of us with it.
Books bring pleasure & delight to readers. They entertain & develop owe imagination The bo-oks is a faithful friend. Sometimes after was read book we deep in fought of the problem whi-ch was discussion in it. We often read or hear that someone after hi read book enjoy new ides or be so delight that he change & began to see world in another color. Writers tries to portray life in it’s richness or make his story or poem with humor for brought pleasure & delight to readers The book is there old tying. First library was founded in Egypt more then 3000years BC. At first time they were very rare because books were writing by hands. This process last-ed for many years. Nowadays there great amount Of books & you can always fined smoking for your rise. Books can be About lives of different people, detective stores, novels, encyc-lopedias & many other. Now TV is compare books & some people prefer to watch films than read books, but they more interesting. I don’t like to read like most children nowadays, but I like to read novels, detective stores & fantasy have a lot of books at home also I can take so-me of them in the library. Now there are a lot of books & you can not keep all them at home but if you need a book you can go to the library it is a house of books. Books with us all our life. In childhood we liked to listened fables .teenagers like to read adventures. They help us to live & understand world around us, to relax & the main reason we books are necessary they bring a lot of pleasure
The city is the place where situated all industrial cultures & education centers. In big cities you can find museums, theaters, clubs, cinema ,big shops & hospitals People try to live in cites be-cause all necessary objects are situated near For example if you ill the hospital or chemist shop will situated near your home in the city but if you live in countryside it will hard to find any medicine help or hospital fare from city. Also in big cites you can fiend all sorts of entertainment such as cinemas clubs entertaining parks & so on. Many people like to spend their free time in clubs ,entertaining parks because it is help them to relax & bring them a lot of pleasure It is really comfortable that everything you need in daily life situated near you. One of the most important comfort of big cites that you can fast drive up to your job for example. Yes, it is really comfortable, & at first glance everything is good but nowadays big cites there are a great amount of cars & factories Big cites suffering of overpopulation, duty of air, & water, The streets became nosy & after hard working day people can not relax. People try to do everything to go to countryside because only where they can fiend quite. Every holiday & every week-end people try to leave their houses &go to the village. As for me I prefer to live in big cites because A lot of big shops situated near my home, but I also like to spend my holidays in the countryside because after I spend in city about 9 months I began to get tired.
I think that if you don’t want to feel fit you’d better go in for one kind of sport or another. I should admit that everyone must do all he can to be healthy. Good health is better than the best medicine. The English proverb «Sickness in the body brings sickness to the mind» expresses a similar idea but from different point of view. All kinds of physical exercises are very useful to make our bodies strong as we want. To tell the truth I don’t do sports regularly and it is not an essential part of my daily life. but I like it summer I to swim & play tennis basketball, football. In winter, you can skiing & skating it is useful too. Of course, I like to watch sports completions on TV. Fortunately, they show different ones-football, basketball. I like tennis tournaments very much. Also I admire skiing champion-ships, biathlon, swimming Doing sports a man become strong, healthy and gay. He begins to take care of his health. Certainly in every school there are sport grounds & gyms In owe school we have a nice gym .Games is popular among children. Many of they train at special sport school where held a lot of competitions. Every year many championships held all over the world. Among them the greatest is Olympic Games a lot of Russian sportsman also win them. We mast know that sport help us to be healthy & «Good health is better than wealth»,
№11 Education in Russia
An educated person is one who knows a lot about many things. I think it is very important that everyone should be educated. Each pupils mast to do everything to become a useful member of our society. Education is very important in our life. In the Russian Federation the school education is compulsory. Pupils begin to go to school at the age of 6.When they complete high grades they can either continue to study at school for more 2 years, or go to a professional school where they study not only main subjects, but are able to learn some profession When pupils leave school they can try to continue their education in institutes or universities. There are many school types of schools in Russia: specialized, politecnical, musical art and others. Nowadays appeared some new types of schools: gymnasiums and colleges. I learn in one of the specialized schools in Moscow. To my mind, our school is very well equipped. It has a gym, a library, a computer class and some labs(for example — chemistry lab or physics lab). At school we had classes in Russian, literature, mathematics, English, history and so on. My favorite subjects were English, History and Russian My favorite subjects were English, Biology & Chemistry .I like English because I began better understand my native language & I need it for my future besides it is very interesting to read books, listen the news ,speak with English–speaking people. The Biology & Chemistry is interesting for me because learn them very easy & because it is interesting for me to know from what consist things around us. I like owe school because we have a very good teachers & it is interesting to learn subjects when the teacher is good. School is one of owe houses in life.
Everyone have spare time. The time when person can do everything he/she like or interested in. Some people prefer to spend their free time slipping at home, watching TV or listening ra-dio; Another like hiking ,travelling, getting with friends visited galleries, cinemas or gathering something. The things which people like to do in their spare time are calls–Hobbies.Hobbies can be different They divide in to 2 sorts. The first it is when person prefer doing something for example watching TV or travailing The second hobby is gathering marks corns audio or video cassettes. As for my I like to gathering audio cassettes. I get a lot of pleasure Gathering cassette with music which I like. I relax then I listen music, not all certainly. Also it is interesting for me to go travel & walk with my friends often visited new places & it is very exiting. We like to vi-sited consertets ,& listen our favourite music Also I interested with computers I like to play computers games making programmes but most of all I enjoy with Internet Every weekend I spend a lot of time in Chats programmes in Internet where people from all over the world meting & talk about news music ,books & many other interesting things. Some times Hobby became a profession for example I have friend he’s hobby is music & she wanted to be pianist .For all people hobby is something which relax &entertain them. They help people to have a rest. Without hobbies lives of many people will be dale & ,uniform
№ 13 Mass Media
Mass media (that is the press, the radio and television)play unimportant role in the life of soci-ety. They reflect corrent events & vital problems. They also influence the way people look at the world & make them change their views. Millions of people in their spare time watch TV & read newspapers. On the radio one can hear music, news and various discussions or commentaries of current events. On the TV can see a lot of documentary programs & films Now on Russia TV we have 11channels &you can fined something for race your mood & relax. It is means for schedule knowledge & information about everything the world Every day we knead news. We can certainly see them on TV but you can buy a newspapers often see people sitting in the Metro & reading newspaper or magazine. There are variety sorts of magazines & newspapers They can be about music, politics, sport half & so on Nowadays big cities overfull of great amount of news & information Some people read everything they buy. It's no mater what they read &What about &they only lose their time. But there are people who read only that magazines & newspapers which they interesting or kneaded think that MM help us in education & daily life only when you read only that you choose Than you read something here sow something there everything confuse in your head &you’ll know nothing. Also I think that MM is an inventor because only in XX century we began to understand what role MM plays in our life.
The Commonwealth of Australia is a self governing federal state. It is situated in the southwe-st of the Pacific ocean, occupying the continent of Australia and a great number of islands near it Australia is a continent-island washed by the Indian & the Pacific Oceans. The country consists of 6 states and 2 territories16 million people live in Australia. The capital is Canberra The official language is English.Australia is an important producer and exporter of primary products wool, meat, sugar, fruit, iron, gold and so on. Most of the factories are situated near big cities There are 4 big cities in Australia: Sydney, Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth. These cities are also the country's main ports. Canberra was specially planned as a capital. It is a quiet city. All the government buildings are situated there. There no industrial plants in the city. About 300000 people live in Canberra. Sydney is the oldest and largest city in Australia. It was founded in 1788. Sydney is a big industrial centre. About 3 million people now live in the city Australian Parliament has two chambers, the house of Representatives and the Senate. The government of the country is headed by the Prime Minister. Australia is not only far from the rest of the world, it has a bad climate, too The climate is better in the east and south-east, where most big cities have grownup. But the northern coast has too much rain, and the western coast is too dry. The highest part of Australia, and almost all the mountains are near the coast. The whole central part of the country is dry; it never rains, there are no large rivers and no water there. So there is no very rich plant life in Australia want to visit this country because I think it have there interesting history &also this country is differ than other English-streaking countries.
GB is situated on the British Isles & as a whole is a densely populated country. The population of country is more then 56 million people. The country has a very good geographical position as it lies on the crossways of the sea routes from Europe to other parts of the world. The sea connected GB with most of the world & influence the climate of the country. Thanks to the Atlantic oscine & the Golf-Stream, a warm ocean current, the climate of GB is warm & damp. GB is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as exporters of iron & steel products, chemicals & navigation equipment. GB is a country with old cultural traditions & customs The most famous educational centers are Ox-ford & Cambridge universities .They are consider to be the intellectual centers of Europe. The education is not free it is very expensive. GB is a Parliamentary monarchy .The monarchy is one of the old English traditions. It has no power .The Queen of GB “doesn’t rule ,but reigns” The country is governed by the Parliament, consisting of the Queen (or King) The House of Commons & The House of Lords, but government elected with the Prime Minister at the head. GB consist of 4 main parts: England ,Wales, Scotland, & Northern Ireland. The relief in the South & East is flat. Scotland &Wales are mountains & hilly. But the mountains are not high ,The highest one is Ben Nevis in Scotland. It is 1343 meters high. There are many rivers in GB but they are not long. Many of rivers are connected with each other by means of channels .The main rivers are: The Seven, The Themes, The Shannon & The Clyde.
London is one of the world’s most enjoyable cities It is a capitol of GB. Visited by the tourists in the million, the city offers them an astonishing variety of scenes .The city is situated on the river Thames. London can be divided into 4 main parts: The City, The East End, The West End & Westminster. London was founded 2000 years BC, so London has a very rich history & a lot of monuments of history. The most famous of them are: St. Paul’s Cathedral, Trafalgar Square, The Tower of London & Westminster abbey. Westminster Abbey is a national shrine Where the kings and queens are crowned & famous people are burred. Founded by Edward the Confessor in 1055,the Abbey was a monastery for a long time The present building dates largely from the time of Henry III W ho began to rebuild the church ,a task which lasted hearty 300 years. The west towers were added in the eighteen centre. Since William I almost every English monarch has been crowned in this great church, which contains the tombs & memorials of many Britain’s most eminent citizen .One of the greatest treasures of The Abbey is the oaken Coronation Chair made in 1300.The Abbey is also known for it’s Poet’s Corner. Craves & memorials to many English poets & writers are clustered round about. Londoners are there proud of their city with it’s ancient buildings, monuments & architectural masterpieces.
№17 English traditions
Every country and every nation has it's own traditions and customs. It's very important to know traditions and customs of different people because It will help you to know more about the history and life of different nations and countries One cannot speak about England with-out speaking about it's traditions and customs. They are very important in the life of English people. Englishman are reputed to be cold, reserved rather haughtier people. They are nationally polite & they never tied of saying: «Thank you» or " I’m sorry". They are gently disciplined you never heard long talk in the straits. They don't rush for seats in buses & trains. English people do not shake hands when eating. They don't show their emotions even in tragic situations. Englishman are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. There are six public holidays a year in GB. Christmas day is one of their favourite holidays. It's celebrated on the 25-th of December. There are some traditions connected with it. One of them is to give presents to each other. It is not only children and members of family. It's a tradition to give Christmas presents to the people you work with. Another tradition is to send Christmas cards. & many other pleasant things. Another great holiday is Halloween. It is the day than all children dresses up in unusual costumes. this holiday selabrateted on the 31 of October.
Russiaoccupy a large territory. It stretch almost 10 000 kilometres from east to west and nearly 5 000 kilometres from north to south. It's population is 150 000 000 million people.Russia develop for many parts: Siberia, Ural, European part & Far East. In Russia there are a lot of big cites in all it’s parts. The capital is Moscow, it is situated in the European part. There is no over countries in which the climate differs so much from one part to antherThe climate is deferent in all reigns When it is still winter in the northern regions of our country the first warm days arrive in the southern the central regions snow storms & cold are still in power while in the south people begin to think of spring crops. In the same season nature looks different in different parts of our country. Siberia is a region of untold riches, & Ural is riche in different minerals .Russia is rich in oil, iron, gold, silver and other minerals In our country there are endless forests, large and small rivers from East to West. Country is washed by 12 seas of 3 oceans: Pacific, Arctic & the Atlantic Also I’d like to say a few words about the traditions of Russia. The names of Gzhel and Khokhloma are considered to be the symbols of Russia as well as matryoshkas and samovars. Now we celebrate the forgotten holidays-Troisa, Maslenitsa, Easter We again sing Russian folk songs and chastushki, dance Barinya and perform khorovods, ride in troikas Traditional Russian cooking is world-famous for such dishes as okroshka, shi, pelment, kvass. We begin to build & reconstruct churches.
Moscow is a capital of Russia & it is there big & old city, so in Moscow there are many tourist. They come to our city to acquainted with Russia. In our home there often comes my parent’s friends from Francs ,Germany & we show them Moscow. At first every tourist how co-me to Moscow mast visit Red Square because it is center & hart of our city. There situated the most beautiful cathedrals in Moscow .for example Santa Basils Cathedral erected by architectures Postnik & Barma to commemorate Russia’s conquest of The Kazan Kingdom in 1552 .Moscow is a political ,cultural ,scientific & education centers in Russia. In Moscow there are a lot of theaters ,museums ,galleries, universities. The greatest ,most beautiful & biggest one of the theaters is a Bolshow Theater. .It is famous all over the world. Pushkin’s Museum of Fin Art & Tretiaykov Gallery the most big famous in Moscow. In Tretiaukov Gallery you can find pictures & drawings a great member of pianists all other the world, begin from icon & pectoris from Eugept to mordent pianists .A lot of exhibitions held there. Also in Moscow situated The State Moscow University It one of the best universities in Europe. Nowadays Moscow became a mordent city with wide streets with great member of restoring, clubs, cinemas & so on .At night Moscow is illuminate with many lights. Also now appeared big shops & you can see beautiful shop-windows in the greatest & biggest streets of our city. I think that our town very beautiful & as I know ,All tourists admired by it & I’m theory proud that I live in Moscow.