Реферат: Сочинения по США
New York attract peopl from all over. Get on a subway in New York and look at the newspapers that peopl around you are reading. One person is reading a newspaper in Spanish, anouther in Chinese, yet others in Arabic, Russian, Italian, Yiddish, and French. New York was always a city of immigrants. It still is .
The are 5 boroughs in New York — Manhaptan, Brooklyn, Queens, the bronx, and Staten Island. Brooklyn alone has so many people that if it were a separate city, it would be the fourth largest in the United States.
Manhattan is an island just 13 miles long and 2 miles wide. It is the centre of American finance, advertising, art theatre, publishing, fashion — and much more. The borough of Manhatten is what most people think of New York, one of the most exciting cities in the world.
Manhattan is divided into the East Side and the West Side. The dividing line is Fifth Avenue. So, for example, East 47th Street begins at Fifth Avenue, as does West 47th Street.
Manhattan is also divided, wuth less exactnes, into Lower (Downtown), Midtown and Upper (Up-town) Manhattan. As you go North, or uptown, the street numbers get higher. Lower Manhatta refers to street numbers below 14th Street and Central Park, and Upper Manhattan to the renaming, northern, part of the island.
The Financial District .
The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Manhattan. To protect themselves from attacs, they built a sturdy wooden wall. Although it`s now long gone, this wall gave it`s name to a street in Lower Manhattan and the street, in turn, became synonymous with American capitalism. The street, of course, is Wall Street. The New York Stock Exchange and the American Stokc Exchange are both in the Wall Street area. So are many stokc brokers, investment blanks and others bank, and headquarters of many large corporations.
To escape the commotion of Wall Street you can visit the nearby South Street Seaport, an open area of low buildings on the East River. In addition to many shops and restaraunts, the seaport has a museum.
Two good ways to get the larger picture of New York are to circle it in a bout and to hover over it in helicopter. In the financial district, thogh, there`s anouther way to see New York. The twin towers of the World Trade Centre rise 1,350 feet above the city. There`s an observation deck on the 107th floor of one of the towers.
Appropriately, the very first business deal in Manhattan was made in what became the financial district. As every American schoolchild knows, the Dutch bought Manhattan from the Indians, for the rediculously low price of 24 dollars worth of beads and trinkets. There is, however, another, less known side of this: evidently, the Indians who had sold Manhattan did not themselves live there or in any sense own it. The Dutch and the Indians alike walked away pleased.
The Lower East Side.
The lower East Side was originali an ellegant neighborhood. When New York was the capital of the United States, Presedent George Washington lived on the Lower East Side.
By the mid-1880s the Lower East Side had changed greatly. It was chracterized by crime and the poverty and hopes of it`s residents. By the mid-1800s the Lower East Side had become an area in which immigrants settled. First there were many Irish, then came many Jews from Easten Europe.
Near the Lower East Side there are two other neighborhoods that also attracted immigrants and that are famous for their food.The Italian restaraurants of Little Italy remain popular to tourists and Italians alike. Today Chinatown is the only immigrant community that`s still growing. Chinatown has seven newspaper of it`s own. It also nearly 200 restaurants.
Greenwich Village and the East Village.
Greenwich Village and the East Village have always been at the centre of New york`s excitement. Both have been places for people with different and creative ideas. Both have an active nightlife with plenty of bars, restaraurants and clubs.
In the early 1900s the charm Greenwich Village attracted bohemians — writers and artists. By the 1920s, the streets of the Village were filled with other peole, curious to see how these odd Villagers lived. The artists and writers began moving out, some to the East Village. Today, the Village has many elemets: students attending New York University; an active jazz scene; and in Washington Square — it`s centre — street performers, police. Drug dealers, joggers, roller skates, and just about everyone else.
When bohemiams moved to the East Village 1920s, they found an area similar to the Lower East Side. There were many immigrants, much dirt and grime. The East Village has changed very little. Over the years it has been a centre for many movements — for the beat poets of the 1950s, the hippies of the 1960s, and, more recently, for New York`s punk scene.
The United States of America
The Unites States of America are situated in the central part of the North American continent. Its western coast is washed by the Pacific Ocean and its eastern coast — by the Atlantic Ocean. The total area of the USA is over nine million square kilometres. The population of the USA is more than 236 million people; most of the population lives in towns and cities. The USA is a very large country, so it has several different climatic
regions. The Goldest regions are in the north and north-east. The south has a subtropical climate. The United States is a land of rivers and lakes..The northern state
of Minnesota is the land of 10 000 lakes. The longest
rivers in the USA are the Mississippi, the Missouri and the Rio Grande. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada.
The United States are riebiia natural and mineral resources. It produces copper, oil, iron ore and coal. It is a highly-developed industrial Bad agricultural coubtry. There are many big cities in the USA, such as New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and others. The national capital is Washington, D.C. Its population is about 3,4 million. Washington was
built in the late eighteenth century especially as the centre of governmeat. It was named after George Washington. The USA became the world teading country at the beginning of the twen*eth century.
The United States of America is a federal republic consisting of 50 states. Each of which has its own goverment («state goverment»). In some ways the United States is like 50 small countries. Each state has its own governor, its own police and its own laws. The present constitution was proclaimed in 1787 in Philadelphia, the President is the head of the whole country and the goverment and «commandering chief» of the armed forces. He makes the most important decisions and chooses the ministers, the members of his cabinet. But the President cannot do just what he wants. The Congress must agree first. Americans choose a new president every four years. The residence of the President is the White House in Washington, the Capital city. The goverment of the
whole country (the Federal goverment) works from Washington, this is where the Congress is based. The Capitol is the seat of the US Congress. Congress is the American parliament which consists of 2 chambers. The Senate and the House of Representatives. The first Congress met in 1789 in New York city. The membership then consisted of 22 senators and 59 representatives. Today the House of Representatives has 435 members. Elections to the house take place every 2 years. There are 100 senators (2 from each state), they are elected to serve for a period of six years, but every two years elections to the senate took place when one/third of its members must be changed or re-elected. Election day is always in the month of November, on the first Tuesday, after the first
Monday. Americans who aren't yet 25 years old have no right to be elected to the House of Representatives. Whose, who are under 30 can't be elected in the Senate. The main political parties in the United States of America are the Democratic Party and the Republlican Party.
The city of Washington, the capital of the United States of America is located in the District of Columbia (DC for short) Many people consider Washington DC to be one of the most beatiful cities in the world. It is filled with many parks, wide streets and impressive buildings. In the centre of the city, in Capitol Park, visitors' eyes focus on the Capitol, where Congress convence to inect laws. Many visitors come to Washington DC to see the White House. It is the greatest attraction for many of them. The White House, the official residence of the President, is situated at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. The largest room in this building of over the hundreds room is the East Room, scene
of many state receptions, balls and musicals. Other famous rooms are: the Green Room, the Blue Room, the Red Room, which are used for afternoon teas and for receptions held before state dinners. The Blue Room, the most formal of these «colors» room is an oval-shaped room connecting the Green and the Red Rooms. On the second floor, the floor with the family quarters and quests rooms, is the Lincoln Room, which one served as an office for president Lincoln but today serves as an honor guest room. In this room Lincoln signed the emansipation proclamation of 1863. Other landmarks in Washington DC include memorials to three Presidents: The Washington Memorial, The Lincoln Memorial and The Jefferson Memorial; The Library of Congress, The National Gallary of Art, The John F. Kennedy center for the Perfoming Arts. The Capitol is in the very center of Washington. It is located on the
Capitol Hill, the highest point in the city. The Capitol is the highest building in Washington. There is a law in Washington not to build buildings higher than the Capitol. The conrer stone of the Capitol was laid by George Washington on Sep 18th, 1793. The Capitol is the seat of the goverment of the United States of America.