Реферат: Manet Edouard's Flautist


                                            Manet Edouard 1832–1883


Frenchpainter. Active in Paris, he was one of the foremost French artists of the 19thcentury. Rebelling against the academic tradition, he developed a clear andunaffected realist style. His subjects were mainly contemporary, such as A Barat the Folies-Bergиre 1882 (Courtauld Art Gallery, London).

Born in Paris,he trained under a history painter and was inspired by Goya and Velбzquez andalso by Courbet. His Dйjeuner sur l’herbe/Picnic on the Grass 1863 and Olympia1865 (both Musйe d’Orsay, Paris) offended conservative tastes in theirmatter-of-fact treatment of the nude body. He never exhibited with theImpressionists, although he was associated with them from the 1870s.


The most significant work of 1866 is«Flautist». The picture speaks about surprising successes of theartist. It is written in three layers, with such reliance and skill, that neverand nobody could them surpass. Manet has acquired in workshop of Cutur allcolors, and he used brown tone, so-called «juice». He wrote at onceon a thin one-ton ground. Modeling of light and shadow were avaricious, thetransition from the covered places to shadows is very realistic. Face and nakedparts of a body are given in unusual vitality, which originally was written bysoft equal tone, then he planned shadows and only then, at the third stage, heimposed patches of light. He did not aspire to hide the amendments and changes,he simply wrote down by wide stroke of paint, there is a bottom layer ofpainting is transparent through it, and it creates surprising effects. Manetseldom has mixed paints.  The trousers of a flautist are of moraine color(green-dark blue) and they will seem as a Chinese varnish. But some shadows,hardly distinctive from close distance. From far distance the picture is moreunderstandable. This picture is situated in Luxembourg museum.

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