Реферат: Friedrich, Caspar David

The Germanromantic painter Caspar David Friedrich, b. Sept. 5, 1774, d.May 7, 1840, was one of the greatest exponents in European art of the symboliclandscape.

He studiedat the Academy in Copenhagen (1794-98), and subsequently settled in Dresden,often traveling to other parts of Germany. Friedrich's landscapes are basedentirely on those of northern Germany and are beautiful renderings of trees,hills, harbors, morning mists, and other light effects based on a closeobservation of nature.

Some ofFriedrich's best-known paintings are expressions of a religious mysticism. In1808 he exhibited one of his most controversial paintings, The Cross in theMountains (Gemaldegalerie, Dresden), in which--for the first time in Christianart--an altarpiece was conceived in terms of a pure landscape. The cross, viewedobliquely from behind, is an insignificant element in the composition. Moreimportant are the dominant rays of the evening sun, which the artist saiddepicted the setting of the old, pre-Christian world. The mountain symbolizesan immovable faith, while the fir trees are an allegory of hope. Friedrichpainted several other important compositions in which crosses dominate alandscape.

Even someof Friedrich's apparently nonsymbolic paintings contain inner meanings, cluesto which are provided either by the artist's writings or those of his literaryfriends. For example, a landscape showing a ruined abbey in the snow, Abbeywith Oak Trees (1810; Schloss Charlottenburg, Berlin), can be appreciated onone level as a bleak, winter scene, but the painter also intended thecomposition to represent both the church shaken by the Reformation and thetransitoriness of earthly things.

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Для подготовкиданной работы были использованы материалы с сайта www.ibiblio.org/louvre/paint/

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