Реферат: Moscow

 In March of 1918 Moscow became the capital. The supreme organs ofstate power and many central institutions moved to Moscow from Petrograd. Itwas extremely difficult in the years of the Civil war to see the image of a newcity in deserted and unheated Moscow.

 The rapid growth of Moscow's population occurred during thetwenties and thirties, in 1931 work began to develop the Master ReconstructionPlan of Moscow, a plan which many people abroad considered to be vain dream.

 The city grew and changed, the streets and squares became wider,the wooden houses at the former outskirts disappeared. But the buildings ofcultural and historical value were carefully preserved.

 Today, as ever, the Kremlin with Red Square is the centre ofMoscow. Here Moscow began more than eight hundred years ago. The city has grownso vast since, the present and the past are so closely interwoven that one cannot embrace it all at once.

 Certain villages, distant country estates have become the newresidential areas of Moscow. New dwellings rose not only within the establishedparts of Moscow but new neighbourhoods took shape in Tyoply Stan, Orekhovo-Borisovo,Yasenevo.

 In the past century Moscow went through the invasion ofNapoleon's army that forced all Muscovites to leave their city. Moscow wasburned down but was never conquered. Once the enemy was driven away. itsinhabitants set about building Moscow anew.

 Nowadays in erecting new buildings, the Muscovites take care topreserve its unique monuments. Its architectural ensembles have been formedover the centuries and each generation added features of its Lime to theappearance of the city.

 The city has thousands of libraries, schools, kindergartens andnurseries, hundreds of clubs and cinemas, dozens of higher educationalestablishments, theatres, museums and stadiums.

 Neither words nor convincing figures, however, can give acomplete idea of what had been done in Moscow. One has to visit Moscow plantsand factories, to stroll about its streets and squares, to see its newresidential areas.

 The Kremlin is now both a piece of living history and an ensembleof masterpieces of Russian architecture.

 The first thing that meets the eye is the redbrick walls of theKremlin, reinforced by 20 towers, five of which are also gates. The Kremlin'stowers are unique in appearance. Built in 1485, the Tainitsky Tower is theoldest. The highest of them is the Trinity Tower which is 80 metres tall.

 The Bolshoi Theatre was opened in 1825. The theatre seats 2,150.The company has more than 900 members.

 The State Tretyakov Gallery. The gallery's works of Russian finearts range from unique mosaics and icons of the 11th century to works ofcontemporary artists. The gallery is named after great Russian ConnoisseurPavel Tretyakov who left his collection as a gift to the nation. It has becomeone of the most popular places of interest in Moscow since then.

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