Реферат: Темы по англ.яз. 9 класс
“Great Britain”has severaldifferent names. Some people say “Britain”, or “the United Kingdom”, or just “UK”. There are four different countries in the UnitedKingdom: England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland.
Altogether morethan 56 million people live in Britain, many of them in big industrial citieslike London, Liverpool and Manchester, but people are often surprised by howmuch of Britain is open country, with lonely hills and woods, quiet rivers,lakes and farmlands.
Many people thinkthat the weather is cold and wet in Britain all the year round. But it isn’t! True, it sometimes rains and even snows for daysand days, but every year there are weeks of beautiful sunny weather then theBritish take off their sweaters and go out to sunbathe.
Britain is only asmall country, but every part is different. Scotland is a land of mountains,lakes and romantic castles. The winters are cold, with plenty of snow, but thesummers are often warm and sunny. Most farmers keep sheep, and they’re many small factories, which make fine sweaters fromtheir wool. In some parts of Scotland, there are very few people. Deer live inthe hills, and the rivers are full of salmon. But Glasgow and Edinburgh areboth large and busy, with all that is good (and bad) in modern cities.
Northern Irelandhas it problems, but it has beauty, too. In the warm, wet climate, the grassgrows a brilliant green, and much of the land is farming country. Belfast is alarge industrial city with many fine buildings and big port from which shipscome and go to Scotland and England. But Belfast has had many difficulty years,and it is not the busy place it once was.
A hundred years agothe north of England was industrial heart of the country. From the factoriescame cloth, wool, machines, engines and china. The old factories came have gonenow and the workers have to look for jobs in the new “high-tech”industries.Outside the towns, much of this part of England is beautiful countryside, withgreen hills, lakes and sandy beaches. Fishing is still a big industry in theNorth East, and every night (except Sunday) the fishing boats go out to sea.
The centre ofEngland (the “Midlands”) is also an important industrial area, especiallynear the huge cities of Coventry and Birmingham, the centre of the carindustry. But everyone, even in the heart of the modern city, there arebuildings from older Britain –cathedrals,castles, and houses built hundred years ago.
Wales is a specialplace, a country of high mountains and pretty valleys. But Wales has plenty ofindustry, too, with many factories and coal mines.
The west of Englandis rich farming country. It produces milk, cream, butter, cheese and apples,which go to make cider, a popular drink. In the villages, country people oftengrow their own fruit, vegetables and flowers.
Some areas ofBritain are very crowded. Around Manchester, in north west England, andGlasgow, in Scotland, are large city areas of houses and factories. The southeast of England, too, has many towns and cities, including London, the giantcapital. But quiet near London there are still some quiet villages and peacefulfarms.
Britain is anisland, of course, and you are never far from the sea. Some of the coast,especially in the west, is wild and rocky, with small, sandy beaches, andromantic old harbours. Other parts are industrial. The East Coast of Scotland,for example, is busy with oil rings and fishing boats. The most popular beachesare near the many holiday towns on the south coast, where the weather isusually warmer. It is here that Londoners come to relax.
London has been acapital city for nearly a thousand years, and many of its ancient buildings stillstand. The most famous of these are the Tower of London (where the Crown Jewelsare kept), Westminster Abbey and St. Pals Cathedral, but most visitors alsowant to see the House of Parliament, Buckingham Palace and the many magnificentmuseums.
Once, London was asmall Roman town on the north bank of the Thames, but slowly it grew into oneof the world’s major cities with more thanseven million people. Fewer people live in the centre now, but the suburbs arestill growing.
Places now in theheart of London once stood in the middle of green fields. Many small villages,like Hampstead, Chelsea and Mayfair, became part of London, but they still keepsome of their old atmosphere. Different areas of London seem like differentcities. The West End is a rich man’s world of shops,offices and theatres. The old port area is now called “Docklands”. The great shipshave gone, and the area is changing very fast. There are huge new officebuildings, and thousands of new flats and houses.
Other parts ofLondon are changing, too. Some of the poor areas have become fashionable, andpeople with money are moving into them.
A hundred yearsago, the river was crowded by ships, leaving for Java and Japan, New Zealandand New York, but now people travel by air, and London’s main airport, Heathrow, is one of the busiest in theworld.
Like all bigcities, London has streets and concrete buildings, but it also has many bigparks, full of trees, flowers and grass. Sit on the grass (you’re allowed to!) in the middle of Hyde Park or KensingtonGardens, and you will think that you’re in the country,miles away.
Many people liveoutside the centre of London in the suburbs, and they travel to work, in theshops and offices by train, bus or underground. The trains are full –and expensive –and the roads arecrowded with cars, but every day a million people come from far out of London,even from the coast, and spend up to four hours travelling every day.
Most people workfrom 9 am to 5 p.m. From 8 till 10 every morning, and 4.30 to 6.30 everyevening, the trains are crowded with people, and after the morning “rush hour”the shoppers come.
By the day thewhole of London is busy. At night, the offices are quiet and empty, but theWest End stays alive, because this is where Londoners come to enjoy themselves.There are two opera houses here, several concert halls and many theatres, aswell as cinemas, and in nearby Soho the pubs, restaurants and nightclubs arebusy half the night.
Many people thinkthat London is all grey but in fact red id the London’s favourite colour. The buses are red, the letterboxesare red and the mail vans are all bright, bright red. London is at its bestwhen people are celebrating. Then the flags, the soldiers’uniforms the cheering crowds and the carriages andhorses all sparkle in the sunshine –if it’s not raining, of course!
Travelling by train.
Modern life is impossible without travelling. Of course the fastest wayof travelling is by plane. But many people make their choice on travelling bytrain as with a train you have speed, comfort and pleasure combined. Travellingby train is of course slower than by air but it also has its advantages.
If you are going to travel by train you’d better book seats beforehand because many people are fond oftravelling by train. There are some reasons why people choose railroad. Trainis the cheap means of travelling. If it is summer outside it will be better tothink of your trip before the vocation starts. To understand how true this is,you only have to go to a railway station. There you will see hundreds of peoplehurrying to catch a train. You’ll waste a lot oftime standing near the booking-office trying to buy a ticket.
Modern trains have very comfortable seats in all passenger cars, andthere are sleeping-cars and dining-cars which make even the longest journeyenjoyable. You can buy first-class, second-class and third-class sleepers in aseparate compartment. If you are early before the train starts you can leaveyour suit-cases in the compartment and walk up and down the platform. Somepeople forget when and from which platform and track their train will be off.They can always ask for the track, platform and train numbers at the railroadstation information bureau and also get information about next trains and theirschedules. There are express, slow and long-distance trains. If you want to gosomewhere and get there as quickly as possible you’d better know that express trains only stop at thelargest stations while slow trains stop at all stations. You can get to far countriesonly by a long-distance train.
Once you are in your compartment you have to ask the guide to bring inthe bedding. There are usually two lower and two upper berths in a third-classsleeper compartment. Some people like to occupy upper berths because it is moreconvenient and exciting to travel. During your way on the train you can readnewspapers, books, look out of the window, drink the tea, communicate with yourneighbours or sleep. I prefer to look out of the window, because you can seethe country you are passing through, and not only the clouds as when you areflying. You can have something to eat at the stations when the train makesstops.
Though we all seem to agree that the future belongs to air transport,the railroads today still carry a lot of passengers and goods.
Travelling by Air.
Modern life is impossible without travelling. Of course the fastest wayof travelling is by plane. Many people prefer travelling by air as it is themost convenient, comfortable and quickest means of travelling. Travelling byplane has also its advantages and disadvantages.
If you are going to travel by air you’d better buytickets beforehand because many people are fond of travelling by plane. Thereare some reasons why people choose that means of travelling. If it is summeroutside it will be better to think of your trip before the vocation starts. Tounderstand how true this is, you only have to go to an airport. There you willsee hundreds of people hurrying to catch a plane. You’ll waste a lot of time standing near the bookingoffice trying to buy a ticket.
Modern planes have very comfortable seats in all cabins, and there arefirst class, business and economy class cabins. Inside the cabin the air isalways fresh and warm. Before the plane takes off the stewardess helps everyoneget comfortable in the seats and wishes them a pleasant trip. She also givesall the information about the flight, the speed and the altitude. During theflight you can have something to drink and to eat. You can read newspapers andmagazines or simply look out of the pothole. But you will sea nothing outsidebut the clouds. You can buy first-class, second-class and third class. You mustbe in time for your flight because you must have time to pass custom andpassport controls and check in. Before boarding the plane the passenger mustregister at the airport. While registering he is required to have his luggageweighed. If the luggage weighs more than 20 kilograms you have to payextra. Sometimes people forget the timeand the number of the flight. They can always ask for that at the airport’s information bureau and also get information aboutnext flights and their timetables.
Sometimes passengers don’t feel as if theyare walking on good solid ground when on board the plane. They can get airsickand then travelling by air becomes a real torture for them.
Nowadays travelling by air is one of the dangerous means of travelling.There are a lot of air crashes and many people die in them. And I think peopleprefer safety to comfort on board a ship.
Though we all seem to agree that the future belongs to air transport,other means of travelling are still popular today.
Holiday is a day set apartfor religious observance or for the commemoration of some extraordinary eventor distinguished person, or for some other public occasion.
National holidaysare days set aside by official government proclamation to celebrate differentoccasions.
The U.S. has nonational holidays. Legal holidays –days on whichbanks, schools, or other public institutions and most places of business areclosed.
Memorial Day is a legal holiday,observed annually on the last Monday in May in most of the United States, Ithonours the nation's armed services killed in wartime. The holiday, originallycalled Decoration Day, is traditionally marked by parades, memorial speechesand ceremonies, and the decoration of graves with flowers and flags. MemorialDay was first observed on May 30, 1868, on the order of General John AlexanderLogan for the purpose of decorating the graves of the American Civil War dead.It was observed on May 30 until 1971, when most states changed to a newlyestablished federal schedule of holiday observance.
Independence Day is an annualholiday commemorating the formal adoption by the Continental Congress of theDeclaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, in Philadelphia. Although thesigning of the Declaration was not completed until August, the Fourth of Julyholiday has been accepted as the official anniversary of United States independenceand is celebrated in all states and territories of the U.S.
The Fourth of Julyis traditionally celebrated publicly with parades and pageants, patrioticspeeches, and organised firing of guns and cannons and displays of fireworks.Family picnics and outings are a feature of private Fourth of Julycelebrations.
Thanksgiving Day,a legal holiday inthe U.S., was first celebrated in early colonial times in New England. Theactual origin is probably the harvest festivals that are traditional in manyparts of the world. After the first harvest was completed by the Plymouthcolonists in 1621, Governor William Bradford proclaimed a day of thanksgiving.
In 1863 PresidentAbraham Lincoln appointed a day of thanksgiving, and since then each presidenthas issued a Thanksgiving Day proclamation, generally designating the fourthThursday of November as a holiday.
New Year's Day is the first day ofthe year, January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. In the Middle Ages most Europeancountries used the Julian calendar and observed New Year's Day on March 25,called Annunciation Day and celebrated as the birth to the Son of God. With theintroduction of the Gregorian calendar in 1582, Roman Catholic countries beganto celebrate New Year's Day on January 1.
The custom of visitingfriends, relatives and neighbours on New Year’s Day is one of the Old World traditions that has taken on a new form inthe United States. A favourite place to see the old year out is New York City’s Time Square.
Christmas is an annualfestival, held on December 25, to celebrate the Nativity, or birth of Christ.The Christmas tree, an evergreen trimmed with lights and other decorations, isderived from the so-called paradise tree, symbolising Eden.
Saint Valentine'sDay,a holiday honouring lovers, is celebrated on February 14. There is a custom ofsending greeting cards or gifts to express affection. The cards, known asvalentines, are often designed with hearts to symbolise love. The holidayprobably derives from the ancient Roman feast of Lupercalis (February 15). Thefestival gradually became associated with the feast day (February 14) of twoRoman martyrs, both named St. Valentine, who lived in the 3rd century. St.Valentine has traditionally been regarded as the patron saint of lovers.
Washington is thecapital city of the United States. It is located on the north bank of thePotomac River.
George Washington,the first President of the USA, after whom the city was named, selected an areafor the capital. A hundred square miles were taken from states of Maryland andVirginia. It was called the District of Columbia. The city is divided into foursections: NW, NE, SW, and SE. Numbered streets run north and south: FirstStreet, Second Street… Lettered streets such as A-street, B-street run east andwest. Bear in mind that every section has an independent street system. If you’re looking for Third Street, you need to know whatsection of the city it is in.
Washington is oneof the most beautiful and unusual cities in the United States. It has littleindustry, and only one million people. One reason Washington looks differentfrom other cities is that no building in the city may be more than 40 metrestall. There are no skyscrapers, because they would hide the city’s many monuments from view. One can easily find apark, a square or an open area there. The most impressive and the best-knownones are the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument.
The heart ofWashington is the Capitol, which is connected with the White House byPennsylvania Avenue. It dominates the city of Washington. All the touristsbegin sightseeing from the Capitol and see the Senate Chamber, the Hall ofRepresentatives, the Statuary Hall and some others.
Thousands oftourists visit Washington every day. People from all parts of the United Statescome to see their capital and the monuments to those who in past centuriesstruggled for the independence of their country. The Washington Monument, thetallest stone structure in the USA, is in the Potomac River. It was opened to thepublic in 1888. It is 555 feet tall, is called the “Pencil”because of itsshape. It is three blocks south of the White House. There is an elevator, whichwill carry you to 500-foot level observation windows. The Lincoln Memorial isin the west of the Washington Monument. It is designed like a Greek temple. Thedominant figure is the realistic figure of Abraham Lincoln seated in the centreof the open temple. The Jefferson Memorial is worth seen, too. It is situatedsouth of the Washington monument near the Potomac River. The Library ofCongress contains millions of books and manuscripts. People are also interestedin churches and cathedrals. The Washington Cathedral is on MassachusettsAvenue, and the Arlington National Cemetery is outside the city limits justacross the Potomac River near the Pentagon in Virginia. The famous Tomb of theUnknown Soldier is visited by millions of people every year.
Washington is theplace where mass demonstrations take place against unemployment and racism, fordemocracy and civil rights.
“Man and his rights and freedoms shall be supremevalue”, — says the Constitution of the Russian Federation. However actuallyrights and freedoms can be treated variously. In any state, even totalitarian,nobody will write in the Constitution that the rights and freedoms of theperson should be offended. But that is the legible legislation that shouldguarantee keeping of the human rights. In Russia the basic human rights arenamed in the Constitution, and their fullest disclosure is in the laws.
According to the Russian Constitution rights andfreedoms are declared not only for the citizens of Russian Federation, but alsofor the foreign subjects, and for the stateless persons. The exceptionconstitutes only rights connected with participating in government.
These rights were not thought up in 1993, when theConstitution was accepted. The idea of the natural law, which belongs to theperson from birth, appeared in 17 century. The development of the humanitarianlaw was found in such documents as English and American Bill of Rights, theFrench Manifest of the Rights and Freedoms of Man and Citizen, FrenchConstitutions of 1791 and 1795 and many other documents. However the greatestinfluence on development of the human rights was rendered by the OverallDeclaration of Human Rights accepted on the session of the United Nations in1948.
Besides in the Soviet Union and the Russia signed somemore international treaties on the human rights, including Covenant on theEconomic, Social and Cultural Rights, Convention on Protection of the Rights ofthe Child, European Convention on Protection of Human Rights and FundamentalFreedoms, Agreements of OSCE, accepted in different time in Helsinki, Madrid,Paris, Copenhagen, Vienna, Moscow. The Soviet Union tried not to participate insigning the international legal acts on the Human Rights, but even if they hadbeen ratified, all the same they weren’t respect. Russia has joined many facts,agreements and conventions before 1993, therefore in the Russian Constitutionthe international standards of the human rights are expressed. In the secondchapter of the Russian Constitution called ‘Human and civil rights and freedoms’the following statements established:
The Russian Federation human and civil rights and freedoms shall berecognized and guaranteed according to the universally recognized principlesand norms of international law and this Constitution.
Basic human rights and freedoms shall be inalienable and shall beenjoyed from birth.
The exercise of human and civil rights must not violate the rights andthe freedoms of other people.
Human and civil rights and freedoms shall have directforce. They shall determine the meaning, content and the implementation of laws.The functioning of legislative and executive authority and of local government,and shall be guaranteed by law.
The basic human rights
The Constitution of the Russian Federation ispenetrated by the principle of equality and legal equality. It means, that allpeople are equal before the law and court. The 19th Article says:”The state guarantees the equality of rights and freedoms regardless of sex,race, nationality, language, origin, material and official status, place ofresidence, attitude to religion, convictions, membership in public associations”.It is possible to separate the following bunches of human rights: private,economic, social, cultural, ecological.
The private rights are:
The right to life.
The right to human dignity, It means that ‘ nobodyshould be subjected to torture, violence or other severe or humiliatingtreatment or punishment’.
The right to freedom and personal inviolability. Aperson may not be detained for more than 48 hours without a court order.
The right to the inviolability of private life,personal and family privacy and protection of honor and good name, the right toprivacy of correspondence, of telephone conversations and of postal, telegraphand other communications.
The right to the inviolability of the home.
The right to determine and declare nationality.
The right to use native language and to a free choiceof the language.
The right to travel freely and to freely choice of theplace of temporary of the permanent residence.
The right to freely live in Russian Federation and theright to freely return.
The right to freedom of conscience and religion.
The freedom or thought and speech.
The political rights and freedoms are:
The freedom of mass media.
The right to associate, including the right toestablish trade unions.
The right to assemble peacefully without weapon.
The right to participate in managing state affairsboth directly and through their representatives.
The right to elect and be elected to state and localgovernment bodies and to participate in the referendum.
The right to equal access to state service.
The right to participate in justice.
The right to appeal to state and local bodies.
The main economic, social and culture rights are:
The right to use freely abilities and property forentrepreneurial and other economic activities.
The right to of private property.
The Russian Constitution guarantees the rights andfreedoms by means of direct operation of the Constitution, adoption of thefederal laws, judicial and administrative protection.
Despite all democratic provisions in the RussianConstitution many of them haven’t acted yet. Therefore the following problemsare urgent for Russia:
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·<span Times New Roman"">the right onworthy life
·<span Times New Roman"">the problem ofland possessing. There’s still no property on the land.
In conclusion Russia goes on a way of becoming lawfulstate. In comparison with the former Soviet Union, in the Russia Federationexists many new civil rights and freedoms. However, the actions of thegovernment are obviously not enough of the society of general welfare.
My school is very big andnot very old with its traditions. It is named after V.V. Mayakovski. On theground floor there are several classrooms of English for the Primary school andworkshops, a cloakroom and a canteen, a library and a headmaster office. Thereare a lot of interesting books in the library. In the library there are manyportraits of famous Russian writers on the walls. Our school has two PTclassrooms. One of them is situated on the underground floor. This PT classroomis smaller than another one, which situated between the ground andundergroundfloor. This PT classroom is very useful for our students. And in ourcanteen room we always buy very tasty cakes.
The classrooms of thefirst, second and the third form are on the first floor. But sometimes we spendthere some breaks. My favorite classroom is the Biology classroom and English.Biology classroom is very beautiful, there are many flowers and animals there.And in English classroom there are not many tables, because our class islearned by three teachers. In our class there is a map of Great Britain. I likeEnglish, because it’s a subject I am interesting in. I like to learn new words,to dramatize texts and dialogues, discuss interesting things.
There are 500 pupils inour school. Some of them love our school but some of them thinks that it is aload of their life. I thought this way some years ago, but now I understand thatall these ages I have spent in my school – the best ages in my life.
School year begin, as arule, on the 1st of September and ends in May. It lasts 9 months:from September till May. We have 4 holidays a year. The Summer holidays arelong. They last 3 months. The winter holidays are shorter, they lasts only twoweeks. During the holidays we don’t study, we have a rest. We go to schoolevery day except Sundays and Saturdays. On weekdays we work hard. On weekendswe have a rest, as a rule.
All pupils of our schoollearn some foreign languages. All pupils of our class learn English and Germanor French ( on their mind).
At the lessons we checkour hometasks. We ask and answer the questions, we read English texts andtranslate sentences both from English into Russian and from Russian intoEnglish. We describe pictures and speak on various topics. During the Englishlesson we do many exercises, we speak, read and write English. Sometimes welisten to the tapes. We don’t speak Russian in class. As I want to learn, tospeak and to read English, I must be attentive in class and I must alwaysprepare my homework.
Each lesson lasts fortyminutes. During the breaks we just stand outside, talk, play and repeat ourhomework. We haven’t got lunch. But some students eat in the canteen, but mostbring their own lunch. WE usually have a lot of homework and it takes usseveral hours to do it. Sometimes we have to sit up to write a composition, toprepare a report or to learn a poem by heart.
I like my school, becauseI’ve got many friends there and I always remember: “Education bring a child theworld.”
Millions of people allover the world spend their holidays travelling. They travel to see othercontinents and countries, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns. Theytravel to enjoy picturesque places or just for a change of scene. It’s alwaysinteresting to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet differentpeople, to try to different food, to listen to different musical rhythms.
Those who live in thecountry like to go to the big city, visiting museums and art galleries, lookingat shop windows and dinning at exotic restaurants. City-dwellers usually likeacquired holiday by the sea or in the mountains, with nothing to do. Mosttravelers and holiday makers take a camera with them and pictures of everythingthat interests them – the sightsights of a city, old churches, castles, viewsof mountains, lakes, lakes, waterfalls, forests, trees, flowers and plants,animals and birds. Later, perhaps years later, they will be reminded by thephotos of the happy times they have had. People travel by boat, by train, byplane or on foot. All means of travel have their advantages and disadvantages.And people choose one according to their plans and destinations.
If we are fond oftravelling we see and learn a lot of things that we can never see at home,though we may read about them in books and newspapers, or on TV.
Travelling by air is morepopular in our days than other ways of travelling. You can see many continentsand oceans, countries and rivers, cities and lakes.
I enjoy to stay at ahotel. It is more comfortable to stay there. You can enjoy being alone, to takea hot shower, to sleep in warm bed and many other advantages. Some people enjoycamping in tents. Of course, the weather must be good for that. There isnothing worse than camping in rain.
If you want to travel,first, you must look through some advertisement. You can choose what hotel isworth visiting and the place where your hotel situated. You can buy themagazine named “Tourism”. You can find there all trips you want. There are manyphotos of places which are recommend most of all. You can also find thereinformation about camping in tents. It’s very interesting to spend the whole dayon the nature in the forest or near the lake. So you can’t go anywhere withoutlooking through some add.
There are 2 viewpoints ontravel. Some people like to go on one place and spend their holidays there. Theplace may be an interesting city, a picturesque willage or some otherattractive place. Others believe in seeing as much as possible in the time theyhave.
I think that our educationbecomes richer when you travel, meet new people, because you can see new thingswhich you never seen in your life before.
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Sports and Olympic Games.
A lot of people all over the world are interested insport. Sport helps people to stay in good shape, keeps them fit, healthy andmakes them more organized and better disciplined in there daily activities.
We have always paid great attention to sport in ourschools, colleges and universities. You can hardly find a school without a gymor a sport ground. Every city and town has a few stadiums or swimming poolswhere local competitions are usually held. It’s been a tradition in Russia todivide sport into professional and amateur. There are different sportingsocieties and clubs in Russia. Many of them take part in different tournamentsand are known all over the world. A great number of world records have been setby Russian sportsmen: gymnasts, weightlifters, tennis players, swimmers, figureskaters, runners, high jumpers. Our sportsmen also participate in the Olympicgames and always win a lot of gold, silver and bronze medals.
The Olympic games has a very long history. They beganin 777 BC in Greece and took place every four years for nearly twelve centuriesat Olympia. They included many different kinds of sports. All the cities inGreece sent their best athletes to Olympia to compete in the Games. For the periodof the Games all the wars stopped. So the Olympic games became the symbol ofpeace and friendship.
Now, summer and winter Games are held separately.There are always several cities wishing to host the Games. The most suitable isselected by the international Committee. After that the city of the Gamesstarts preparations for the competitions, construct new sport facilities,stadiums, hotels, press centers. Thousand of athletes, journalists and guestscome to the Games, and it takes great efforts to arrange everything. There isalways an interesting cultural programme of concerts, exhibitions, festivals,etc., for each Games.
Russia joined the Olympic movement in1952. In 1980Moscow hosted the twenty-second Olympic Games. The latest Olympic Games wereheld in Barcelona. Russian sportsmen got medals for their records in many sportevents.
nimals need help. Earth is in danger.
People have livedon our planet for many years. They lived and live on different continents, indifferent countries. People depend on their planet, on the sun, on animals andplants around them. People must take care of Earth. Our ecology becomes worseand worse with every new day. Many species of animals and birds aredisappearing nowadays. People destruct wildlife, cut down trees to makefurniture. They forget that people can’t live without trees and plants, becausethey fill air with oxygen. And, of course, great problems are population andanimals destruction. The main reason of pollution is rubbish. Most of ourrubbish goes to big holes in the ground, called ‘dumps’. But dumps are verydangerous for our life ‘cause they are full of rats, which can carry infectionsaway from dumps. Another way to get rid of rubbish is to burn it. But the firesmake poisons, which go into the air and pollute it. But pollution isn’t theonly actual problem. Every day a big number of animals dissapeares. People killanimals for different aims: e.g. people hunt whales for their meat and oil;elephants for their tusks, crocodiles for their leather and so on. And alsoanimals are used for medical experiments. The most wide – speared from suchanimals are monkeys. Modern life is bad for animals, birds, fish. The air isn’tfresh and the water isn’t pure. They don’t have good meal and facilities forthe life. You can find their names in the Red Book.
Of course, peoplecan’t stay indifferent to these problems. There are a lot of specialorganizations, which try to save our nature. The most known are: The RoyalSociety for the prevention of cruelty to animals (The RSPCA), the WorldWildlife Fund (WWF) and Greenpeace. The RSPCA tries to protect animals from baduse. It operates big nation campaigns aimed at lost pets, circus animals. TheWWF rescued several species of animals, mammals as well as birds. These organizationalso helped to create more than 250 National parks. Greenpeace began its work20 years ago from saving whales. And now Greenpeace is a world-famousorganization, which saves plants, animals and people. These organization, wantto rescue animals, to help them to survive and to save jungle rain forests,which are in danger of destruction. And they also help animals ‘cause many ofthem have already gone as they have nowhere to live. Their homes, the trees,have disappeared. We must save wild animals. And we must find the right way tosave land, people and animals. We must lake care of nature, because we are partof it.
My plans for thefuture.
When you leaveschool you understand that the time to choose your future profession has come.It’s not an easy task to make right choice of a job. You can start a workingcareer go into business or continue schooling to receive a higher education.There is one institute or a few institutes is nearly every Russian city. Thereare dozens of them in Moscow and St. Petersburg. If you want to get aprofessional training you can enter a technical college. There are over 2000professions to choose and make a decision.
It is a dilemma forall family. Fathers usually wants their children to follow their footsteps. Mothersdon’t want their sons and daughters to leave the native town. So they persuadekids to enter local colleges and universities.
Because of the widedifference in jobs, you should find out all you can about any job whichinterests you. This can be done by going to the library and by reading widely,and also by talking to adults who have different kinds of jobs. You also needto think about how well you can do what you would like to do.
Some follow theirparents advice and some follow their own choice.
To make the rightchoice you should consider your traits and characters. To become a good doctoryou must be patient, easygoing and kind/ The teacher’s work requires love forchildren, profound knowledge of subjects and the ability to explain. Detective’sjob is very stressful. He must be brave, fair and strong.
A couple of yearsago I wanted to become a doctor. I thought it was a very noble profession. Iwas good at biology at the 8 and 9 forms. I wanted to help people who hadproblems with their health. I know that a doctor should be noble in work andlife, kind and attentive to people, honest and prudent. A doctor who is selfishand dishonest can’t be good at his profession. I tried to do my best to developgood traits in myself.
Now I have alreadydecided what to do. I’d like to be a teacher. I know that it is very difficultto be a good teacher. You should know perfectly the subject you teach, you mustbe well-educated and well-informed. A good teacher develops in his students adesire for knowledge and love for truth and beauty. Teaching must be thegreatest of all the arts. It is a great responsibility to educate the children.I think that’s the reason why teachers are deeply respected.
More and morepeople realize that every educated person should know a foreign language. Thatis why I’m going to become an English teacher. I liked English when we firststarted learning it is still my favourite subject. I will try to enter thedepartment of foreign languages at the University.
You study 5 yearsat Russian universities. After your final exams you are a qualified teacher ofEnglish. University education is deep and many-sided. Some students like apost-graduate course to follow an academic career. Most university graduatestake up teaching and return to school. I know that a teacher’s job is quitedifficult. A teacher can’t say that he knows everything in his field. He goeson learning his subject during all his career to be able to answer anyquestion. He should be an example of competence.
So choosing acareer and getting a job are two of the most important things, any person doesin his lifetime. If we don’t think about the future, we won’t have one.
My plans for thefuture.
When millions ofyoung people leave school, they begin an independent life. Some of them startworking, go into business, some of them continue schooling to receive a highereducation.
Young people canlearn about professions in magazines and advertisements. Magazines forteenagers often offer questionnaires, quizzes or surreys to help young peopleto find out what their interests and abilities are more clearly and to make adecision concerning their future occupation.
While choosing acareer you should take into consideration main demands that you want yourfuture profession to meet: the profession must be interesting, you have to besure of your future (that means that you will be able to find a job aftergraduation from the university), a profession must be well-paid, otherwise youwon’t be able to support yourself and your future family.
During our schoollife we begin to think about our future life, our job. There over 2000professions in the world, so it is quite difficult to choose and to make a decision.Some follow their own choice and some follow their relation’s, teacher’s,parent’s advice, because they can guide them and help to make a decisionconcerning future plans. I have never had a question, what I am going to dowhen I graduate from my school. I have known from childhood that I want to be alinguist. I have chosen this profession, because a knowledge of foreignlanguages and foreign cultures is growing in importance nowadays. Foreignlanguages are needed as the main and the most efficient mean of informationexchange between the people of our planet. Although there are 3000 languages,English is the most universal. It is the language of progressive science andtechnology, trade and cultural relations, and business. It is the universal languageof international aviation, shipping, sports, medicine. English is the officiallanguage in nearly forty countries. It is spoken by more than 350 millionspeople and also spoken as a second language in many parts of India and Africa.Besides, millions of people study English as a foreign language. In ourcountry English is very popular. It is studied at schools, colleges anduniversities.
It is important forme to learn English because I want to know what is going on round me in theworld. With recent advances in technology, the world is changing rapidly inmany fields, such as business, arts and medicine. These changes will affect mesoon and its important for me to read and keep up with these changes. In fact,learning English is the answer to a lot of the things that I need and want. AndI can’t help mentioning the quotation: “Every man is the maker of his ownfortune.”
In conclusion Iwould like to say it is an advantage to choose our future career while atschool. It gives us a goal to work towards and enables us to choose a right,suitable course of study. I’d like to mention also that if we don’t think aboutour future, nobody will think for us, so we just can’t have one. We must workhard to archive out ambitions and to realize our wishes, because future ispurchased by the present.
The United Kingdomof Great Britain
The official nameof GB is the United Kingdom of GB and Northern Ireland. It occupies theterritory of the British Isles. The BI lie to the north-west of Europe andconsists of two main islands: GB and Ireland. Their total area is over 244.000square km. The British Isles are separated from the continent by the North Sea,the English Channel and the strait of Dover which is 18 miles wide. The westerncoast of GB is washed by the Atlantic ocean and the Irish Sea. GB is one of theworld’s smaller countries. Its population is over 57 millions. Four out ofevery five people are urban. But in spite of all the territory of GB is small,the country has a wide variety of scenery. GB is made of tree countries:England, Scotland and Wales. Everyone in Britain speaks English, but in someparts of Scotland and Wales people speak different languages as well. GB with NIforms the UK of GB and NI. The capital of the UK is London, in England. Englandis the largest of three countries which make up GB. The north and the West ofEngland are mountainous, but the rest of the territory is a vast plain. TheLake District in Northern England with its lakes, mountains and valleys isfavorite holiday resort. The national symbol of England is a red rose. Thecapital of England is London. Its economic, political and cultural centre. Itis one of the largest cities in the world and one of the world’s most importantports. It is situated upon both banks of the river Thames. But while the Thamesis the deepest and the most important one, the Severn is the largest river.
Wales is thesmallest land of the UK, but it is noted for its picturesque mountains with thehighest peaks of GB rivers, waterfalls and lakes. Cardiff is the capital andthe largest city in Wales and its also an important industrial centre and port.The national symbol of Wales is a leek or a daffodil.
Scotland is a landwhich is known for its beauty. The north of Scotland is mountainous and iscalled the Highlands. This is the region of mountains and rivers, small townsand villages. The highest of mountains is Ben Nevis. The best known between thelakes is Loch Ness where as some people think a large monster lives. Thecapital of Scotland is Edinburg and the great industrial centre is Glasgow. Thenational symbol of Scotland is a thistle.
GB’s largest islandneighbor is Ireland. This is mainly occupied by the independent Republic ofIreland. Many small islands are also linked with the UK. Most of the land ishilly, though the mountains are not very high. The capital of NI is Belfast.The national symbol of Ireland is a shamrock.
The mountains, theAtlantic ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream influence the climate ofthe British isles. The summers are usually cool and rainy. And there is muchrain and fog in autumn and in winter. That’s why GB is a very damp country.
The flag of the UKis known as the Union Jack. It is made up of 3 crosses: the cross of St. Jorge,St. Andrew and St. Patrick.
Nowadays the UK isa highly developed industrial power. It is one of the most powerful countriesin Europe.
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The school systemin Great Britain.
Education inBritain is compulsory and free for all children between the ages of 5-16. Ninetenths of all children are educated in state schools. All books and equipmentare provided free. Uniform is worn in many schools but this is mow quiteflexible. Students never repeat a year in British system, but they may be sentto a vocation school or section.
Primary school.Schoolchildren attend a primary school for 6 years (from 5 to 11 years). Theystudy general subjects and special help is given to children with handicaps andlearning difficulties. The division between primary and secondary education isat the age of 11 when almost all children in the state system change schools.
Secondary school.When students transfer to Secondary school at the age of 11, they don’t takeany examination, but their reports are sent on from Primary school.
Most children — over 80 % — go to a comprehensive school. “Comprehensive” means all-inclusive.They admit pupils of all abilities. But there are also grammar schools andsecondary modern schools. The pupils have to pass an exam to go there; soadmission depends on the result of the selective exams and the pupilsabilities.
All types ofsecondary school have the five year courses for pupils from 11 years up to theschool leaving age.
Pupils in all Stateschools in England and Wales study 10 main subjects: English, Mathematics,Science. Foundation subjects: History, Geography, A Modern language, Art,Music, Information Technology, Physical education, Religious education is alsotaught.
Attainment testsare given at the ages of 7, 11, 14, 16. At the end of a 5-year course, at theage of 16, students sit the General Certificate of Secondary Education exams inas many subjects as possible. Weak students may only sit for free or foursubjects. Better students take ten
At the age of 16about two third of these pupils leave school and get jobs or apprenticeships.About one-third stay at school until the age of 18 preparing themselves forhigher education.
The 6th form. Moreambitious pupils continue to study in the 6th form. They stay on at school forone or two years to prepare themselves for university. They have only three orfour main subjects which are necessary to pass the advanced level exams at theage of 18. In addition to the foundation subjects the 6th formers are offeredmany other courses at Advanced Level such as classical Civilization, FurtherMathematics, Information Technology, History of Art, Social Biology and manyothers.
The school year isdivided into three terms with the intervals between them during the Christmasand Easter holidays lasting about two weeks each and the summer holiday whichbegins rather late and is usually six weeks long.
All kinds ofout-of-class activities are part of school life in Britain. Students have a lotof opportunities for playing sports, attending different clubs and singing inchoir. Most schools have very good libraries which students use for referencework.
“There is nofrigate like a book.”
An English authoronce wrote: “Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed or digested.”This quotation tells us how to read books of different kinds. Most travel booksare to be tasted. It’s enough to dip into them and read bits here, bits there.If you are fond of crime stories you will read them quickly, you’ll ‘swallow’them and then there are books that you’ll read slowly and carefully. If a bookis on important subject and a subject you are interested in you will want tochew it and digest it. And you’ll want to weight what the author says andconsider his ideas and arguments.
The rise oftelevision has been coupled with the death of books. Some people ask what canbe done to rescued them. But I think that books don’t need to be rescued. Abook is one of the greatest wonders in the world. It gives us a unique chanceto link up with authors who lived hundreds and thousands of years ago. I thankbooks, because if there were no books, we couldn’t talk to people who lived indifferent years and countries. Through reading books we hear their voices,thoughts and feelings. Books are the surest way to bring nations together. Theygive us an insight not only into the past but also into the future. I thinkthat book is a faithful and undemanding friend for all of us: it can be putaside and taken up again at any moment.
I have recentlyread a book which has made a very deep impression on me. It is called “Gonewith the Wind” and it makes really unforgettable reading. The author of thebook is Margaret Mitchell. “Gone with the Wind” published in 1936, became animmediate bestseller and won the Pulitzer Prize. A film version of the novelwas made in 1939.
Margaret Mitchelland all her family was interesting in American history, and she grew up in anatmosphere of stories about the Civil War.
In 1925 she gotmarried. In the following ten years she put on paper all stories she had heardabout the Civil War. And this way was born “Gone with the Wind”.
The story is setaround the time of the America Civil War, when the Southern States went to warwith the North to defend their way of life. It was the way of life in whichrich gentry lived in large houses, cultivated by black slaves. Scarlet O’Harawas born into one of these rich houses. When this way of life was destroyed sheuse all her beauty to build a new life.
“Art washes awayfrom the soul all the dust of everyday life”.-Pablo Picasso. I agree with thisquotation, because art is really a fantastic thing, and it can influence ourminds and our behavior.
This quotation istightly connected with literature. While reading any book, it appeals to us.Books impress you so much that you are taken to another world. You start to lookat the world through rose colors.
And when you readsomething interesting you become emotional and you think only about that book.So you forget about life with problems it has. When you read a book you becomeanother person.