Реферат: Штат Техас

      Stretching 1,244  km  (<st1:metricconverter ProductID=«773 mi» w:st=«on»>773 mi</st1:metricconverter>) from east to westand <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«1,289 km» w:st=«on»>1,289 km</st1:metricconverter>

(<st1:metricconverter ProductID=«801 mi» w:st=«on»>801 mi</st1:metricconverter>) from north tosouth,  <st1:State w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:State>,the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Lone</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Star</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>State</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>,occupies

almost7.5 percent of the total <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>U.S.</st1:place></st1:country-region>  land area.

     By 1994 <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State> had grown to become  the second  most  populous

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>U.S.</st1:place></st1:country-region> state,  moving ahead of <st1:State w:st=«on»>New York</st1:State> and following <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>California</st1:place></st1:State>.

     It derives its name from the Spanishand  Indian  words tejas

andtechas, meaning «friends» or «allies.»

      Early European explorers in the area werethe Spaniards Alon-

soAlvarez  de Pineda,  Alvar Nunez CABEZA DE VACA ,  and Francisco

<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>CORONADO</st1:place></st1:City>.

                      American Interest in <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>

      The sale (1803) of <st1:State w:st=«on»>Louisiana</st1:State>to the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United  States</st1:place></st1:country-region>  increased

interestin <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State> fromthe east.

      Augustus Magee,  a <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>U.S.</st1:country-region>army officer in <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Louisiana</st1:place></st1:State>,befriended

the  Mexican patriot Bernardo Gutierrez,  who had been fighting for

hiscountry's independence from <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Spain</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

      They led an  expedition into <st1:State w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:State> and captured <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Nacogdoches</st1:place></st1:City>,

Goliad,and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>San Antonio</st1:place></st1:City>before Magee died mysteriously in Goliad.

      In 1819, Dr. James Long of <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Natchez</st1:City>, <st1:State w:st=«on»>Miss.</st1:State></st1:place>, led another expe-

ditionto <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>,hoping to make the region an independent state.

      He captured <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Nacogdoches</st1:place></st1:City>, but his forces were soondefeated.

      A year later,  Moses Austin visited <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>San  Antonio</st1:place></st1:City>  and sought

permissionto settle Americans in <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>.

      Upon returning to <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Missouri</st1:place></st1:State>, his dying request was  that  his

son,  Stephen AUSTIN,  carry out his plans,  which the Spanish had


      A new law required that agents introduceat least 200 famili-

es ofcolonists,  so <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Austin</st1:place></st1:City> made an agreement with theMexican  go-

vernor  to settle 300 American families.

      Colonization was so successful, however,that by 1836 the po-

pulationof <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State> was50,000.

                      Revolution and Republic

      In 1830 the Mexican congress enacted alaw to limit  immigra-

tion to <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>.

      Most settlers  found unacceptable  the requirement thatthey

becomeRoman Catholics because most of them were Protestants.

      War broke out between the Americansettlers and  the  Mexican

governmentin 1835

      The Texans won the first battle atGonzales on Oct.  2, 1835.

      The same year the Texans captured <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>San Antonio</st1:place></st1:City>.

      A provisional government was set up onMar.  2, 1836.

      Sam HOUSTON was named commander in chiefof the <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>armies.

      Stephen Austin having gone to <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:place></st1:State> to solicitaid.

      In February and March 1836 one of themost heroic battles  in

historyoccurred at the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Alamo</st1:place>.

      The 187 defenders, commanded by Travis,James BOWIE, and Davy

CROCKETT,then held the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Alamo</st1:place> for another five daysbefore it fell.

      Despite reverses, the Texans declaredtheir independence.

      On Mar. 2,  1836,  David Burnet was named provisional presi-


                   Statehood and the MexicanWar

      The <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State> republic, whose independence had beenrecognized by

the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>United States</st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Great Britain</st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>France</st1:country-region>,<st1:City w:st=«on»>Holland</st1:City>, and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Belgium</st1:place></st1:country-region>, was

soonstruggling with Indian wars,  raids byMexican forces, and fi-


      InSeptember 1836, Texans voted for annex ation by the United


      On Dec. 29, 1845, the U.S. Congress accepted the <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State> state

constitution,and <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>became the 28th state, with legal slavery.

      The MEXICAN WAR between the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>United States</st1:country-region> and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Mexico</st1:place></st1:country-region> followed

within afew months of <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>'entry into the union.

      The <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>U.S.</st1:place></st1:country-region>  victory in that war established the <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Rio  Grande</st1:place></st1:City> as

the  border between <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Mexico</st1:country-region>and the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region>.


      The modern economic development of <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State> started  in January

1901  with the eruption of an oil well drilled atSpindletop,  near

<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Beaumont</st1:place></st1:City>.

      The economy of <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State> has become highly diversified,  and its

populationhas more than quintupled during the 20th century.

      <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>is  divided into 14 land resource areas.

      The soils vary  greatly  in depth from one region to another

and showdifferent physical properties.

      <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>has  two sources  of water:  aquifers and streams with


      Water from the former has traditionallybeen an essential so-

urce ofmunicipal supplies.

      <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>has  relatively few natural lakes buthundreds of arti-


      <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>is the temporary home every  year  for many  migratory


      The state's indigenous animals includethe mule and white-ta-

ileddeer,  black bear,  mountain lion,  antelope, and bighorn.

      The American bison,  or buffalo, is found only in zoos and on

a fewranches.

      Among the smaller animals are themuskrat,  raccoon, opossum,

jackrabbit,fox, mink, coyote, and armadillo.

      Minerals represent a very significantpart of the state's na-


      The Texas Panhandle  is one of the world'sgreat natural-gas


      The state's great variety of soils mustalso be considered as



      Although surpassed in population only by <st1:State w:st=«on»>California</st1:State>, <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>is

stillconsiderably less crowded than the nation as a whole.

      <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>is  made up of whites,  who constitute about 75 percent

of thepopulation;  blacks,  about 12 percent; and other nonwhites,

about 13percent.

                        Counties and Cities

      <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>has 254 counties.

      Major cities include the capital, <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>AUSTIN</st1:place></st1:City>; the state'slargest

city,  Houston,Dallas and other.


      <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>has several hundred public libraries--the largest being

those inDallas and Houston.

      There are more than 300 museums,  and there are 3 major symp-

honyorchestras--in <st1:City w:st=«on»>Dallas</st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»>Houston</st1:City>,and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>San Antonio</st1:place></st1:City>.


      The first newspaper in <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>, the Gaceta de Texas (Texas Ga-

zette),  was published in 1813 at <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Nacogdoches</st1:place></st1:City>.

      Among the oldest  English newspapers are theGalveston Daily

News(1842) and the <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Dallas</st1:place></st1:City>Morning News (1885).


      <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>is among the nation's most important producers of mine-


      It leads the nation in the production ofnatural gas and ura-

nium  and is second,  after <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Alaska</st1:place></st1:State>,  in crude petroleum production.

      <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>in recent years has supplied  about  one-third of  the

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>U.S.</st1:place></st1:country-region> production  of  natural gas and about 25 percent of the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>U.S.</st1:place></st1:country-region>

productionof oil.

      Iron is also mined.


      <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>attracts millions of  out-of-state  visitors annually.

      Many visitors explore  <st1:City w:st=«on»>Dallas</st1:City>,  <st1:City w:st=«on»>San  Antonio</st1:City>,  <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Houston</st1:place></st1:City>,  Fort

Worth, <st1:City w:st=«on»>El Paso</st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Austin</st1:place></st1:City>,and other cities.

      <st1:State w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:State>'stwo national parks, BIG BEND and <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Guadalupe</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Mountains</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>,

are  also popular.

      Hunting and fishing are popular pastimesfor  visitors  and

<st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>alike, as are professional andcollege sports events.

                      GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

      The present <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State> constitution was adopted on Feb.  15, 1876,

but hasbeen amended many times.


      The cowboy of the American West,  a dashing figure in popular

novels  and films, was in reality a poorly paid laborer engaged in

difficultand usually monotonous work.

      Although some  of  the  young men who worked on ranches were

from thenortheastern states.

      Not all cowboys were whites;  about a third were African-Ame-

ricans  or Mexican-Americans.

      The work year  centered  on two events,  the roundup and the


      Roundups were  held in the spring and often also in thefall.

      After cowboys had herded cattle to acentral  location.

      They branded  newborn calves,  castrated  and dehorned older


      Working up to 20 hours a day,  cowboys drove the animals from

onewatering place to the next.

      For his hard and dirty work the typicalcowboy earned between

$25 and$40 a month.

      By about 1890  the  cattle ranges had been fenced in and the

extensionof the railroads had eliminated the need for long  cattle


      Thus the era of the old-fashioned cowboycame to an  end.

      At this point,  although  far removed  from the drab truth,

novelsand works such as The Virginian (1902) of Owen WISTER  began

presentingto a nostalgic public the romantic cowboy hero.

                            MODERN ERA

      When the 20th century began,  about 3 million people lived in

<st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>.

      Agriculture dominated the economy.

      <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>USA</st1:country-region>had two presedent from <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>:  Lyndon B. JOHNSON and Ge-

orge BUSH.

<span Courier New";mso-fareast-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:RU;mso-fareast-language:RU;mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">

      Stretching <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«1,244 km» w:st=«on»>1,244 km</st1:metricconverter> (<st1:metricconverter ProductID=«773 mi» w:st=«on»>773 mi</st1:metricconverter>) from east to westand  1,289  km

(<st1:metricconverter ProductID=«801 mi» w:st=«on»>801 mi</st1:metricconverter>) from north tosouth,  <st1:State w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:State>,the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Lone</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Star</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>State</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>,occupies

almost7.5 percent of the total <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>U.S.</st1:place></st1:country-region>  land area--a region as  large

as allof <st1:City w:st=«on»>New England</st1:City>, <st1:State w:st=«on»>New York</st1:State>,<st1:State w:st=«on»>Pennsylvania</st1:State>, <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ohio</st1:place></st1:State>, andnois combi-

ned.  By 1994 <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State> had grown to become the  second most  populous

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>U.S.</st1:place></st1:country-region> state,  moving ahead of <st1:State w:st=«on»>New York</st1:State> and following <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>California</st1:place></st1:State>. It

derivesits name from the Spanish and Indian words tejas  and tec-

has,meaning «friends» or «allies.»

      <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>shows  the  influence of both the Indians and the Spa-

nish,  French, and other European explorers and missionaries.  In

1820,  Moses and Stephen F. Austin started theAnglo-American colo-

nizationthat culminated in the organization of a provisional  go-

vernment at San Felipe on Nov.  3,  1835, and in independence from

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Mexico</st1:place></st1:country-region>on Mar.  2, 1836.  After almost ten years asan independent

republic,<st1:State w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:State> became a <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>U.S.</st1:place></st1:country-region> state on Dec. 29, 1845.

      The modern  economic development of <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>started in January

1901with the eruption of an oil well drilled at Spindletop,  near

<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Beaumont</st1:place></st1:City>. The  rapid  discovery of oil in other parts of the state

led to aboom that has never really stopped.  Theeconomy of <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Tex</st1:place></st1:State>as

hasbecome highly diversified, and its population has more than qu-

intupledduring the 20th century.

                        LAND AND RESOURCES

                       Topography and Soils

      Four major physiographic subdivisionsof  <st1:place w:st=«on»>North  America</st1:place>  are

found  in <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>:  the Gulf Coastal Plain in the east andsoutheast,

theNorth Central Plains running north to southeastward in the cen-

ter ofthe state,  the Great High Plains in thenorthwest, and t he

<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Trans-Pecos</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Mountains</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>to the extreme west and southwest.The topog-

raphy of<st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State> risesgradually from east to west, reaching its hig-

hestpoint in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Guadalupe</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Peak</st1:PlaceName></st1:place> (2,667 m/8,749 ft)in the Trans-Pecos.

      The Gulf Coastal Plain,  extending about 80 to <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«100 km» w:st=«on»>100 km</st1:metricconverter> (50  to

<st1:metricconverter ProductID=«60 mi» w:st=«on»>60 mi</st1:metricconverter>) inland from the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Gulf of Mexico</st1:place>, from sea level to an altitu-

de ofabout <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«150 m» w:st=«on»>150 m</st1:metricconverter>(<st1:metricconverter ProductID=«500 ft» w:st=«on»>500 ft</st1:metricconverter>),  has a rolling to  hilly surface.  Its

westernpart consists of a fertile belt of land of irregular wid th

known asthe Blackland Prairie.

      Inland from the Coastal Plain,  the North Central  Plains of

<st1:State w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:State>are the southern extension of the <st1:place w:st=«on»>GREAT PLAINS</st1:place>,  and they re-

achsouthwestward across the entire state to the <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Rio Grande</st1:place></st1:City> river.

Theplains' southern portion is known as the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Edwards</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Plateau</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>.  T he

borderof the North Central Plains on the west is the Staked Plain,

or  <st1:place w:st=«on»>Llano Estacado</st1:place>in Spanish.  It consists of a flat-toppedtable-

landwith an elevation of about <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«1,200 m» w:st=«on»>1,200 m</st1:metricconverter> (<st1:metricconverter ProductID=«4,000 ft» w:st=«on»>4,000 ft</st1:metricconverter>).  Lying  between

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Mexico</st1:country-region> and <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>New Mexico</st1:place></st1:State>,  the barren Trans-Pecos region in southwes-

tern <st1:State w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:State> alternates between rolling hills in the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Pecos</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>River</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>val-

ley andthe isolated high ridges of the Guadalupe and Davis mounta-


      <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>is divided into 14 land resource areas that have  simi-

lar orrelated soils,  vegetation, topography,and climate. The so-

ils varygreatly in depth from one region to another and show  dif-

ferentphysical properties;  all needfertilizing,  however, and so

me needirrigating to make them productive.

                         Rivers and Lakes

      <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>has two sources of water:  aquifers,  found under more

thanhalf the state,  and streams with theirreservoirs. Water from

theformer has traditionally been an essential source of  municipal

supplies;  because of falling water tables,  however, cities mo re

and moremust now depend on surface reservoirs.

      The state's 3,700 streams have a combinedlength of  approxi-

mately  <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«130,000 km» w:st=«on»>130,000 km</st1:metricconverter> (<st1:metricconverter ProductID=«80,000 mi» w:st=«on»>80,000 mi</st1:metricconverter>).  Among the major rivers are the <st1:place w:st=«on»>RIO</st1:place>

GRANDE,  which drops about <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«3,650 m» w:st=«on»>3,650 m</st1:metricconverter> (<st1:metricconverter ProductID=«12,000 ft» w:st=«on»>12,000 ft</st1:metricconverter>) from source tomouth

andconstitutes the border with <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Mexico</st1:country-region>;the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>RED</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>RIVER</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>, which p art-

lyseparates <st1:State w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:State> from <st1:State w:st=«on»>Oklahoma</st1:State>and <st1:State w:st=«on»>Arkansas</st1:State>; the <st1:place w:st=«on»>COLORADO  RIVER</st1:place>

of <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State> (965 km/600mi),  which is the longest river entirelywit-

hin thestate; and the Sabine, which forms the southern half of the

boundarybetween <st1:State w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:State> and <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Louisiana</st1:place></st1:State>. Other rivers i nclude the <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>PE-</st1:place></st1:State>

COS andthe Devils, both tributaries of the <st1:City w:st=«on»>Rio Grande</st1:City>;the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Nueces</st1:place>;

and theGuadalupe.

      <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>has  relatively few natural lakes buthundreds of arti-

ficialones.  These were developed to providehydroelectricity,  to

store  water, or to irrigate farmland.  Amongthe largest are <st1:place w:st=«on»>Lake</st1:place>

Texoma(partly in <st1:State w:st=«on»>Oklahoma</st1:State>) on the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Red River</st1:place>,  the Falcon  and Ami

stadreservoirs on the <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Rio Grande</st1:place></st1:City>,Sam Rayburn Reservoir on the An-

<st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>gelina</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>River</st1:PlaceType>in eastern <st1:State w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:State>, <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Lake</st1:PlaceType><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Texarkana</st1:PlaceName> on the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Sulphur</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>River</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>,

<st1:City w:st=«on»>Toledo</st1:City>  <st1:City w:st=«on»>Bend</st1:City> Reservoiron the Sabine,  <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Lake</st1:PlaceType><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Travis</st1:PlaceName> on the <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Colorado</st1:place></st1:State>,

and <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Lake</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Livingston</st1:PlaceName>on the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Trinity River</st1:place> north of Hous ton.


      The climates of <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State> range from the hot  subhumid found  in

the  <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Rio Grande</st1:place></st1:City> valley to the cold semiarid of the northernpart of

thePanhandle,  and from the warm humid inthe east to the arid  of

theTrans-Pecos.  Rainfall varies from <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«1,400 mm» w:st=«on»>1,400 mm</st1:metricconverter> (<st1:metricconverter ProductID=«55 in» w:st=«on»>55 in</st1:metricconverter>) in the east

to lessthan <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«250 mm» w:st=«on»>250 mm</st1:metricconverter>(<st1:metricconverter ProductID=«10 in» w:st=«on»>10 in</st1:metricconverter>)in the west. The average number of days

with  some precipitation ranges from <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«44 in» w:st=«on»>44 in</st1:metricconverter> <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>El Paso</st1:place></st1:City>to <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«110 in» w:st=«on»>110 in</st1:metricconverter>Hous-

ton.Drought can be a serious problem, especially in the Great High

Plains,where an average of seven droughts occur in a 10-year peri-

od.Temperatures, too, vary greatly, ranging from 49 degrees C (120

degreesF) to — 31 degrees C ( — 23 degrees F). Each year about 100

tornadoesoccur, most frequently in the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Red River</st1:place>valley.

                    Vegetation and Animal Life

      The dense pine forests of eastern <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State> contrast with thede-

serts  of  thewestern part of the state,  and thegrassy plains of

thenorth contrast with the semiarid brushes  of  southern <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>.

<st1:place w:st=«on»>Eastern  Texas</st1:place> vegetation is characterized by dense pine forests a

nd avariety of hardwoods,  including oak,hickory, ash, and magno-

lia.  The central region is dominated by oak,  elm, and pecan,  as

wellas,  on the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Edwards</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Plateau</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>,  by cedar and mesquite. Shrubs of

the  grasslands of the lower altitudes of the westinclude a cacia,

mesquite,and mimosa; the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Trans-Pecos</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Mountains</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> have pine, fir,and

spruce.The <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Rio Grande</st1:place></st1:City>valley is mostly covered by brush, mesquite,

cedar,  post oak, and in places a dense growth of prickly pear. In

thesouthwest are found cactus, agave, and yu cca.

      <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>is  the temporary  home  every year for many migratory

birds.Aransas Wildlife Refuge, for example, on the Gulf above Cor-

pus  Christi, provides  the winter quarters forthe almost extinct

whoopingcrane.  The state's indigenous animalsinclude the mule  a

ndwhite-tailed deer, black bear, mountain lion, antelope, and big-

horn,but the American bison, or buffalo, is found only in zoos and

on a fewranches. Among the smaller mammals are the muskrat, racco-

on,opossum, jackrabbit, fox, mink, coyote, and armadi llo.


      Minerals represent a very significantpart of the state's na-

turalwealth. The known petroleum deposits of <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>--about8 billi-

onbarrels--make up approximately one-third of the known <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>U.S.</st1:place></st1:country-region> supp-

ly.  The Texas  Panhandle is one of theworld's great natural-ga s

reservoirs.  Mineral fuels generally account for over 90percent of

thevalue of all minerals produced in the state, although <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>is

also aleading producer of natural graphite, magnesium, sulfur, and

cement  and has considerable reserves of lignite (low-grade coal).

Uraniumwas discovered in <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«1954 in» w:st=«on»>1954 in</st1:metricconverter>the Coastal Plain, and additional

deposits  have been found in various other parts of thestate.  The

state'sgreat variety of soils must also be considered as a resour-



      Although surpassed in population only by <st1:State w:st=«on»>California</st1:State>, <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>is

stillconsiderably less crowded than the nation as a whole; the hu-

ge  area of <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State> means that the state's populationdensity is less

thanthat of the nation as a whole. Yet the state's populat ion has

increasedsignificantly in recent decades,  morethan doubling bet-

ween1940 and 1980 and increasing by 19.4 percent  in  the decade

from  1980 to 1990 (well above the 1980-90 national average of 9.8

percent).  The increases have resulted in part throu ghin-migrati-

on,  although there  was also some out-migrationduring the 1980s.

<st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>' two extensive metropolitan areasare the  DALLAS-FORT  WORTH

and  the  HOUSTON-Galveston-Brazoria consolidatedmetropolitan sta-

tisticalareas.  Together they constitute about 45percent  of  the

state'spopulation. In addition there are 23 metropolitan statisti-

calareas (mainly single-city metropolitan regions) that  together

with theconsolidated areas account for more than 80 percent of the


      Racially, <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State> is made up of whites, who constituteabout 75

percent  of  thepopulation;  blacks,  about 12 percent;  and other

nonwhites,  about 13 percent. Hispanics account for 25.5percent of

the  population. European settlers during the 19th and early 20 th

centuriesincluded Germans, Swedes, and Czechs.

                        Counties and Cities

      <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>has 254 counties ranging in population from 107 (Loving

County,  1990) to 2,818,199 (Harris,  1990), and in size from Rock-

wall's386 sq km (149 sq mi) to Brewster's 16,035 sq km  (6,191 sq

mi),  nearly equal to the combined areas of <st1:State w:st=«on»>Connecticut</st1:State>and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Rho</st1:place></st1:City> de

Island.  Major cities include the capital, <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>AUSTIN</st1:place></st1:City>; the state's lar-

gestcity, <st1:City w:st=«on»>Houston</st1:City>; and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Dallas</st1:place></st1:City> and Fort Worth, only about <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«50 km» w:st=«on»>50 km</st1:metricconverter> (30

mi)apart.  <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>SAN ANTONIO</st1:place></st1:City> is a fast- growing shippingcenter for  oil

andagricultural products;  other importantcommercia l centers are

<st1:City w:st=«on»>ABILENE</st1:City>,  <st1:City w:st=«on»>AMARILLO</st1:City>,<st1:City w:st=«on»>BEAUMONT</st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»>BROWNSVILLE</st1:City>,<st1:City w:st=«on»>CORPUS CHRISTI</st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>EL PASO</st1:place></st1:City>,

<st1:City w:st=«on»>GALVESTON</st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»>LAREDO</st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»>LUBBOCK</st1:City>,<st1:City w:st=«on»>MIDLAND</st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»>PORT ARTHUR</st1:City>,<st1:City w:st=«on»>WACO</st1:City>, and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>WICHITA</st1:place></st1:City>



      In 1839, <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>president Mirabeau B. LAMAR set aside land in

each  county for public schools and for a state university.  Today

theenrollment in <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>public schools exceeds 3 million,  andhig-

her  education in the state includes about 100public institutio ns

(see <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>TEXAS</st1:place></st1:State>, STATEUNIVERSITIES OF). Additional thousands of elemen-

tary  and secondary students attend privateschools,  and <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State> has

severaldozen private institutions of higher education  (including

BAYLOR,RICE, and Southern Methodist universities).

                   Culture and Historical Sites

      <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>has several hundred public libraries--the largest being

those inDallas and Houston; the libraries of the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Te-</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>

xas at <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Austin</st1:place></st1:City> have the state'slargest collections.  There are more

than 300museums (up from only <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«82 in» w:st=«on»>82 in</st1:metricconverter>1964), and there are 3

 major symphony orchestras--in <st1:City w:st=«on»>Dallas</st1:City>,<st1:City w:st=«on»>Houston</st1:City>, and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>San Antonio</st1:place></st1:City>.

      Among the outstanding  museums are the <st1:City w:st=«on»>Dallas</st1:City> and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Fort Worth</st1:place></st1:City>

museumsof fine arts, the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Marion</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Koogler</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>McNay</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Art Museum</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> and Witte

Museumin <st1:City w:st=«on»>San Antonio</st1:City>, the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Museum</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Fine Arts</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>and the Contemporary

<st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Arts</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Museum</st1:PlaceType>in <st1:City w:st=«on»>Houston</st1:City>, and the <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Amon</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Carter</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Museum</st1:PlaceName>in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Fort  Worth</st1:place></st1:City>.

Well-known  symphony orchestras are also in <st1:City w:st=«on»>Amarillo</st1:City> ,  <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Fort Worth</st1:place></st1:City>,

and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Austin</st1:place></st1:City>.  There are ballet companies in Austin andHouston,  and

theAlley Theatre in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Houston</st1:place></st1:City>has a national reputation.  The <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Dallas</st1:place></st1:City>

Operaand the Houston Grand Opera are the state' s major opera com-


      The ALAMO in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>San Antonio</st1:place></st1:City>is the most famous historical site;

othersare <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>San Antonio</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Missions</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>National</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Historic</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Park</st1:PlaceType>, <st1:place w:st=«on»>San Jacinto</st1:place>

monument  east of Houston,  Fort Davis National Historic Site,  and

theLyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library--part of the Univer-

sity of <st1:State w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:State> in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Austin</st1:place></st1:City>.


      The first newspaper in <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>, the Gaceta de Texas (Texas Ga-

zette),  was published in Spanish in 1813 at <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Nacogdoches</st1:place></st1:City>. Among the

oldest  English newspapers are the Galveston Daily News (1842) and

the <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Dallas</st1:place></st1:City> Morning News(1885).  There are numerous othermorni  ng

and  evening dailies,  and <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Texas</st1:place></st1:State>is well supplied with radio stati-

ons, bothAM and FM, as well as with television stations.

                         ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

       For decades oil influenced every aspectof the economic  de-

velopmentof Texas.  This included the taxstructure,  since a high

percentageof the state's tax revenues was derived  from  oil and

gas.  This changed in the mid-1980s when oil pricescollapsed devas

tatingly,  greatly diminishing tax revenues andadversely affecting

not onlyoil-related industries but also many others, such as real

estateand banking.  Slow economic recoverybegan in 1987, however,

helpedby the industrial diversification that had alr eady begun in

Texasand that was now intensified. The service industries, notably

retailand wholesale trade,  contribute wellover half of the gross

stateproduct of Texas.


      Texas is a leading  agricultural state,  frequently  ranking

third(after California and Iowa) in gross farm income.  Agricultu-

ralstatistics in Texas have been affected  by  modern technology,

whichincreases productivity:  in consequence,the number of person

s livingon farms has markedly decreased in recent decades. Another

trendhas been a decline in the total number of farms and ranches.

      The largest share of agricultural incomeis derived from beef

cattle;  Texas leads the nation in the number of beefcattle, which

usuallyexceed 13 million head.  Cotton is theleading crop and the

state'ssecond most valuable farm product.  Texasis also a  leader

innational production of grain sorghum, watermelons, cabbages, and

spinach.Wheat, corn, and other grains are also important. There is

good  farmland located in most parts of thestate,  some of it made

moreproductive by use of irrigation and of dry-farming  techniques

(used inthe Panhandle, for example, for wheat production).

                       Forestry and Fishing

      Production of  timber--more softwoods than hardwoods--repre-

sents asmall share of the gross state product of Texas,  but ship-

ments  of lumber and wood products and of paper andallied products

areworth many times that share.  As forfishing,  shrimp  accounts

for  most of Texas's total commercial catch. Other species caught

includecrabs, oysters, flounder, and red snapper.


      Texas is among the nation's mostimportant producers of mine-

rals. Itleads the nation in the production of natural gas and ura-

nium andis second,  after Alaska,  in crude petroleum  production.

Texas inrecent years has supplied about one-third of the U.S. pro-

ductionof natural gas and about 25 percent of the U.S. production

of oil.A foremost state in nonfuel minerals, Texas is an important

producerof magnesium,  sulfur, sand and gravel,stone, talc, sodi-

um, and cement.The eastern part of the state has l ignite coal mi-

nes.Iron is also mined.


      Before World War II,  manufacturing in Texas centered on pro-

cessingthe raw materials,  notably petroleum andagricultural pro-

ducts,  available in the state. The decades since thewar have seen

anemphasis on diversification in manufacturing, however, as we ll

assignificant industrial expansion. In recent years, state leaders

haveattempted to attract more high-tech industries to Texas.

      Manufactures include  a wide range of petroleum and coal pro-

ducts,machinery, chemicals, and food products. Other broad catego-

ries ofTexan manufactures include electrical equipment,  including

high-tech;fabricated metals; printed materials; and transport ati-

on  equipment. Specific manufactures include such diverse items as

wristwatches,  radios, cosmetics and drugs, leather goods,aircraft

and  aircraft parts,  computers, soft drinks,  pipes and pipe fit-

tings,  and synthetic rubber.  A large number of the appro ximately

15  percent of  the labor force employed inmanufacturing in Texas

work inthe Dallas-Fort Worth and Houston metropolitan areas.


      Texas attracts millions of  out-of-state visitors  annually;

itstourist-related businesses compete with those of California and

Floridafor the U.S.  travel market.  Many visitors explore Dallas,

SanAntonio,  Houston, Fort Worth, El Paso,Austin, and other citi-

es.Sites of special interest range from Nacogdoches in East Texas,

one  of the state's oldest cities,  to the Lyndon B.  Johnson Space

Centernear Houston.  Texas's two nationalparks, BIG BEND and Gua-

dalupeMountains, are also popular, as are the numer ous and varied

staterecreation areas.  Hunting and fishingare  popular  pastimes

for  visitors and  Texans  alike, as are professional and college


                 Transportation and ForeignTrade

      As befits its hugeness, Texas ranks firstnationally in total

highwayand railroad mileage.  It also has themost airports (about

1,600).There are 13 major ports along the Gulf of Mexico, with Ho-

uston  the busiest  (and ranking among themost active of all U.S.

ports).  The year 1988 commemorated the 135th  anniversary of  the

firstrailroad operation in Texas; railway mileage reached its peak

in 1922(approximately 27,500 km/17,000 mi), but the volume of rail

freightincreased again after World War II.

      Texas is a major U.S.  exporter of manufactured goods, inclu-

dingchemicals and allied products.  Alsoexported are agricultural

products--especially  cotton and food grains.  Texas ishabitually

thenation's leading exporter of sulfur,  andits exports of iro  n

and  steel scrap rank high.  Other exportsinclude natural gas and

fisheryproducts, especially shrimp.


      Texas consumes more energy than any otherstate--much of  the

natural  gas and oil produced in the state never leaveits borders.

About 85percent of the energy consumed in Texas comes from  petro-

leum andnatural gas.

                      GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS

      The present Texas constitution wasadopted on Feb.  15, 1876,

but hasbeen amended many times.  The chiefexecutive is the gover-

nor,  who since 1975 serves for 4 years. Legislative authority is

exercisedby the senate, with 31 members elected for 4-year ter ms,

and  the house  of  representatives,  with 150 members elected for

2-yearterms.  The legislature  meets biennially  in  odd-numbered

years.  The highest courts of Texas include thenine-member supreme

courtand the nine-member court of criminal appeals. Judg es of the

twocourts are elected to 6- year overlapping terms. The Texas sta-

tedelegation to the U.S. House of Representatives gained three ad-

ditionalseats following the 1990 census.

      In 1978 the state elected its firstRepublican governor (Wil-

liam P.Clements, Jr.) since 1870, and Republican John Tower served

in theU.S.  Senate from 1961 until hisretirement in 1985. Despite

thepopularity of some individual Republicans, including  Ro  nald

Reagan,Democrats have dominated state-level politics since Recons-

truction;competition occurs chiefly between the Democratic party's

liberal  and conservative wings.  Many Texans, such as former U.S.

HouseSpeaker Sam RAYBURN,  have playedinfluential roles in natio-

nal  affairs. Henry Cisneros attracted national attention after he

became(1981) the first Mexican-American mayor of a major U.S. city

(SanAntonio). In a 1993 special election, Republican Kay Hutchison

becameTexas's first woman senator.

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