Реферат: Топики по английскому языку

                              The ShirkovParish.

    To the north — west of Tver among TheValdai Hills, which are covered with

 confferous and deciduous forest, there is along chain offour lakes, formed

 from the river <st1:place w:st=«on»>Volga</st1:place>:the Sterzh, Vseloog, Peno and Volgo. These are the upper

 reaches of the <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>great Russian</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>River</st1:PlaceType> <st1:place w:st=«on»>Volga</st1:place>. Until the middle of the 19th centory

 the river was not abundant in water, but in <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«1843 a» w:st=«on»>1843 a</st1:metricconverter> dam was built belowthe

 present Volgo lake which caused this formationof lakes (The dam was recon -

 structed in 1943).

    The <st1:place w:st=«on»>Upper Volga</st1:place>is interesting not only for its picturesque suroundings but

 also for its reach history. In earlyprehistoric times — mainly during the

 Stone Age and the Broze Age — this area wasalready populated by hunters and


    The ancient Pinns were the firstinhabitants of this territory for many

 centuries. From the 9th century the Slavtribe, Lreeveech lived here, but from

 the 12th century onwards the Novgorod Slavcommunity was the main population .

 This land has witnessed many important eventsof our history such as internal

 feuds between Princes; Khan Batu«sinvasion; and the long and stubborn struggle

 against Lithuanian and Polish invaders. Theoldest paths of trading ran across

 this territory. The land knew periods offlourishing as well as periods of de-

 vastation. Nowdays it is a picturesque regionideal for rest and tourism. Many

 old relicts and monuments of various ages havebeen well preserved.

    One of the most beautiful spots of the <st1:place w:st=»on">Upper Volga</st1:place> is on the Vseloog lake .

 In ancient times there were settlements and aheathen temple here. Today one

 can see the Shirkov Parish. For threecenturies it has been standing in full

 harmony with the rivers, boundless fore4st andvast skies. Nature and archi-

 tecture in harmony.

    The origin of the name of grave — yard isunknown. The unique Shirkiov ar-

 chitecture was created by nameless masters. Inan old contract, drawn up by

 the carpenter«s team, who were to buildthe church, there was the following

 recommendation: » Build a temple as largeand beautiful as your senses command"

 These words show the character of Russianwooden architecture at its best. The

 ability of our ancestors to select the sitesfor their settlements and churches

 is also well known.

    The wooden Ioan Predtechy church is theoldest monument in the Shirkon Pa —

 rish. It is considered to be finest piece ofnational wooden architecture. The

 best traditions of Russian carpenters areexemplified in this masterpiece. It

 is a peasant«s spacimen of beauty born indaily work and in permanent contact

 with the field, forest, rivers and villagehouses. Creatness and simplicity ,

 power and elegance go together simultaneously.

    The Ioan Predtechy church is the mostinteresting wooden tier church of the

 » tetrehedron on a tetrehedron"style. As far back as 1887 it was noted that

 " as for Russian architecture, theexterior of the church is unusual and of

 great interest". This style of church waspopular in former times. Thus we

 known about the existance of similar churchesin the Nilowa Stolbenskaya her —

 mitage from the middle of the 17th centory.

    According to the certifecate compiled bythe priest of Shirkov church Illy-

 nsky, in respose to a census, offered by theEmperor of the Archaeological Co-

 mission of the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Academy</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Arts</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>in 1880s on the basis of the clerge register (

 which unfortunately has not been preserved),the church is dated from 1694.


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                        THE UNIVERSITIES in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>IRELAND</st1:country-region></st1:place>.


            In the turbulent centures thatfollowed the Norman invasi-

        on, several  efforts were  made to establish  universities in


        <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:country-region></st1:place>. In 1311, John de Leah,Archbishop of Dublin, obtained

        a bull from Pope Clement V authorizinghim to establish a uni-

        versity in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Dublin</st1:City></st1:place>, but he died before anithing could beaccom-

        plished. An attempt was made in 1465to  found a university in

        <st1:place w:st=«on»>Drogheda</st1:place>;this was to be endowed, as far as the Prliament  of

        the England Pale could do it, with allthe rights and privile-

        ges of the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>university</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Oxford</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>.The parliament  concerned was

        presided over by Tomas, Earl ofDesmond; two ears later he was

        attainted and beheaded, his estateswere confiscated, and once

        more the idea of a university came tonothing.At last,in 1591,

        the idea was realized.

                         TRINITY COLLEGE <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>DUBLIN</st1:City></st1:place>

            In that year a group of <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Dublin</st1:City></st1:place> citixentsobtained  a char-

        ter from Queen Elizabeth  I incorporating <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Trinity</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>College</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>as a


        mater universitatis. By this term theyenvisaged that a  group

        of university colleges would stermfrom  Trinity in the conti-

        nental and English style;owing to thecourse of Tudor and sub-

        sequent Irish history that ideal hasnot yet been realized.The

        Corporation of <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Dublin</st1:City></st1:place> granted to the new  foundation the lands

        and dilapidated buldings of theMonastery of All Hallows,lying

        south-east of the  sity walls  Subscriptions were raisedfrom

        among the  principal gentleman of each  country, whohad been

        invited to assist  the new college to the benefit of the whole

        country, whereby Knowlege, Learning andCivility may be incre-

        ased,to the banishment ofbarbarism,tumults and disorderly li-

        ving from among them. A number of  landed estates were secured

        to the College out of the confiscationswhich followed the de-

        feat northen Earls.

            The university was  designed to encourage  English culture

        in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:country-region></st1:place>,and to promote the reformedreligion in it's statu-

        tory form,so that it's establishmentafforded no opportunities

        for higher  education to recusant bodies, whether Catholic or

        Dissenting. The college survived thestorms of the Cromwellian

        and Revolution periods, and settled down as the university of

        the colonial  ascendancy, taking it'stone  from the new Whig

        society,mainly mercantile and nouveauriche,which had been put

        in power by the  Williamite victory. Yet even in the religious

        and political doldrums of the eghteenthcentury, the true uni-

        versity and liberal spirit  survived in Trinity,and it's alum-

        ni included Swift,Berkeley, Bruke,Goldsmith, Grattan,and Wolf

        Tone. Towards the close of the  century there was an awakening

        sense of  independence  and of patriotism in what had been a

        colonial minority, with  a consequent relaxation of the penal

        code which had discriminated, inreligion and culture, against

        the native  Irish and the Anglo-Irish majority; and after the

        passage of the Catholic ReliefAct,1793, Trinity abandoned the

        exclusive character it had hith ertoborne.

            Since 1947,  the College has  received substantial grants

        from the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Irish</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>State</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>.Recent years have brought to the Univer-

        sity a great diversity of students,wuth many of the undergra-

        duates coming from Great Britan andfrom overseas.

            The University is represented bythe Chancellor,Vice-Chan-

        cellor and Senate,whose main functionis to confer degrees.The

        College is governed by the Board ofTrinity College.The assent

        of the Board is required to all  professional chairs and other

        academic posts, and determines detailsof courses and examina-

        tions. The Povost of the College isnominated by the Goverment

        from one of three names submitted bythe Board. Except in this

        last respect,the University and theCollege enjoy complete au-

        tonomy. The College Library is GreatBritan and <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:country-region></st1:place>.

                       THE <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>NATIONAL</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>UNIVERSITY</st1:PlaceType>of <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>IRELAND</st1:country-region></st1:place>.

         Under the Queen’s College (<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:country-region></st1:place>)Act,1845,Colleges were es-

         tablished by the Goverment at <st1:City w:st=«on»>Cork</st1:City>, Galway and <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Belfast</st1:City></st1:place>,topro-

         vide higher education on anon-denominational basis. Ufortuna-

         tely, the character of these  Colleges were felt to be out of

         accord with Catholic educationalprinciples, and after a storm

         of public controversy they werecondemned by the Hierarchy.

             In 1854,the Catholic University ofIreland was established

         by the Hierarchy, who  invited John  Henry Newman to be it's

         first Rector. Newman, imbued with theliberal principlesembo-

         died in his celebrated Idea of a  University, was not quite at

         home amid the realities of Irishpolitical and religious cont-

         roversy, and his brave experimentfailed. As 'Newman's Univer-

         sity' was not recognized by theState,it could not confer deg-

         rees,neither did it have any publicendowment. Coriously, it's

         best success was in medicine, forthe  <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>College</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Surgeons</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>and

         the Apothecaries’ Hall recognized thecourses of study pursued

         by the Catholic University  Medical School students and admit-

         ted them to the  College and Hall examinations, thus to become

         registered medical practitioners.

             The <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Royal</st1:PlaceName>  <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> was founded in 1879. This wasmerely

       an examining  body, set up mainly for  the purpose of enabling

       the students of the  <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Catholic</st1:PlaceName>  <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>to obtain recognized

       degrees. In 1883,the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Catholic</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>,henceforthto be cal-

       led <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>College</st1:PlaceType>,<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Dublin</st1:City></st1:place>, was placed in the charge of the

       Society of Jesus, who maintained itsuccesfully until the pas-

       sing of the Irish Universities Act,1908.This Act provided for

       the dissolution of the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Royal</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>and of Queen’s College,

       <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Belfast</st1:City></st1:place>,and for the foundation in their stead of two new Uni-

       versities, one in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Belfast</st1:City></st1:place> which was to become Queen's Univer-

       sity, and the other, in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Dublin</st1:City></st1:place>,the NationalUniversity of Ire-

       land. The two universities areself-governing institution ope-

       rating under charter, autonomous asregards policy and admini-

       stration, and appointing their ownacademic and administrative


           The National University of Irelandis a federal university,

       with a central office in <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Dublin</st1:City></st1:place> and threeConstituent Colleges:

       <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>College</st1:PlaceType> <st1:City w:st=«on»>Dublin</st1:City>,<st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>College</st1:PlaceType><st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Cork</st1:City></st1:place>,University

       College Galway; and one <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Recognized</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>College</st1:PlaceType>,St. Patrick’s <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:State w:st=«on»>Col-</st1:State></st1:place>

       lege, Maynooth. Maynooth is a seminaryfor the training of Ca-

       tholic'clergy. It was  founded in 1795 and endowed by a Gover-

       ment who, chastened by the  French Revolution, recognized the

       conservative and conserving character ofthe Irish priesthood.

       In 1845 the Maynooth College  Board of Trustees was incorpora-

       ted by Statute, and in 1899 was investedby the Holy  See with

       authority to confer degrees inPhilosophy, Theology, and Canon


           The <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>National</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>itself does not teach; the courses

       for degrees are conducted by theColleges  which, in practice,

       lay down  their own programme and settheir own examinations.

       Courses are given in the variousfaculties,with certain excep-

       tions,at each of the ConstituentColleges; and in Arts, Philo-

       sophy and Sociology, Celtic  Sudents, and Science at Maynooth.

       Courses in Dairy  Science are given only at <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>College</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>

       <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Cork</st1:City></st1:place>;coursesin General Agriculture and Veterinary Science are

       (outside of  <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Trinity</st1:PlaceName>  <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>College</st1:PlaceType>)confined to <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType>  <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>College</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>

       Dublin.By the University Education(Agriculture and Dairy Sci-

       ence) Act, 1926, the Royal  College of Science and the  Albert

       <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Agricultural</st1:PlaceName>  <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>College</st1:PlaceType>were  Transferred to <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType>  <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>College</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>

       <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Dublin</st1:City></st1:place>,which was empowered to continue the functions formerly

       fulfilled by these institutions.

           Like <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Trinity</st1:PlaceName>  <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>College</st1:PlaceType>,the  <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>National</st1:PlaceName>  <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> receives,

       through the Department of Education,financial assistance from

       the State in the form of annualgrants-in-aid, as well as non-

        recurrent grants for capital purposes.Each of the Colleges is

        a complete organism,with it's ownGoverning Body and full con-

        trol of it's own finances.

                                *        *       *

                          RURAL DOMESTICECONOMY SCHOOLS.

           There are twelve residental schoolsof Rural Domestic Eco-

       nomy,seven of which operate under theDepartment of Agricultu-

       re and Fisheries. The schools areprivately owned,but the Sta-

       te subsidized and subject to  inspection in the same  way  as

       agricultural colleges.Students areadmitted from the age of 15

       upwards.The course runs from Septemberuntil June.The syllabus

       comprises theoretical and practicalinstrustion in the follow-

       ing subjects: — Poultrykeeping, Dairing,Cookery, Housewifery,


       Dressmaking, Laundry, Arts  and Crafts, Phisiology,  Higiene,

      First Aid and Home Nursing, Horticulture and general subjects.

           At the end of the course, astandart  examination compris-

       ing written,oral and practical tests, isheid and certificates

       are awarded to successful candidates.About600 young women at-

       tend these schools  annually. Over 250 scholarships awarded by

       <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>County</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Committes</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>of Agriculture, each year, are tenable at the

       schools. In addition, capitation  grants are payable for each

       eligible pupil.Some pupils who completethe session at a rural

       domestic economy  school proceed to other studies, for careers

       in Poultry Specialization, Farm HomeManagement, Domestic Sci-

       ents,Hotel Management,or Nursing.Thecourse at the schools is,

       however, a good training for all futurehousewives.

           The Munster Institute, <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Cork</st1:place></st1:City>, under theDepartment of Agri-

       culture and Fisheries, conductsadvanced  courses for selected

       pupils from rural domestic economy schools:-

              1.A three year course in FarmHome Menagement.

              2.A three year course in PoultrySpecialization.

              3.A one year course in PoultryHusbundry.

       Girls who complete the  three years courses  are  employed as

       instructors by the Country  Committees of  Agroculture, or as

       teachers. Girls who  cmplete the year's course in Poultry Hus-

       bundry are employed as technicians inthe poultry industry.

                                ART SCHOOLS.

              The Metropolitan School  of  Artbegan as an academy esta-

          blished in 1746 by the Royal DublinSociety, for the promotion

          of drawing and painting. During thefirst hundred years of the

          School's existence,instruction wasfree of charge;and the four

          departments of figuredrawing,landscape and ornament,architec-

          ture,and modeling,provided coursesuseful to sculptors, embro-

          iderers, weavers, printers,silversmith  and  workers in other

          crafts.In the ninteenth century, theSchool  was  successively

          under the control of the  Royal Dublin  Society, the Board of

          trade, the Department of Science andArt,and the Department of

          Agroculture and  Technical Instruction for <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>.Following

          it's transfer to the last-named body,classes were established

          in the principal artistic crafts,including metalwork and ene-

          melling, mosaic, embroidery  and woodcarving. The School also

          aquired a high  reputation for it's part in the developmentof

          stained glass and for the felicitousinfluence which,under the

          guidance of Sir  William Orpen, it exerted on painting in Ire-

          land. In 1924, control was assumed bythe Department of Educa-

          tion; an extension and development ofthe School, was establi-


              The  <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>National</st1:PlaceName>  <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>College</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>of Art is the principal institution

          of the  sistem of Art Education in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>as administered by

          the Departmentt  of Education. It's general purpose is to pro-

          mote the advancement of Art,toadvocate and maintain the high-

          est artistic values in nationalculture, and to combine artis-

          tic design with practical  skill in the interests of industry.

          There are  three schools; the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>School</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Design</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>, the School of

          Painting and the <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>School</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Sculpture</st1:PlaceName>,witha <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Preliminary</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>School</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>,

          which includes an  Upper and a Lower Division. In ths way, the

          College provides for the study of theFine Arts and of the De-

          corative Arts and Crafts, and for thetraining of Art teachers

          eligible  for employment in post-primary schools. The College

          has working arrangements with  University ColIege  Dublin and

          with the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Bolton</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Street</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>School</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> of Technology. Itolso maintains

          liaison with the National Library,the<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>National</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Museum</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>, and the

          National Gellery of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

              Outside <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Dublin</st1:place></st1:City>,whole-time day course and part-timeevening

          courses are provided ay theCrawford  School of Art, <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Cork</st1:place></st1:City>, and

          the Schools of Art in Limerick and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Waterford</st1:place></st1:City>.

              To foster the study of theHistory of Art, Miss Sarah Pur-

          ser and Sir John Purser Griffithestablished,in 1934,two equal

          funds, one to be administered by <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Trinity</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>College</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>,and the other

          by University  College Dublin, the income from which provides

          Travelling  Scoolarships. and  prizes to be competed for every

          year, alrtenately  in each University. Extra-mural courses are

          given at University CollegeDublin,which College also provides

          courses leading to a degree inthe  History of European Paint-

          ing taken  with another  subject. Lectures arealso provided,

          mainly for post-primary students, inthe National Gallery.


                         THE CONQUERING <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>NORMANS</st1:place></st1:City>.

     Edward the Confessor died in January,1066.On Christmas Day in the same

 year William the Conqueror was crowned king inWestminster Abbey. It had been

 a terrible year for Englishmen. From the verybeginning of it they had feared

 that evil things were going to happen, andwhen a comet began to flame in the

 sky, early in the summer, their fears wereincreased. To all Englishmen it

 seemed to foretell defeat. And defeat cameupon them when Duke William landed

 at Pevensey, in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Sussex</st1:country-region>,and advanced to <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Hastings</st1:place></st1:City>.King Harold rushed to meet

 him, but he and many of his faithful thaneswere slain. The bravest of them

 gathered to make a last desperate fight roundthe English standarts ,and when

 they fell the days of English liberty wereover for a long period.On the very

 spot where Harold and his men made their laststand the Norman conqueror built

 Battle Abbey to commemorate his victory. Ifyou go there today, you will be

 shown the place where Harold fell.

     It was a hard time for Englishmen. AsWilliam marched slowly by a round-

 about way to <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>, his men plundered the village soterribly that it took

 them many years to recover. His soldierssearched everywhere for food and all

 the things that an army needs. Villagers,flying in terror to the woods, saw

 their cattle driven off,their stored corn andhay carted away,and their houses

 burnt. This was the way in which William hopedto terrify Englishmen into sub-

 mission. He was successful. On ChristmasDay,1066,he was crowned king of the

 English by the Archbishop of <st1:City w:st=«on»>York</st1:City>in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Westminster</st1:place></st1:City>Abbey.

     Straightway he began to drive Englishnobles from their lands,for he said

 they had treacherously fought against theirtrue king. And in their places he

 put Normans, who despised the English, andtreated them cruelly. So in the

 year 1067,if you had been travelling aboutthen, you would have seen parties

 of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Normans</st1:place></st1:City>riding through the country-side to take possession of the lands

 that William had given them in returm fortheir help at Hastings.These men ,

 of couse,had Norman names, and if you look ata map of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>today, you will

 see that some villages are still called by thenames of the Norman lords to

 whom William gave them, for example, NortonMandeville in Essex.Some English-

 men nowadays have Norman names, such asHarcout, <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Montgomery</st1:place></st1:City>,Mantague.For

 a long time after the battle of Hastings noone who wished to be considered a

 gentleman spoke English;even little boys atschool learnt their lessons in

 French, so that, when they grew up, they mightbe able to keep company with

 the rulers of the land and pretend they were <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Normans</st1:place></st1:City>.


     Let us imagine that we are visiting avillage when it is new master rides

 into it.Our old English master, our thane, isdead, for he went off with his

 soldiers when Harold called for his helpagainst the foreigner, and fell be-

 side his king on the day of the battle ofHastings.All though the winter the

 villagers have starved, for they have hadlittle corn & meat to live on,since

 William,s army went past on it is way toLondon.Their houses are in a ruinous

 condition, And the very barns have gone, forsome of them were burnt & others

 pulled down to supply fuel for Norman campfires.The old mill wheel has not

 turned since the village was sacked, for eventhe dam, which supplied the <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>wa-</st1:place></st1:State>

 ter, was hacked to bits by the soldiers.Sowhen the new master rides into the

 village, he sees lean sterving men, women andchildren.There are fire-black-

 ened ruins of English homes all around.Somesmall patches of growing corn can

 be seen, for even in starvation time men mustsave some seed for the next crop.

 But the fields are small compared with whatthey were.

    How we hate this new-comer!How we shouldlike to take vengeance on him and

 his men for all our sufferings, & for allthe fathers & brothers who will ne-

 ver return from <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Hastings</st1:place></st1:City>!But we dare do nothing, & saynothing.We can see that

 this man is no coward, for he rides into themiddle of us, & looks all straight

 in the face.Rising in his stirrups, he callsin French: " I would have you

 know that King William has given me theselands & that you are my tenants now.

 Do your part faithfully, & I shall domine.But if any man checks me in my just

 rights, let him beware".No Englishmanunderstands a word, but everybody sus-

 pects what the speaker means well enough.

     He makes his way to the thane's house,& there he meets the window & her

 daughter accompanied by the steward.He explainsthe lady that a small piece of

 land out of her husband's estate will be leftto her.She knows that she will

 be very poor for the rest of her days, but sheis to proud to ask for anything

 more and withdraws in silence with herdaughter.

     Then the <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Norman</st1:place></st1:City> turns to the steward and calls for hisaccounts.He hopes

 to see out all the old thane's rightscarefully set there; how he received so

 much hay every year from one man, so much cornfrom another, and so much meat

 from a third; and how Aelfgar and men like himwork once a week for him all

 the year round and do extra work in harvest;and how Gurth and his equals do

 not work for the thane, but pay so much food.When the accounts are brought,

 he listens carefully as the stewards axplainseach entry, for he wishes to

 know exactly how much the land that the kinghas given him is worth. The ste-

 ward, of couse, says that the value has gonedown very much in the last year.

     A talk follows till far on into the night,and many questions are put by

 the master. How much land is there suitablefor ploughing? How much of it did

 the old thane keep for his own use? How manybushels of corn come from each

 acre? Do the villagers know how to manure anddrain the land properly? Is

 there any grassland that could be made to growextra supplies of corn? «For,»

 says lord, «my soldiers must have plentyto eat».  «Yes,» says thesteward,

 «there is much land fit for thepurpose.But do you propose to make the

 villagers work on this and do their other workas well? Remember, Sir, that

 there are fewer of them than there were».The <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Norman</st1:place></st1:City>replies that he intends

 his villagers to do not only this, but muchmore besides. Indeed he goes so

 far as to say that the men like Gurth, whonever worked but only paid food,

 shall now both pay and work, for more landmust be cultivated. And he adds

 that he intends to increase the amounts ofmeat, hay, eggs, cheese, butter

 and other things that the villagers pay. Sothe stewards returns home in a  

 thoughtful and unhappy state, for he sees hardtimes coming for his friends

 and does not like telling them about the extrawork that they will have to do.

 The <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Norman</st1:place></st1:City>also goes to bed, but not until he has gone round the house with

 his chief follower, and posted sentinels; forhe has no wish to be murdered

 in his sleep by his new servants, as hashappened to some of his friends.He

 and his followerds do not thing much of theold house. The old English thanes

 did not make their houses strong for defence,for they had nothing to fear

 from their villagers. But the <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Norman</st1:place></st1:City> says:«We must have a safer placethan

 this to sleep in, or our throats wiil all becut some night».So the steward

 wiil hear if another piece of work for hisfriends in the village to do.

     In the morning the <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Norman</st1:place></st1:City> gets up early and goes on horsebackround his

 land accompanied by the steward who listens toall his plans. He is told to

 have the mill dam repaired by next harvest,and a new whell put in. Then the

 master looks round for a position for a newhouse. He means to make it by

 throwing up a mound of earth and building awooden tower on top of it. It is

 to be surrounded by a wall of earth and aditch. He marks out the boundaries

 at once and orders the steward to have thedigging commenced. Next he goes to

 the woods to look for timber. After theinspection he says:«Let me hear axes

 at work here when I come round tommorow».As he rides home he sees the old

 village church. The roof lets the rain in, andsome of the timber of which

 the building is made rotting away. Heindignantly says it's more like a broken-

 down stable than a house of God and swears inthe name of Saint Valerie who

 sent the <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Normans</st1:place></st1:City>a fair wind for their invasion, that he will build a stone


    He has not been long back at the hallbefore Gurth and his friends ask to

 see him. When they are admitted to the hall,they say they have heard the word

 that is going round, how every villagers, bigand little, is to work on the new

 fields, which the lord is going to fence in,and is to pay more food than ever

 before. They say that this is against thecustom of the village. They paid food

 to the old thanes, because King Alfred orderedtheir forefathers to do so. But

 they never laboured like serfs on any man'sland. They are free men, and when

 they have paid their dues, as King Alfredordered, no man can ask them for mo-


    This bold speech has a terrible result. Thenew lord rises from his seat.

 His eyes are blazing with rage, and thevillagers fear nothing less than death

 at the hands of the surrounding soldiers." Custom !" the master shouts, «Cus-

 tom! You talk to me about custom as though itruled all. I and my friends won

 this land by the sword from you and traitorslike you, who were in arms against

 your lawful King William. Traitors lie at themercy of their conquerors and

 must be punished for their treachery. Customwill not protect you. Get you go-

 ne. Soldiers! Clear the hall».

    For many days there is rage in the heartsof the villagers, for the smaller

 men like Aelfgar are ground to poverty by thenew lord. Thus they feel the re-

 sults of the Norman Conquest. All English feelthem as well, and for five

 years to come there are angry rebellions indifferent parts of the land.




                          University Education

   There are 44 universities (not counting theOpen University) in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

Althoughthe Goverment is responsible for providing about 80 per cent of

universitiesincome it does not control their work or teaching nor does it have

directdealings with the universities.The grants are distributed by the Secreta-

ry ofState for Education and Science.

   The English universities are: Aston (<st1:City w:st=«on»>Birmingham</st1:City>), <st1:City w:st=«on»>Bath</st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»>Birmingham</st1:City>, <st1:place w:st=«on»>Bradford</st1:place>

<st1:City w:st=«on»>Bristol</st1:City>, Brunel (<st1:City w:st=«on»>London</st1:City>), <st1:City w:st=«on»>Cambridge</st1:City>,City (<st1:City w:st=«on»>London</st1:City>), <st1:City w:st=«on»>Durham</st1:City>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»>East Anglia</st1:country-region> ,<st1:place w:st=«on»>Essex</st1:place>,

<st1:City w:st=«on»>Exeter</st1:City>,<st1:City w:st=«on»>Hull</st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»>Keele</st1:City>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Kent</st1:country-region> at Centerbury, <st1:City w:st=«on»>Lancaster</st1:City>,Leeds, Leicester, <st1:place w:st=«on»>Liverpool</st1:place>,

<st1:City w:st=«on»>London</st1:City>,<st1:City w:st=«on»>Manchester</st1:City>, Newcastle upon Tyne, Nottingham, <st1:City w:st=«on»>Oxford</st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Reading</st1:place></st1:City>,Saford,

Sheffield,Southhampton, <st1:City w:st=«on»>Surrey</st1:City>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Sussex</st1:country-region>,<st1:City w:st=«on»>Warwick</st1:City> and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>York</st1:place></st1:City>. The federated Univer-

sity of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:country-region> includes five university colleges, the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Welsh</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>National</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>School</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> of

Medicine,and the <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:PlaceName> <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Institute</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Science</st1:PlaceName></st1:place> andTechnology.The

Scottishuniversities are: <st1:City w:st=«on»>Aberdeen</st1:City>, Dundee, <st1:City w:st=«on»>Edinburgh</st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»>Belfast</st1:City>, <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Glasgow</st1:place></st1:City>, He-

riot-Watt(<st1:City w:st=«on»>Edinburgh</st1:City>), St. Andrews, <st1:place w:st=«on»>Stirling</st1:place>,and Strathcl

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