Реферат: Pyotr Kapitsa
P. Kapita,an outstanding Soviet physicist, was born in
Kronstadt in the family of a general in 1894. He graduated from
the PetrogradPolytechnic Institute in 1919. Kapitsa took a great
interest inphysics while still at the institute.
In 1921 Kapitsa was sent to Englandon Lenin's instructions
to renewscientific contacts. He worked in the famous Cavendish
Laboratory headedby Rutherford. Kapitsa was elected a member of
the Royal Sociatyfor his outstanding scientific work in the
production oflarge magnetic fields.
In the middle of 1930s he organized theInstitute of Physical
Problems nearMoscow. It was here that Kapitsa concetrated his
attention onthe research of superlow temperatures of liquid
helium andsuperconductivity. He showed that helium conducted heat
so well becouseit flowed with remarkable ease.
After the W.W.II his scientific activity was directed to
space research.In 1950s Kapitsa also turned his attention to ball
lightning — aphenomenon in which plasma exists for a much longer
period than itwas supposed.
Kapitsa was awarded a Nobel Prize forhis great contribution
to world sciencein 1978. Today there are few names in the history
of phisics thatcan be placed next to his.