Реферат: AIDS IN AFRICA (СПИД в Африке)Iulia Pariniuc
AIDS IN AFRICA:
AIDSis becoming one of the most important problems of the modern world. According to “AIDS Epidemic Update2000” and the World Health Organization (WHO), the current number of peopleliving with HIV or AIDS is 36.1 million, more than 50% higher than predicted in1991. And this number is increasing every day, hour and minute. The greatestnumber of inhabitants sick with AIDS or HIV live in Africa. Over17 millionAfricans have already died of AIDS-three times the number of AIDS deaths in therest of the world, orphaning 10 million or more African children. “The AIDSsituation in Africa is catastrophic and sub-Saharan Africa continues to headthe list as the world’s most affected region,” said Peter Piot, ExecutiveDirector of UNAIDS. According to his report, estimated 3.8 million peoplebecame infected with HIV in sub –Saharan Africa during the year, bringing thetotal number of people living with HIV/AIDS in the region to 25.3 million, oralmost a million more than in 1999.
The reason of such great spread of the diseaseis inadequate level of living and absence of needed education. According toWHO, more than 50% of African population does not live a safe sexual life, andthe increase of number of drugs deteriorate the problem. For example, accordingto Ministry of Health statistics, 2.2 million Kenyans are ill with HIV, withaverage 500 deaths every day.
Africanmedics do not want to show medical results to their patients and to thegovernment. They say that they do not reveal HIV results to prevent thepatients from fear of bad news. “Some patients literally die hopelessly beforetheir eyes”, they said. “Another problem is that when some patients learn theyare HIV positive, they go on their rampage, despite the counseling we givethem, said Matulumbu, an HIV/AIDS specialist. The doctor, like his colleagues,said a number of patients even took loans while others mortgaged family assetsto use the money to spread the disease. Such patients left their familiesdouble dilemma. Dr. Matulumbu said: ”We are facing a serious problem becausemedics are not trained on how to counsel HIV patients, yet we are expected tobe a counselor and a doctor at the same time.”
Thepatients, HIV and AIDS positive expressdiscontent about the doctors curing them. If the owner of the factory, a sickAfrican is working for, finds out that the worker is sick, he automaticallydismiss him from his work job. The owners of the companies do not want to dealwith insurance of sick workers, and do not want to employ HIV/ADIS patients.The reality is sad, but it is true. Patients hide their results of HIV/AIDStests, and it is difficult to determine the number of sick Africans.
AIDSis not a disease that can be either determined or cured. The real number ofpeople with HIV positive is not known. Some of them do not want to talk aboutthe disease, others simply do not know they are sick.
To help in preventing AIDS, UNSecretary-General Kofi Annan, in his speech at UN conference for LeastDeveloped Countries, proposed to organize a global AIDS fund to sponsor thefight against AIDS. The world’s wealthy nations are allegedly holding offdonations to a proposed UN global health fund, arguing, there are not enoughguarantees that the money would be spend correctly, the Associated Press saidon May 19, 2001. Reporting from the UN conference for Least Developed Countriesin Brussels, AP said that «many countries» remained skeptical aboutUN Secretary-General Kofi Annan's proposed US $7-10 billion fund to fight thespread of AIDS and other infectious diseases. It quoted Poul Nielson, theEuropean Union's (EU) development commissioner as asking: «What will thisfund do better than what we are doing now?». «If we are just talkingabout a global AIDS fund, we will not participate. It is too narrow,» headded. The EU reportedly wants the fund to include other transmittable diseasesand tie it to providing cheaper drugs for poorer countries.
The United States is theonly large country to contribute to the global fund so far, pledging US $200million last week. That contribution was criticized by, among others, theUS-based Health Gap Coalition as «paltry». The coalition called forWashington to allocate US $2 billion in new money. (See www.healthgap.org)
Annansaid on Thursday in Geneva that the proposed fund would be a major tool foreconomic growth in the developing countries. He said that plans for the fundare progressing. He noted that the fund should be governed by an independentboard, made up of stakeholders including governments from both donor anddeveloping countries, NGOs, the private sector and the United Nations. Therunning of the fund should be done through a small secretariat, which woulddraw on a technical advisory body made up of international experts in thefields of health and development. Addressing concerns that the proposed fundwould pull money away from existing health programs, Annan stressed that thefund must be additional to existing funds and mechanisms, not just a new way ofchanneling money that is already earmarked for development.
Although working, the efforts of the United Nations arenot enough without actual financial support they ask for. There is still agreat need in money and people to fight AIDS in African countries. The UNpledges for the support from economically developed countries to help lessdeveloped ones. It is extremely important that the society fights this crucialdisease, for it does not belong only to Africans, but to all the inhabitants ofthe earth. Therefore it is everyone’s problem. People with HIV/AIDS did notchoose to be sick. It is time to start helping them before it is too late.