Реферат: Жизнь и творчество Шекспира

        Created three since superfluous century back tragedies, historicalchronicles and the Shakespeare's comedies live till now, excite and shakeimagination of the spectators. The best theatres of the world and theoutstanding actors until now consider for themselves as examination andhappiness to put and to play his performance.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

        Having seen suchperformance or simply having read the play of Shakespeare, you want, probably,to learn more about that, who has created these products. But it not so issimple.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

        About life of the greatplaywright few items of information were kept. Shakespeare did not writememoirs and did not conduct a diary. There is no at us his correspondence withthe contemporaries. The manuscripts of the plays of Shakespeare were not keptalso. We were reached some by the documents, in which the differentcircumstances of his life are mentioned. Each of these documents, even if in itsome words about Shakespeare, are investigated and is interpreted. As rarehistorical values those are considered few клочкиof a paper, on which the dramatist’s hand writes some lines or simplythere is his signature.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

        It was necessary to put alot of work, which we could read now about Shakespeare that each educated manshould know about it.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

        William Shakespeare wasborn on April 23, 1564 in small English town Stratford, located on to the riverAvon. His father was the handicraftsman and merchant. The story about childhoodand Shakespeare’s youth is complete of colorful details. However science cannotrecognize as their quite authentic. When Shakespeare there was by little morethan 20 years, he   had suddenly to leave in Stratford. Young Shakespearehas set off to London.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

        Having appeared inunfamiliar city without means, without of the friends and familiar, he, asassert widespread   of the legend, earned the first time for life by thatwatched at theatre of the horses, on which came famous sirs. Later Shakespearebegan to serve at theatre. He watched, that the actors in time should leave ona stage, copied roles, happened, and replaced the prompter. By a word, longbefore, how the great playwright has deduced on a stage of the heroes, he haslearned hard life of theatre.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

        Some years have passed.Shakespeare has begun to charge small roles at the theatre later, which havereceived the name «Globe», which performances were a success in  London. The actor Shakespeare and did not become, but his statementsabout actor's art, and main, magnificent skill in construction of the play,testify to amazing knowledge of the laws of a stage.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

        However, Shakespeare wrotenot only play. His poems impressed of the contemporaries also continue impressdescendants by force of feelings, by depth think, grace of the form. The readerscan especially well estimate Shakespeare’s sonnets, due to excellenttranslations.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

        But the main business forShakespeare, passion by all him of life was work of the playwright, creation ofthe plays.          Shakespeare’s hugelyskill as playwright. Language of his tragedies differs by unusual riches andbeauty. Him the dramatic art borrows an honorable place in repertoire<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

theatresof all worlds.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

        Exulting pleasure of life,glorification sensible, strong, brave, brightly feeling, safely thinking  of the man — basic in the first Shakespeare’s plays  — comedies: " Taming obstinate "," a Comedy of mistakes ", " Dream<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

in summernight ", «There is a lot of noise from anything »," Twelfth  night ", written in 1593-1600. In them the idea is expressedimportant for epoch of Revival: the man needs to be judged not on a dress, noton knowledge, not on estate and riches, and on his behavior and personalqualities.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

        It isdifficult to find in global dramatic art the play same   fantastically — cheerful, clear, magic, as " Dream in summer night ". Theirparticipation in to destiny fond results in a happy outcome.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

        Butnoble humanistic the ideas of Revival could not win in that severe epoch. Inhis following plays ideas of Revival too are expressed, but the paints of theplays become gloomier. He represents collision of perfect ideals a Cart ofbirth with severe activity. In Shakespeare’s creativity begins to sound a themeof destruction of the heroes especially expensive to him, incarnated lighthumanistic of idea.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

        YoungRomeo and Juliet- the heroes of the first great tragedy Shakespeare (1594)-ardently love each other. The love them encounters an insuperable barrier-ancient enmity of families. In an unequal duel with century by prejudices, withthe bloody and senseless laws, Romeo and Juliet perish. But in their love,which has been not measured with biases of olden time, the high moral victoryis made.<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

       Shakespeare’s plays went on a stage of the London theatre«Globe». The theatre «Globe» was similar on rounddetachment visited in by 1599 the first Shakespeare’s representation "Julius Caesar ", has named theatre «Globe» as the house underopen by the sky. The visitant the foreigner who has with a straw roof- he meanta roof above a stage. The name the theatre has received from a statue ofOat-flakes <span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

After statement " Julius Caesar " with 1601on 1608. Shakespeare has created the greatest tragedies supporting by shouldersterrestrial   a sphere: «Hamlet»,   " The King Liar", «Macbet», and «Othello".<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

        Danishprince Hamlet bitterly grieves over the died father. But suddenly he withhorror finds out: he has not died, he was kill. The murderer- the nativebrother killed, Hamlet’s uncle- not only has inherited throne of the deceasedof the king, but also married his widow- Hamlet’s mother. In tragedy isrepresented, as Hamlet in the beginning convicts   hypocrisy of acriminal, and then and revenges him for death of the father. But it onlycoronationed external events of the play.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

        Thetragedy draws complex and difficult meditations the boon of the native manabout a nature of evil, about vicious royal a courtyard, about lie, concealedin palace walls, about illnesses, with which the century, as if "dislocated in joints " is struck. Great Russian critic V.G.Belinsky wroteabout   Hamlet: " It is soul, birthed for goods and in first of timeseen evil in all of his foulness ".<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

        Hamlet’sloneliness is a loneliness of the man, which has outstripped the time, is withhim in tragically dissonance and consequently perishes.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

        Lastyears of creativity Shakespeare (1608-1612) of his play get other character.They leave from of real life. In them sound fantastic, fantastic motives. Butalso in these plays- " The Winter fairy tale ", «Storm”-Shakespeare condemns despotism and, self-will rises on protection of ideals,expensive to him, glorifies force by love, belief and best promptings of theman, asserts natural equality of all people. Exclamation of the hero by one ofthese plays: » As the mankind is perfect! " — can serves a sign ofepoch of the Revival which has presented Shakespeare’s world.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

Shakespeare — author 37 plays, 2poems, and also 154 sonnets, distinguished by hot feeling sated<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

by idea.Shakespeare’s creativity is one of tops of art culture of epoch of Revival.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

In 1612 Shakespeare has writtenlast play «Storm». Soon he has left theatre. Can be Shakespeare hasgone through disappointment at the English theatre leaving from of that greatway, on which he conducted him .Аthere can be within silence he wear out plans of new ingeniouscreations, with which and were not fated to appear.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

       Shakespeare has died in 1616, per day, when to him 52 years wereexecuted. He was buried in Stratford’s church native, where till now come fanshim of talent from all ends of the world to bow to a tomb of the greatplaywright, to visit the house, where he lived, to look his plays inStratford's memorial theatre, where put only Shakespeare’s plays.<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> 

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