Реферат: Examination Topics

1.Some people think that school years are the happiest days in people’s lives.Can you say that you have been happy at school? Why?

School is the traditional placefor acculturating children into our national life. In the modern age, the roleassigned to our schools is to prepare children for the literate public culture.Some students like school, others don’t; but they all study for eleven yearsand gain knowledge by doing different tasks. For students who are doing well inmost subjects and who want to get higher education, school is an attractiveplace. But those who are not successful at school, and who are always pressedby teachers and their parents, school is boring and uninteresting.

I think that the most importantrole of school is giving knowledge. I can say that my school gives suchknowledge, and that’s why I’m happy at school. Most of my teachers have a lotof teaching experience; they understand very well the difficulties of thelearning process. They help us to learn all subjects well. They also guide usand advise us on all aspects of our study and life. They share their knowledgeand experience with us, and we respond with love.

If you want to study well, youmust feel relaxed and happy with your family, school and your social life. Yourparents should understand you and help you when you need their help. My parentsusually help and support me when I need it. We have our school psychologist whoalso helps us to overcome difficulties and cope with our problems. The mainpurpose of our school is to create a supportive and caring atmosphere forstudents.

The standard of education inour school is very high. I’m a rather good student really. I don’t have manyproblems with the work; but I usually get into trouble for talking, especiallywhen I speak at the same time as the teacher.

However I think that sometimeswe have too much homework. Teachers and parents insist that doing homeworkdevelops the student’s ability to work without assistance, or that additionalwork could help us complete our education successfully. But I believe, in manysubjects, homework is totally unnecessary, because it doesn’t do me any good. Ithink it’s really stupid to copy from a textbook, and there is no point induplicating the textbook. And if we could get rid of unnecessary homework, wewould have more time to take up hobbies and interests.

School is not only a place ofeducation; it is a place where we develop our relationships, increasingtolerance and respect to each other. At school we can enjoy different activitiesand demonstrate our individual talents. Everyone has an opportunity to takepart in different performances at a school or class party, or to take part indifferent sport competitions. These activities help us with our education andrelationships among our classmates. We want to have harmony in our class andamong our classmates, but it is rather difficult to achieve. Of course, we tryour best to do it, and in many cases we overcome our problems and solve them.And only sensitive teachers can help us, because boys and girls are not passivelumps of clay; they are living, pulsating, developing, mysterious beings whomust be studied and understood before they can be taught in the true sense.

So a teacher plays an importantrole in our education, and when we remember our school years we usuallyremember our teachers, if they were fair and intelligent or not. I think thatI’m a lucky person – almost all my teachers are very interesting andintelligent. When our teachers criticize us, they follow such rules: they tryto correct a student’s action, not him; they do not impress upon him that hehas no abilities; they try to contribute to the minds and souls of theirstudents; they try to be a path for their students to go through a dark forestof school rules. But I can’t judge all teachers, because there are as manyopinions how to treat a child as there are people. Teachers must choose theirmethods themselves, but they should remember that they influence and shape thestudent’s opinion about their school. As for me, I think that in our schoolalmost all teachers understand the students and become like parents to us. Theysupport us and care for us. I’m happy at my school and so are my classmates.

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2. Ifyou want to continue your education, what kinds of institution will youattends? Explain your choice.

At the age of fifteen, studentsin <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>have to make some important decisions. Will they continue on at school? Or willthey enter a lyceum or a gymnasium? Of course, it’s not easy to make the rightchoice. In our country a nine-year education is compulsory and after the ninthform students have an opportunity to choose. To enter a university or a collegeit is necessary to study two more years, and take five examinations onfinishing the eleventh form. To get a professional education, students have toenter a technical college or a vocational school and study for three years.Finally, they may finish their education, leave school, and get a job. Thechoice depends on their likes and dislikes.

When choosing a place forfuture studies, it’s a good idea to consider a number of factors. First of all,we should take into account our own preferences and find out what our talentsare. We can do this through aptitude tests, interviews with specialities,and consulting reference books on the subjects that interest us. Differenttypes of schools, for example lyceums and gymnasiums, often specialisein various fields. They can offer a good choice of subjects that will be usefulin a future profession. Most of them are affiliated with universities andcolleges and help pupils to prepare for their entrance examinations.

I am not sure what I am goingto do when I leave school. By the time I finish school I will have alreadyformed a much better idea of what I’d like to do. But the problem is we have todecide which subjects to study for university or college two years before wefinish school.

It’s not easy to make the rightchoice. There are a number of things we could do. For some of the mostinteresting professions, like medicine, you have to be very good at chemistry,and I am not much of a chemist. Although my parents are doctors, I don’t seemto be very interested in caring for others and helping them with theirproblems. I don’t think it’s the best decision to follow in the footsteps of aparent or a relative if you are not interested in this profession.

I have always wanted to besomething like a computer programmer, because I like computers and I aminterested in knowing how computer programmes work.Besides, I have an aptitude for working with figures and solving mathematicalproblems. Maths is my favouritesubject, and I am really good at it. So I think I can work in a scientific orcomputational field. As far as my personal qualities are concerned, I can saythat I’m creative and hard-working; I have good logical-reasoning andproblem-solving skills. Besides, I’m rather communicative and like to work in ateam. So I feel I can become a good specialist in programming.

To my mind the profession of aprogrammer has a lot of advantages. It is a highly paid job, and it can offermany opportunities. I will be able to work on the full range of developmentactivities, such as analysis, design, coding, testing and implementation.Computers are the most rapidly changing sphere of modern technology. The nextgeneration of computers will be able to talk and even to think. We are livingin the age of information. And I think that the future will be just filled withcomputers. Today, in the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>USA</st1:place></st1:country-region>people work, go shopping, or even go on dates, sitting at their computers.

But to become a good specialistin computing, you should know a lot of programming languages and application programmes. So after finishing school it is necessary forme to enter a university or a college and to study computer science. I’ll haveto take three entrance examinations: in Maths,Physics and Literary composition. If I am lucky, I’ll have the chance to studyinteresting sciences, and to listen to the lectures of famous professors.

However, it’s very difficult topass entrance examinations. The school I am now studying in is a comprehensiveschool with a standard curriculum. Though the teachers here are veryknowledgeable and experienced, my school only offers general education. Soafter finishing the ninth form, I would like to leave it and to enter a lyceumof information technologies. It gives its pupils profound knowledge in Maths, Physics and other academic subjects. Besides, pupilsare offered a wide choice of elective subjects connected with computers. Theystudy different programming languages and learn how to write programmes. The teachers there are friendly andwell-qualified. The lyceum is known for its academic excellence.

I hope my education at thelyceum will form a basis for my future occupation. But it goes without sayingthat I’ll need some extra knowledge to pass my entrance exams at the universityor college. That is why I’ll have to take preparatory courses in Maths and Physics. Anyway, I have to get down to some hardwork now, if I want to achieve my aims.

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3.Choosing a profession is not an easy matter. What do you think can help you tomake the right choice?

What do you want to be when yougrow up? We have heard this question many times during our school years.Perhaps, it was difficult for us to give a definite answer earlier. But now weunderstand that the time to choose our future profession has come. Finishingschool is the beginning of an independent life for millions of school-leavers.Many roads are open before us: technical schools, colleges and universities.

Centuries ago there were only afew jobs: people were farmers, bakers, butchers or carpenters. Today there arethousands of different kinds of jobs, and new ones are constantly appearing. Nowonder that it is not an easy thing to make the right choice.

When choosing a future career,we should consider different factors. In my opinion, money is one of the mostimportant factors when you make a choice. There are highly paid jobs andlow-paid jobs. For example, a businessman, a president or a film star, arehighly paid jobs. A worker, a doctor or an engineer, are low-paid jobs. I thinkeverybody wants to earn as much money as possible. Training, promotionalprospects and conditions should be also taken into account.

On the other hand, it’s goodwhen you get satisfaction from your job. It is very important to choose aprofession that suits your interests. In my opinion, a job should beinteresting and socially important. Some jobs are considered to be moresuitable for men and others for women. For example, the professions ofsecretary or nurse are more suitable for women. A lifeguard or a pilot are morelikely the jobs for men. You should also decide whether you want to workindoors or outdoors.

To make the right choice, youshould take into account your traits of character. It goes without saying thatto become a good doctor you must be patient, caring and kind. Teacher’s workrequires love for children, profound knowledge of subjects, and the ability toexplain. A secretary has to be efficient and careful in order to do her workquickly and accurately. Salespeople need to be friendly and persuasive, to getpeople buy their products.

There are so many people whoinfluence us in choosing our occupation. Parents and friends play a veryimportant role in our choices.

My father works is a bisnessman. It is a highly paid job and it offers a lot ofopportunities. You can travel abroad and meet different people. My father is afriendly person and he is easy to talk to. He thinks that I must choose my futureprofession according to my taste and preferences. I respect him but I want tobecome a programmer.

I have always been interestedin computers. I’m rather communicative and have good social skills. I have goodanalytical abilities and I am good at problem-solving. Besides, I am good atEnglish. English has become the standard language for all kinds ofinternational programs. To know English today is absolutely necessary for everyprogrammer.

But to become a good specialistin computing, you should know a lot of programming languages and application programmes. So after finishing school it is necessary forme to enter a university or a college and to study computer science. I’ll haveto take three entrance examinations: in Maths,Physics and Literary composition. If I am lucky, I’ll have the chance to studyinteresting sciences, and to listen to the lectures of famous professors.

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4.There are different ways of learning about the world: through the mass media,books, travelling, visiting museums, meeting otherpeople, etc. Which ways do you prefer to learn about the world?

There are a lot of differentways of getting new information. In the past the only way to learn about theworld was traveling. The first travelers were explorers who wanted to discovernew lands. Nowadays, millions of people travel around the world either forpleasure or on business. Traveling has always been a part of people’seducation. It teaches people about the art and culture of different countries.It teaches them to be understanding. Besides, you can improve your knowledge offoreign languages. In my opinion, traveling is the most pleasant way oflearning about the world. It’s always interesting to discover different ways oflife, to visit different museums, to try different foods, and to listen todifferent kinds of music. In brief, when we travel, we can learn a lot ofthings that we can never see and learn at home.

But to travel around the worldyou need a lot of money. That is why the main source of information formillions of people is mass media. Mass media includes newspapers and magazines,advertising and radio, and, of course, television.

Television is a reflection ofthe modern world. It gives you an opportunity to travel all over the world, tosee different peoples, and learn about their customs and traditions. Televisionkeeps you informed about the rest of the world. When you need immediateinformation about the latest world events, you switch the TV on. There arealways a great variety of programmes on TV: currentaffairs programmes and documentaries, plays andfeature films, talk shows and TV games. A lot of people like TV news becausethey can see everything with their own eyes. Besides, TV has the power toeducate and broaden our minds.

Some people think that the onlyway to be in the know of everything is to read newspapers and magazines. If youget on a bus or catch a train during the morning and evening “rush hours”, whenmost people travel to and from work, you will see a lot of people with theirheads in a newspaper or a magazine.

Newspapers are packed with thelatest news, information, fashion and facts. They cater to a variety ofpolitical views, interests and levels of education. Papers are generallydivided into “quality papers”, or broadsheets, and “popular papers” that arehalf the size of broadsheets. But the size is not the only thing that makesthem different. “Quality papers” are serious, with long, informative articles;while “popular papers”, known as “tabloids”, have a more sensational reportingstyle and contain more human interest stories than news. The two most popularBritish daily newspapers, The Sun and The Daily Mirror, are both tabloids.Tabloids sell many more copies than broadsheets.

In <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region> we also have these two typesof newspapers. For example, Izvestiya or Kommersant are broadsheets. They contain political,business and cultural information. Such tabloids as Megapolis-Expressand Express Gazeta contain the latest gossip,sensations and crossword puzzles. People choose a paper according to theirtastes and preferences. Though newspapers don’t react to events as quickly asTV, they usually provide us with extra details, commentaries and backgroundinformation.

There are also a lot ofmagazines and other periodicals. Whatever your interest, there is likely to bea magazine about it – from sport, cookery, and farming, to religion, computers,cinema and more. Young people below the age of 18 do not buy newspapers; butthey do buy magazines. Girls enjoy magazines about pop music, clothes, fashionand make-up; whereas boys prefer to read about sport, cars and computers. Asfar as I am interested in fashions I enjoy reading Yes. It is a monthlymagazine for girls containing the latest information about our favourite pop, film and soap stars, brilliant fashions andbeauty, sports and romance. It approaches interesting subjects withintelligence and good humour. Besides, there is a lotof useful advice on various areas of life.

Still, many people prefer theradio. It’s good to listen to the radio in a car, or in the open air, or whenyou do something about the house. Listeners can tune into all kinds ofstations: pop or classical music, news, sport or foreign radio stations. Peoplecan often call in and ask questions about everything from cooking or car repairto politics or health. Callers often get a chance to give their opinions on theair. Besides, radio has fresher news than newspapers. They inform every halfhour.

The Internet has recentlybecome another important source of information. It is a computer system thatallows millions of people around the world to receive and exchange informationabout almost everything. The main use of the Internet is to find information –for your schoolwork or job, or just to find out more about your hobbies, sportsor current events. All the latest information is available to you in your home,at any hour of the day and night. It’s much faster and easier to surf the netin search of information from all over the world than to travel to libraries indozens of countries.

However, the real world of theInternet may not be as perfect as it seems. With so much information available,finding what you want can take you hours. Multimedia web pages with photographsare attractive, but they make downloading slow and boring. Besides, there istoo much advertising instead of real information.

With so many modern forms offinding information, such as radio, TV and the Internet, people read fewerbooks, newspapers and magazines. Nowadays, most people consider televisiontheir most important source of information, and a majority ranks television asthe most believable news source. In my opinion, we can’t say exactly whichsource of information is the best. It depends on what kind of information youneed. However, I don’t think we should forget the educational value of readinga good book.

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5. Travelling is one of the ways of discovering new countries.What attracts tourists to <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>?What would you show your foreign friends in your home town?

Millions of people all over theworld are fond of travelling. They travel to seeother countries and continents, to discover different ways of life, to meetdifferent people and to practise foreign languages.It goes without saying that travelling broadens themind. While travelling we can see and learn a lot ofthings that we can never learn staying at home and watching TV or readingbooks. That’s why a lot of foreign people come to <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region> to get acquainted withRussian culture, with Russian customs and traditions.

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>has always been acountry of mystery attractive for foreigners. There are lots of villages andtowns in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>famous for their specific crafts: painted boxes in Palekh,wooden tableware in Khokhloma and toys in Dymkovo. Thousands of foreigners visit <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region> to enjoythe typical Russian log houses, decorated with wood carvings.

Tourists like to visit oldRussian towns and cities famous for their ancient architecture. They areespecially attracted by Russian orthodox cathedrals, churches and monasteries.One of the most interesting old cities in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region> is <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novgorod</st1:place></st1:City>, or <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novgorod</st1:place></st1:City> the Great, as it was called in theold times. It is a treasury of architecture, painting and applied art createdover the 11th to 17th centuries. The first records of the city on the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Volkhov</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>River</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> date back to theyear of 859. Now <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novgorod</st1:place></st1:City>has expanded far beyond its former limits. It is an important industrial andcultural centre, located on the busy highway linking <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City> and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>St. Petersburg</st1:place></st1:City>.

The focal point of the city isthe Detinets, or the Kremlin. The present-day Kremlinstems largely from the 15th century. Several alterations made in the 16th and17th centuries were minor and did not affect its appearance. <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novgorod</st1:place></st1:City>’s contribution to the development ofRussian culture is outstanding. No other city excels <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novgorod</st1:place></st1:City> in the number of ancient monumentsof architecture. The Novgorod Museum of History, Architecture and Art showsvisitors the history of the medieval <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Novgorod</st1:place></st1:City>.Its artistic value lies primarily in its collection of medieval icon painting.

There is a lot to see inRussia, but first of all foreign tourists visit the capital of our country,Moscow, its political, economic, commercial and cultural centre. They dream ofvisiting <st1:place w:st=«on»>Red Square</st1:place>, which is called the heartof <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City>.Perhaps, the most ancient <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>monument</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Red Square</st1:PlaceName></st1:place> is St.Basil’s Cathedral. With its nine beautifully painted cupolas, it is a realmasterpiece of ancient Russian architecture.

If you come to <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City> for the first time, you should by allmeans visit the Kremlin, which is very impressive. On the territory of theKremlin you can see old cathedrals, the Bell Tower of Ivan the Great, the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>State</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Kremlin</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Palace</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>, the Tsar Cannonand the Tsar Bell, the biggest cannon and bell in the world. The tallestKremlin tower, the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Spasskaya</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Tower</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>,has become the symbol of the country.

If you leave the Kremlin by theTrinity Gate you will come to the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Alexandrovsky</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Gardens</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>.The first thing to do in the Gardens is to stand by the Tomb of the UnknownSoldier, still and silent. Not far from the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Alexandrovsky</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Gardens</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>, behind the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Bolshoi</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Kamenny</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Bridge</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>, you will see Christ the Saviour Cathedral, with its huge beautiful gilded dome.Foreigners are usually surprised by the number of churches and cathedrals inand around the city. There are also a lot of beautiful palaces, old mansionsand monuments in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City>.

There are more than 80 museumsin our capital. The largest museums are the PushkinMuseum of Fine Arts, whose collections include works of art of the ancientOrient and ancient <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Egypt</st1:place></st1:country-region>,and the State Tretyakov Gallery, which houses a richcollection of Russian painting and Russian icons. Other unique museums in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City> are the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>State</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>History</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Museum</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>, the All-RussiaMuseum of Decorative, Applied and Folk Art, the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Polytechnical</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Museum</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> and many others. <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City> is famous for its theatres, too. Thebest-known of them is the Bolshoi Opera House. Dramatheatres and studios are also very popular.

Another interesting place tovisit in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City>is the All-Russia Exhibition Centre which occupies an area of 530 acres. TheExhibition Centre is situated in a beautiful park. The most admired feature ofthe Exhibition Centre is its fountains. The “Friendship of the Nations” and the“Stone Flower” fountains are the most beautiful. The Exhibition Centre is alarge cultural and commercial complex where different international exhibitionsand fairs are held.

One of the most famous sightsof the city is the Moscow Metro and a journey by Metro will be unforgettable.In the Metro you do not feel as if you’re underground. This is due to the uniquearchitecture and the artistic design of the stations, which are more likepalaces. No two stations are alike; most of them have their own appearance.

Of course, every foreignershould visit <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>St. Petersburg</st1:place></st1:City>,the second largest city in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>and one of the most splendid cities in the world. It was founded in 1703 byPeter the Great at the mouth of the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Neva</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>River</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. Now it is animportant industrial, cultural and educational centre.

<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>St. Petersburg</st1:place></st1:City>is indeed a wonderful city: at every turn thereis something to catch your eye. The <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Winter</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Palace</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>, St. Isaac’sCathedral, the Peter-and-Paul Fortress, and the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Admiralty</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Building</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>attract thousands of tourists from every corner of the world. <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Petersburg</st1:place></st1:City>’s many museums house some of theworld’s most famous art collections. The Hermitage and the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Russian</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Museum</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>,for example, contain the richest collections of pictures in the world.

The city is called the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Northern Venice</st1:place>, because there are 65 rivers, branchesand canals there with artistically decorated bridges. It’s also famous for itsbeautiful white nights.

There are a lot of Hero-citiesin our country. And I would recommend that my foreign friends visit one ofthem. <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Volgograd</st1:place></st1:City>is a legendary city, because here in 1943 the Soviet Army won the great andglorious victory over the fascists. The city was completely ruined during thewar, but now it is a beautiful city again. It stands on the banks of the greatRussian river <st1:place w:st=«on»>Volga</st1:place>. The symbol of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Volgograd</st1:place></st1:City> is the Mamaev Hill. It was the centre of fighting during theheroic defence of <st1:place w:st=«on»>Stalingrad</st1:place>.Now there is a great memorial there. Besides, you can visit the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Stalingrad</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Battle</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Panorama</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Museum</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>, which is situatedon the bank of the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Volga</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>River</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. The centre of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Volgograd</st1:place></st1:City> is the Squareof the Fallen Heroes. In the middle of it there is a granite obelisk and thecommon graves of the heroes of the Civil War and the Great Patriotic War. Atthe foot of the memorial you can see the Eternal Flame. Now <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Volgograd</st1:place></st1:City> is a big industrial and culturalcentre.

There are a lot of otherinteresting towns and cities in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>,which are all worth visiting.

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6.Every country is special. What comes to your mind, when you think of the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>UK</st1:place></st1:country-region> and itspeople?

The <st1:place w:st=«on»>British Isles</st1:place> is the name for a collection of about 4000 islands,including <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Great Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>.<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Great Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>,known as <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>or GB, is the name for the largest of the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Islands</st1:place>in the <st1:place w:st=«on»>British Isles</st1:place>. It includes <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region> and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:place></st1:country-region>. The <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United Kingdom</st1:place></st1:country-region>or <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>UK</st1:place></st1:country-region>is a political term which includes <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:place></st1:country-region> and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Northern Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>.All of these countries are represented in Parliament in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>, and the abbreviation <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>UK</st1:place></st1:country-region> is used onmost official documents produced by Parliament. Everybody from the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>UK</st1:place></st1:country-region> is British,but be careful: only people from <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region> are English. People from <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:place></st1:country-region> think of themselvesas Welsh; people from <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region>as Scottish; people from <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Northern Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region> as either British or Irish.

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>is split intocounties. The word county describes an area with its own local government.County councils are elected to run things, such as education, housing, townplanning, and rubbish disposal. They look after things like roads, librariesand swimming pools.

The British flag, known as theUnion Jack, is a combination of three flags: the Saint Andrew’s cross, theSaint Patrick’s cross and the <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Saint George’s</st1:place></st1:City> cross.

The Saint Patrick’s cross isthe former flag of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>.Saint Patrick is the patron saint of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>. He was born about AD 390.He converted the Irish to Christianity. Saint Patrick’s Day is celebrated on 17March. The symbol of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Northern Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region> is a shamrock and a red hand.

The Saint George’s cross is theEnglish flag. Saint George is the patron saint of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>. He was a soldier famousfor saving the Princess Cleolinda from being eaten bya dragon. <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Saint George’s</st1:place></st1:City>Day is celebrated on 23 April. The symbol of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region> is a red rose.

The Saint Andrew’s cross is theScottish flag. Saint Andrew, a fisherman, was one of the 12 apostles whofollowed Jesus Christ. Paintings of Saint Andrew often show him being crucifiedon an X-shaped cross. Saint Andrew’s Day is celebrated on 30 November. He isthe patron saint of both <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region>and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>.The symbol of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region>is a thistle.

The Welsh flag shows a dragon.Saint David, the patron saint of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:place></st1:country-region>, converted <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:place></st1:country-region> toChristianity and established the Welsh church. Paintings of Saint David showhim with a dove on his shoulder. Saint David’s Day is celebrated on 1 March.The symbol of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:place></st1:country-region>is a daffodil or leek.

<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>is the capital cityof <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>and the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>UK</st1:place></st1:country-region>.It is a place where the invading Romans first crossed the River Thames. Theybuilt a city and called it Londinium. This originalsite of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>is now called the City of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>.<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City> managesin a unique way to reflect the past and, at the same time, to live a life of amodern city. The saying “When a man is tired of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>, he is tired of life” means that youcan’t be bored in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>.There are hundreds of historic buildings, galleries and museums in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>.

As for me, I’m fond of historyand I’ve read a lot about English kings and queens. I’d like to visit allplaces in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>which are connected with Royal London, such as <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Buckingham</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Palace</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>,Westminster Abbey, <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Whitehall</st1:place></st1:City>and <st1:address w:st=«on»><st1:Street w:st=«on»>Trafalgar Square</st1:Street>, <st1:City w:st=«on»>St Paul</st1:City></st1:address>’s Cathedral, and the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Tower</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>London</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>. And I’d like to visit placeswhich are not in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>,such as <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Windsor</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Castle</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>, the Queen’s house in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Greenwich</st1:place></st1:City>, the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Palace</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Holyrood</st1:PlaceName></st1:place> housein <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Edinburgh</st1:place></st1:City>and other places in the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>UK</st1:place></st1:country-region>which are connected with the Crown. The <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>UK</st1:place></st1:country-region> is famous for its castles suchas <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Edinburgh</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Castle</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> and <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Leeds</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Castle</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>and others, and I’d like to see them with my own eyes. Another place which isworth seeing is Madam Tussaud’s <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Museum</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Waxworks</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>.This museum consists of several halls with wax images of outstanding politicalcharacters, poets and writers, world-famous film stars and musicians. Then I’dlike to see one of the wonders of the world – the famous <st1:place w:st=«on»>Stonehenge</st1:place>.Every year thousands of young people go to <st1:place w:st=«on»>Stonehenge</st1:place>to take part in the midsummer Druid festival. I wish I were there.


<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Palace</st1:PlaceType>of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Holyrrodhouse</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Edinburgh</st1:place></st1:City>

In the House of Lords, theChancellor sits on a sack of wool. This tradition comes from old times whensheep wool made <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>rich and powerful. In the House of Commons there are two rows of benches: onerow is for the government and the other one is for opposition. There is a redline in the carpet in front of each “front bench”. The person who is speakingis not allowed to step across it. It is also a tradition from old days, whenthat division prevented the two parties from fighting during the debates. Eventhe Legislation of the country is traditional. It includes many laws thathaven’t been changed for centuries. Other traditional features of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Great Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>are the numerous clubs that unite people of various interests; and the pubs,the local beer halls, where Englishmen like to spend their time talking,discussing traditional matters: politics, sports, and weather, over a glass ofbeer. The British have a reputation of being conservative, for havingestablished values without questioning their validity. They drive on the leftside of the road and use double-decker buses. They stick to their ownmeasurement system and continue to measure distances in miles and yards (not inkilometres and metres).They buy cheese in pounds and ounces, milk in pints, petrol in gallons.


English people are famous fortheir habit of politeness. It is considered polite to give up one’s seat to awoman who is standing, to open a door for her, carry things for her, and so on.Most British people expect the person in front of them to hold the door openfor them. People think you are rude, if you don’t do this. English people arevery reserved. This means that they don’t talk much to strangers, and don’tshow much emotion. A reserved person never tells you anything about himself.But the people of the North and West of Britain are much less reserved thanthose of the South and East. Most British people queue when they are waitingfor a bus or waiting to be served in a shop. But during the rush hour, when abus or train arrives, people often push forward to make sure they get on. Thisis called jumping the queue. British people keep their old traditions and arevery proud of them. They are famous for their sense of humour.English people show great love for animals. And, of course, English people arefond of sports. Many continentals think life is a game; the English thinkcricket is a game. To many Englishmen cricket is both a game and a standard of behaviour. When they consider something unfair, they say“That isn’t cricket”.


The traditional love of Englishpeople for tea is well known. They like to drink tea with milk. They have their<st1:time Minute=«0» Hour=«5» w:st=«on»>five-o’clock</st1:time> tea not only athome or in offices, but also in tea-rooms and tea-shops, which can be found inevery town.

A nation is born from its land,its history, its art, its traditions and its institutions. These things worktogether to make people what they are. But above all, a nation is made up ofpeople, and although there are things they all share, all of those people aredifferent. We can say there is still a “British nation,” and one of the mostcharacteristic features of Englishmen is their traditions, which they respect,and which they have kept for centuries. The traditions don’t only accumulatethe experience and wisdom of many generations, but they bring some stabilityinto the rapidly changing world.

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7.Each country takes pride in its own achievements and success. What makes youfeel proud of your country?

Our country is great, and I’mvery proud of it. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>is famous for its outstanding people – scientists, writers, poets, travellers and explorers. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region> is a stable and democraticsociety. Its citizens have many freedoms, among them the freedom of speech,religion and the press. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>is a member of the United Nations. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region> is one of the largesttrading countries. It has a lot of energy resources and exports oil and naturalgas. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>has for centuries encouraged research and innovation and it has a lot ofachievements throughout the twentieth century. Nobel prizes for science,literature and peace have been won by Russian citizens. In the fields of art,media and sports, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>enjoys an international reputation. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region> has nuclear weapons, astrong army and remains a widely-respected country.

For ages mankind was dreamingof travelling in the space. The science itself camelater. K. E. Tsiolkovsky, the great Russianscientist, is the father of the theory of interplanetary travels. His wordsthat “mankind will not remain on the Earth forever” came true. On <st1:date Year=«1957» Day=«4» Month=«10» w:st=«on»>4 October 1957</st1:date> the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Soviet Union</st1:place> launched the world’s first satellite“Sputnik”. This word, “sputnik”, immediately began to be used in all languages.The first cosmonaut on the Earth to fly into space, Yuri Gagarin, was from <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>, and hemade his flight around the Earth on <st1:date Year=«1961» Day=«12» Month=«4» w:st=«on»>12 April 1961</st1:date> that lasted 1 hour 48 minutes. Years willpass, people will conquer the Universe and make landings on other planets, butmankind will always remember Yury Gagarin as thefirst to pave the way to the stars.

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>is also famous forits ancient churches, cathedrals, and towns. <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City>, the capital of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>, isfamous for its monuments to outstanding people, churches, galleries, theatres,squares and streets.

The heart of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City> is <st1:place w:st=«on»>Red Square</st1:place>.It’s my favourite place in my native city. I show itto all my guests from different countries. It is our history, and I’d like totell you some facts about the buildings on it. St Basil’s Cathedral was builtin 1551–1561 after the victory over the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Kazan</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Kingdom</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. It’s a magnificent Cathedral,with eight churches placed around the tallest ninth one. There is a monument toMinin and Pozharsky infront of the Cathedral. It was built in 1818 and it was the first statue put upin <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City>. Minin and Pozharsky were heroesof the people’s struggle in the war against <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Poland</st1:place></st1:country-region> in 1612. You can see Lobnoye Mesto near the Cathedral.It was erected in the 16 century; the tsar’s orders were read from it, also itwas used as a place for execution. The tallest tower of the Kremlin is the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Spasskaya</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Tower</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. It’s also on <st1:place w:st=«on»>Red Square</st1:place>. It’s one of the symbols of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City>, because the Kremlin clock, made inthe 16th century, is on it. The clock strikes on the hour, half hour andquarter of an hour. The Lenin Mausoleum is in the centre of the square. It wasat first made of wood; and in 1930 it was rebuilt, and made of stone, brick,marble and granite. The <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>State</st1:PlaceType> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>History</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Museum</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>was opened in 1883. It has a rich collection of documents, drawings, pictures,and materials about the country’s past and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>’s great people. The StateDepartment Store (GUM) is one of the largest department stores in the country.It is an impressive building with a glass roof.

Of course the most ancient partof <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City> isthe Kremlin. Nowadays the Kremlin centre looks truly magnificent, with itsmany-domed cathedrals in <st1:Street w:st=«on»><st1:address w:st=«on»>Cathedral Square</st1:address></st1:Street> and with its Tsar Bell and Tsar Cannon.

A very interesting place in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City> is the Cathedralof Christ the Saviour. The original cathedral waserected by order of Emperor Alexander as a token of the Russian people’sgratitude to God for the deliverance of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region> from Napoleon’s invasion in1812. In 1931 it was demolished by order of Josef Stalin. In 1995, <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City>’s Mayor Yuri Luzhkov and the world-famous musician MstislavRostropovich laid the first stone in the foundation of the new Cathedral ofChrist the Saviour. Today you can admire thisCathedral in the centre of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City>.

People in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region> keeptheir old traditions and are very proud of them. They celebrate religiousholidays such as Easter, Christmas, and Maslenitsa.They eat traditional food for Maslenitsa such aspancakes with honey, caviar or sour cream; they coloureggs; bake kulich cakes; make a paskha out of cottagecheese for Easter. Many Russians are religious people. The main church in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region> is theOrthodox Church, but there are other religions too. The Orthodox Church hassurvived during hard times, and now we speak about a rebirth of religion in ourcountry.

Russian people areopen-hearted, hospitable, and friendly. They like to invite guests to theirhomes and cities; they like to give traditional souvenirs to their foreignfriends such as matryoshka dolls, beautifully paintedmugs, plate and spoons from the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>village</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Khokhloma</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>,Palekh boxes, art books, badges and etc.

We are proud of our famous andtalented poets and writers such as Alexander Pushkin,Michael Lermontov and many others. We are proud ofour famous composer Peter Tchaikovsky and one of our famous artists, Isaak Levitan. We can see hispaintings and the paintings of other outstanding Russian artists, such as Repin, Vasnetsov, Shishkin, Surikov, Benua, Korovin, etc., in the Tretyakov Gallery. It is one of the most famous andwell-known picture galleries in our country and in the world. It is situated inthe centre of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City>and is named after its founder Pavel Tretyakov. He began to collect Russian paintings in 1856.He was a famous patron of arts. In 1892 Tretyakovdonated his collection to <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City>.

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>is proud of itsfamous sportsmen who win a lot of gold, silver and bronze medals in differentinternational sports competitions.

So, I’m very proud of mycountry, my native city and the people who brought a lot of fame to my country.And I invite everyone, who has never been to my country, to visit it, and tosee its achievements with their own eyes.

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8.What famous people from <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>would you tell your foreign friends about? Which famous British and Americanpeople do you admire? What made/makes them famous?Eachcountry is proud of its famouspeople, and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>is among them. I’d like to tell you about Russian famous writers, poets andmusicians, because I’m fond of literature and music. A. Pushkinis the most important Russian writer and poet of all time. He is likeShakespeare in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>.He provided the standards for Russian arts and literature in the 19th century.In 1823 Pushkin began writing his masterpiece “EugeneOnegin”. It became his linguistic and literarystandard. It is a commentary on the life of early 19th century <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>. Pushkin also wrote a lot of other poems and createdmasterpieces in drama and prose. All Russian people know Pushkin.Galleries and museums were named after him. In the centre of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City> there is a monument to Pushkin built by the famous Russian architect Opekunshin in 1880. Pushkin’smemorial museums in different cities attract many visitors. One of the otherfamous poets and writers in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>was M. Lermontov. He won fame as a poet afterhis poem on Pushkin’s death had been published. Lermontov’s poems “Demon”, “Mtsyri”,his great novel A Hero of Our Time and his play “Masquerade” are masterpiecesof Russian literature.As for me I like readingF. Dostoevsky and L. Tolstoy. They are famous Russian writers. I likeM. Bulgakov; Master and Margarita is one of theworld’s masterpieces. I often go to Patriarch’s Pond where the book begins. Ithas a special atmosphere even now. I go there to be inspired. I like readingpoetry, and Anna Ahmatova is my favourite.Russian’s famous musicians and composers such as SergeiRachmaninov and Peter Tchaikovsky are recognized allover the world. Tchaikovsky composed a lot of symphonies and created beautifulmusic for operas and ballets. His famous operas “Eugene Onegin”,and “Iolanta” and his famous ballets “The Swan Lake”,“The Sleeping Beauty” are masterpieces. His memorial museum was opened in 1894in Klin not far from <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City>. And the international TchaikovskyMusic Competition started in 1958 in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City>.S. Rachmaninov was an outstanding Russian composerand pianist. He became famous with audiences around the world for his piano performances.Great <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region> is also proud of its famouspeople. And I’d like to tell you about one of its famous writers A. ConanDoyle. He invented Sherlock Holmes, one of the most famous characters anddetectives. Arthur Conan Doyle was born in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region>. He was a doctor. In 1882he moved to <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>to set up a practice. One of the doctors he worked for, was the model for Dr.Watson. Conan Doyle’s medical knowledge was a great help in his detectivestories. He started the fashion of the detective stories. Nowadays I don’t knowa person who doesn’t like detective stories. We know a lot about SherlockHolmes. We even know his address – <st1:Street w:st=«on»><st1:address w:st=«on»>221 “B” Baker Street</st1:address></st1:Street> in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>. If you go to <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>, you won’t find <st1:Street w:st=«on»><st1:address w:st=«on»>221 “B” Baker Street</st1:address></st1:Street>. But instead, youcan go to a pub called “The Sherlock Holmes” in <st1:Street w:st=«on»><st1:address w:st=«on»>Northumberland Street</st1:address></st1:Street> (near <st1:Street w:st=«on»><st1:address w:st=«on»>Trafalgar Square</st1:address></st1:Street>).In that pub there is a room like his room at <st1:Street w:st=«on»><st1:address w:st=«on»>221 “B” Baker Street</st1:address></st1:Street>, as described inConan Doyle’s stories. There is also the stuffed head of a hound. It is said tobe the original “hound of the Baskervilles”. A lot of tourists visit this pub.When Conan Doyle began to get tired of writing detective stories, he “killed”Holmes in one of his stories. But the public didn’t like it. Conan Doyle had towrite another story in which Holmes came back. So we can say that Conan Doylewas a famous British writer. He became popular because of his love for people.I also admire American famous people. I’d like totell you about Walt Disney, the pioneer of animated cartoons. He is famous forcreating such cartoon characters as Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, Pluto, Goofy andothers. He was born in 1901 in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Chicago</st1:place></st1:City>.His father was a carpenter, farmer and building contractor. So the familychanged homes several times. In 1917 Walt entered a <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Higher</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>School</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Chicago</st1:place></st1:City>,where he took photographs, made drawings for the school paper and studiedcartooning, for he wanted to get a job as a newspaper cartoonist. After WorldWar 1, in which he participated as a truck driver for the American Red Cross in<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>France</st1:place></st1:country-region>and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Germany</st1:place></st1:country-region>,he returned to <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Kansas City</st1:place></st1:City>.There he met Ub Iverk whoturned into his partner for life. They started a small studio of their own andbegan making short animated advertising films. In 1927 Mickey Mouse appeared.Disney himself provided the voice for Mickey. Then the other cartoons appeared.Gradually, the Disney studio turned into a big enterprise and began to producea variety of cartoons for children. And it was he, who initiated plans for ahuge amusement park, which is known as <st1:place w:st=«on»>Disneyland</st1:place>.A lot of grown-ups and children visit this park and remember the person whofounded it, Walt Disney. And, of course, they remember Walt Disney because ofhis remarkable cartoons.

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9.What would you tell your foreign friends about traditional Russian holidays andcelebrations? What do you think your British friends will tell you about theirtraditional holidays and celebrations?

Every country has its ownnational holidays, but there are

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