Реферат: Genetic ManipulationHuman GeneticManipulationBy Svetlana Levanova, 512 AE
Genes are working portions of DNA andthe biological units of heredity. Specific genes code for specific traits thatare found in a given organism. For example, one gene may code for eye colorwhile another one may code for shoe size. DNA is an extremely complicatedbiological system. Many, if not most diseases stem from a defect in one'sgenetic code. There are two ways for one to get a genetic defect or mutation. Amutation can be inherited from one or both parents, or a genetic mutation canbe acquired.
Gene therapy is the process by whichcells are supplied with healthy copies of missing, flawed, or desirable genes.Gene therapy can possibly be a cure for the genetic mutations that areconstantly occurring in nature. There is a heated discussion in the societyabout both genetically modified food and human gene engineering and thepossible repercussion from them, which we may be able to get only in a certainperiod of time.
Still this burning issue hasarguments both in favor of and against gene technology. The success of geneticmanipulation will result in a better quality of life for people. Nearly alldiseases can potentially be cured. Cancer will be wiped out, as cancer causinggenetic defects will no longer be a problem. As a result of genetic testing,risk prevention is also a benefit. If I find that I am genetically inclined tohave a heart attack, I can reshape my habits around my genetic dispositions.Or, if I know that I have a recessive gene for a disease, I will know not tohave a child by another person with that gene. Also we get more than justmedical benefits. If it is found out that genes are responsible for the work ofthe mind, than who is to say that someday people won't be able to endow theirchildren with certain qualities. Many see this as an advantage. Before my childis even conceived, I can give him brown hair, green eyes, 6 feet in height andan intellect to match! In a nutshell, the benefits are long lives, less diseaseand tailored children.
As for the arguments against genetechnology, there are many ethical and religious reasons against genemanipulation. Many say that it will be an invasion of one's genetic privacy.Once the technology becomes widespread, genetic testing will be mandated, andgenetic information will have to be disclosed. Many people don't want to knowabout their own genetic destiny, let alone allow others to know. The fact thatgenetic information may one day become easily accessible leads to the possibilityof genetic discrimination and violation of genetic privacy. People can mostcertainly be judged and oppressed on the basis of genetic information as wellas skin color. Why should I hire a man who has a genetic risk of developingheart disease? Why should I offer him insurance?
Many people feel that genetictechnology will have organizational problems. For example, that the practicewill be poorly regulated and that people can do as they please with developinggenetic engineering. Also, it is feared that this new technology will beavailable only to the wealthy, for their own benefit and exploitation. Peoplefear also the fact that genetically modified humans will decrease the diversityof the human species, which will make the human population susceptible todiseases. This is a far-fetched notion, but the possibility exists. Finally, itis feared that creating new types of people is undermining God's natural order.Just as above it was stated as a benefit, many also view having the power to«select» your child as a problem. They feel the humans should nothave the power to create a child like it is some sort of machinery. Life shouldbe held in higher regard than that.
Human curiosity and innovation willalways manage to conjure up some sort of scientific breakthrough. Geneticmanipulation is no exception. Like all new technologies, it has its pros andcons that must be weighed. The potential for reward and for disaster are bothgreat in this issue. With sufficient regulation and responsibility, the benefitsof genetic manipulation can far outweigh the drawbacks. It is a situation thatmust be handled delicately.