Реферат: Lexico-sementic chartersticcs of business letter correspondence

Юрченко М. В.Приняла:          ст. преподаватель Галиченко Н.Ю.

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 TOCo «1-3» Content… GOTOBUTTON_Toc383788157   PAGEREF _Toc3837881571

ANNOTATION… GOTOBUTTON_Toc383788158   PAGEREF_Toc383788158 2

INTRODUCTION… GOTOBUTTON_Toc383788159   PAGEREF_Toc383788159 3


A sampling ofcontract phrases… GOTOBUTTON_Toc383788161   PAGEREF_Toc383788161 7

Foreign esotericwords… GOTOBUTTON_Toc383788162   PAGEREF_Toc383788162 16

Some words againstpassive… GOTOBUTTON_Toc383788163   PAGEREF_Toc383788163 16


Example 1.… GOTOBUTTON_Toc383788165   PAGEREF_Toc383788165 18

Example2… GOTOBUTTON_Toc383788166   PAGEREF_Toc383788166 20

Example 3.… GOTOBUTTON_Toc383788167   PAGEREF_Toc383788167 22

Example 4.… GOTOBUTTON_Toc383788168   PAGEREF_Toc383788168 24

Example 5… GOTOBUTTON_Toc383788169   PAGEREF_Toc383788169 25

Example 6.… GOTOBUTTON_Toc383788170   PAGEREF_Toc383788170 27

CONCLUSION… GOTOBUTTON_Toc383788171   PAGEREF_Toc383788171 29

BIBLIOGRAPHY… GOTOBUTTON_Toc383788172   PAGEREF_Toc383788172 30

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Thesubject matter of the course paper is the role of lexics and semantics in thecase of business letter correspondence. The question of the history of officialcommunication, the main stages of business transactions, the role of person’sfeeling for the proper use of phrases as well as his knowledge of grammar arehighlighted. Moreover, those phrases which are more often used in businessletters are examined from the point of view of their appropriateness indifferent situations. The practical part contains several examples of businessletters; the occasions on which they were written and some of theircharacteristics are observed.

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Letter writing — is an essential partof communication,  an intimate part   of  experience.   Each  letter-writer has  acharacteristic way of writing,  his style of writing,  his wayof expressing thoughts,  facts,  etc. but  it  must beemphasisedthat the routine of the official  or  semi-officialbusiness letters requires  certain  accepted idioms,  phrases,patterns, and grammar which are found  in general  use  today.Therefore certain skills  must  be acquired by practice,  anddetails of writing must be carefully and thoroughly learnt.

A cheque,  a contract or any other business paper sentbymail should always beaccompanied by a letter. The letter sayswhat is being  sent  so that the recipient should know exactly whatyou intended to send.  It is a typical business  letter whichsomepeople  call «routine».  The letter may be short or long,it may contain some veryimportant  and  much less  importantinformation -  every letter  requires  careful planning  andthoughtful writing.

In recent  years English has become a universal business language. As such,  it is potentially an instrument  of order and clarity.  But  words and phrases have unexpected ways of creating binding commitments.

Letter-writing, certainly,  is not  the  same as casualconversation, it bears  only  the same  power  of thoughts,reflections,and observations as in conversational talk, butthe formmay be quite different.  What  makes the  letter  soattractive and  pleasing  is not  always  the massage of  theletter, it is often the manner andstyle in which  the  massageis written.

E.g.: «I wish to express to you my  sincere appreciation for your note of congratulation.»

 «I am  sincerely happy that you were electedPresidentofBiological Society.»

As you  see such  formulations  show the attitude of the writer, his respectand sincerity.

The language of business,  professional and semi-official letters isformal,  courteous,  tactful, concise, expressive, and to thepoint. A neatly arranged letter will certainly make a better impression on thereader, thus good letters make good business partners.

In the case of «scientificcorrespondence» the majority of letters bear   mostly a  semi-official  character and  are concerned with differentsituations associated with scientific activities concentrated  around the organisation of scientificmeetings (congresses,   symposia,   workshops,  etc.),    the arrangement ofvisit, invitation, publication, the exchange of scientific literature,  information, etc. Letters of this kind havea   tone of  friendliness,  naturalism. Modern  English letters should notbe exaggerated,  overburdened, outmodedwith time-worn expressions.  The  key note  is simplicity.  Modern letters tend towards using thelanguage of conversational style.

Writing is   not  only  a  means of  communication  and contract, but also a record ofaffairs,  information,  events, etc. So  it is  necessary to feel the spiritand trend of the style in order to write a perfect letter.

Business-letter or  contract law is a complex and vastly documented subject,  only a lawyer can  deal  with it  on  a serious level.  A number of basic principles,  however, can be outlined sufficiently to markof encounters that  require  the use of specialised English.

Doing business means  working out  agreements with  other people, sometimes through  elaborate contracts  and sometimes throughnothing but little   standard    forms, through exchanges of letters andconversations at lunch.

Nowadays more and more agreementsare  made in  English, for English  is the  nearest  thing we  have  to a universal business language.  Joint ventures,  bank loans, and trademark licensesfrequently  are  spelled out  in  this language even  though it is not native to at least  one of  the  contracting parties.

As a beginning I am going  to look  at  the subject  of writing ofbusiness  letters  generally. In  the  main there are three stages transactionsinvolving business contracts: first, negotiation of  terms, second,  drafting documentsreflecting these terms,  and third,  litigation to enforce  or to  avoid executing of theseterms. To my mind, a fourth might be added, the administration of contracts.

I am going to look through the first two since the third and the fourth arerelated only to the field of law. A typical first stage of contract is two ormore people having drink and talking about future dealing.  A second phase might be letters written inorder to work out an agreement.

In these two early stages it  will be  helpful  to know something about rules of contract. But what rules?  Different nationsborrow or create different legal systems, and even within a single country therules may vary according to region or the kind of transaction involved.

It is worth knowing that thedistinctions in legal system of England are mainly historical.

The history  of writing  business letters isundoubtedly connected with the history of development of  legal language. English is in fact a latecomer as a legal language.  Even after the Norman  Conquest court  pleadings  in England  were  in French, and before that lawyers usedLatin.  Perhaps,  some of our difficulties arise  due to  the  fact that  English  was unacceptable in its childhood.

Contract in  English suggest   Anglo-American   contract rules. The  main point  is always to be aware thatthere are differences: the way they may be resolved usually  is  a problem for lawyers.  With contracts the applicable law may be thelaw of the place where the contract is made; in other cases it may be the lawof the place where the contract is to be performed. It is specified inpreliminary negotiations  which  system of law is to apply.

Diversity is characteristic featureof English; here is a wide range of alternatives to  choose from  in saying things,  although the conciseness is sometimeslacking.  Consequently,  the use  of  English is a  creative  challenge. Almost  too many riches are available for   selection,  that   leads   occasionally    to masterpieces but more frequently tomistakes.  English is less refined in itsdistinctions than French,  for example,and this makes it harder to be clear.

That does not mean that Englishis  imprecise  for all things are relative.  If wecompare English with Japanese,  we willsee  that the  latter  possesses enormous   degree   of politeness to   reflect the  respectiveness  of speaker  and listener as well asof addresser and addressee.

Here I  cannot help mentioning the fact that ascontracts are so unclear in what every side intends to  do,  a  contract can sometimes put a company out ofbusiness.

Thus everybody who is involved inany  kind of  business should study   thoroughly  the  complex  science of  writing business letters andcontracts.


From the lexicological point of viewisolated  words  and phrases mean  very little. In context they mean a great deal, and in the special context of  contractual undertakings  they meaneverything.  Contract  English is  a prose organised according toplan.

And it  includes, without limitation,  the right butnot the obligation to select words from a wide variety  of verbal implements and write clearly, accurately, and/or with style.

Two phases of writing contractsexist:  in the  first, we react to  proposed contracts drafted by somebodyelse,  and in the second,  which presents greater challenge,  we compose our own.

A good contract reads like a classicstory.  It narrates, in orderlysequence,  that one part should do thisand another should do that,  andperhaps  if  certain events  occur,  the outcome will be changed. All of the ratecards charts, and other reference material ought to be ticked off one  after another according to the sense of it.Tables and figures, code words and mystical references are  almost insulting  unless  organised and   defined. Without  organisation  they baffle, without definition they entrap.

In strong stance one can send backthe offending document and request a substitute document in  comprehensible  English. Otherwise a series of questions maybe put by letter,  and the replies oftenwill have contractual force if the document  is later contested.

Asampling of contract phrases

My observations about English so farhave been general in nature. Now it appears logical  to  examine the  examples  of favourite contract  phrases, which  will help ease the way tofuller examination of entire negotiations and contracts. a full glossary isbeyond reach but in what follows there is a listing of words and phrases thatturn up in  great  many documents, with comments on each one. The words and phrases arepresented in plausible contract sequence, not alphabetically.

«Whereas» Everyman's idea of how a contract begins.  Some lawyers dislike «Whereas» anduse recitation clauses so marked to distinguish them from the text in the  contract. There  the real issue lies;  one must be careful about mixing up recitalsof history with what is actually being agreed on. For example,  it would be folly to write: «Whereas A admits owing B $10,000...»because the  admission  may later  haunt  one, especially if drafts are never signed and the debt be disputed.  Rather less damaging would be:

«Whereasthe  parties have engaged   in  a   series   of transactions   resulting  in  dispute  over  accounting between them...»

On the whole «Whereas» isacceptable, but what follows it needs particular care.

«It is understood and agreed» On the one hand, it usually addsnothing, because every clause in the contract is «understood andagreed» or it would not be written into it.  On the other  hand, what it adds is animplication that other clauses are not backed up by this phrase: by includingthe one you exclude the other. «It is understood and agreed» ought to bebanished.

«Hereinafter» A decent  enough little word doingthe job of six («Referred to later in this document»). «Hereinafter» frequently sets up abbreviated names for the contract parties.

For example:

«KnightsbridgeInternational  Drapes andFishmonger,  Ltd  (hereinafter „Knightsbridge“).

»Including Without Limitation" It is useful and at  times essential phrase.  Earlier I've noted that mentioning certain things may exclude others byimplication. Thus,

«Youmay  assign  your exclusive British and Commonwealthrights»

suggests that you may not assign other rights assumingyou have any. Such pitfalls may be avoided by phrasing such as:

«Youmay  assign  any and  all  your rights  including withoutlimitation your exclusive  British   and Commonwealth rights».

But why specify any rights if all ofthem  are included? Psychology is  the  main reason;  people want specificthings underscored in   the   contracts,  and   «Including   Without Limitation» indulges thisprediction.

«Assignees and  Licensees»  These are  important  words which acceptability depends on one'spoint of view

«Knightsbridge,its assignees and licensees...»

suggests that Knightsbridge may hand you over tosomebody else after contracts are signed. If you yourself happen to be Knightsbridge, you  will want that particular right and shoulduse the phrase.

«Without Prejudice» It is a classic. The British use thisphrase all by itself,  leaving the readerintrigued.  «Without Prejudice»to  what exactly?  Americans  spell it  out  more elaborately, but  if you  stick  to American  way,  remember «Including WithoutLimitation»,  or you may  accidentally exclude something byimplication.  Legal rights,  for example, are not the same thing asremedies the law  offers  to enforce  them. Thus the Americanmight write:

«Withoutprejudice to any of my existing or future rights or remedies...»

Andthis leads to another phrase.

«And/or» It  is an essential barbarism.  In the preceding example I've used thedisjunctive «rights or remedies».  This is notalways good enough, and one may run into trouble with

«Knightsbridge or Tefal or either of themshall...»

Whatabout both together?  «Knightsbridge and Tefal»,perhaps, followed by «or either».  Occasionally the alternatives become  overwhelming, thus   and/or  is   convenient   and generally  accepted, although moredetail is better.

«Shall» If one says  «Knightsbridge  and/or Tefal  shallhave...» or   «will  have...»,  legally it  should  make nodifferencein the case you are consent in using one  or  theother. «Shall»,  however, is stronger than «will».Going fromone toanother might suggest that one obligation is  strongersomehow than  another. Perhaps,  one's position maydeterminethe choice.«You shall», however is badform.

«Understanding» It is a  dangerous  word. If  you  meanagreement you  ought  to say  so.  If you  view  of affairsthatthereis no agreement, «understanding» as anoun suggeststheopposite or comes close to it.  .itstands,  in fact, as amonument to unsatisfactorycompromise.  The  softness of thewordconjures  up  pleasing images.  «In accordance with ourunderstanding...» can be interpreted in a number of ways.

«Effect» Here  is a   little   word  which   uses   areinsufficiently praised.   Such   a   phrase  as   «We   willproduce...» is inaccurate,   because   the work   will    besubcontracted and   the  promise-maker technically  defaults.Somebody else does the producing. Whynot say «We will produceor cause to be produced...»?  This is infact often said,  butit jars the ear.  Accordingly «We  will  effect production...» highlights the point with greater skill.

«Idea» This word is bad for yourown  side but  helpful against others.  Ideas as such are not generallyprotected  by law. If you  submit something  to  a company with any hope of reward you must find better phrasing than«my idea».  Perhaps, «my format»  or  possibly «my  property»is more appropriate. Naturally, if you can  develop  an idea  into  a format  or protectableproperty,  the  more ambitious  phrasing  will be better justified.

«As between us» It is useful,  because people are  always forgetting or   neglecting  to  mention  that a  great  many interests may  be involved  in  what appears  to  be simple dialogue. «I reservecontrol over...» and «Youhave the final power of decision over...» sound like  division of  something into spheres,  but frequently  «I» am in turn controlled by myinvestors and «You» — by aforeign parent company,  making thelanguage of division inaccurate.Neither of us really controlsanything, at least ultimately.

Thus  it will  be  useful to say, «As between us, Icontrol...» and so on.

«Spanning» Time  periods are  awkward  things: "...for  a period commencing August,1 and  expiring November,15..."  isclumsy; "...from  August,1to November,15..." is skeletal when informing how long a contractobligation endures.

But  during particular time  periods  one may be reporting for work,  forexample, three days out of every five, or doing something else that is withinbut not completely parallel to the entire time period involved.

Ahappy solution is the word «Spanning».It goes this way:

«Throughout the period spanning August,1 — November,15 inclusive you will render services as  a   consultant three days out of every five.»

Itwill  be useful to put «inclusive»at the end for without it you may lose the date, concluding the period beingspanned.

«Negotiate in Good Faith»  The negotiators  have  worked until late at night,  all points but one have been worked out, thecontract will never be signed without resolution  of some particular impasse.  What isthere to do?

Agreeto «Negotiate in Good Faith»on the disputed point at  later  time. This is done frequently,  but  make no mistake about the outcome. The openpoint remains open. If it happens to be vital  you  may have no contract at all.  «Negotiate in Good Faith» is one ofthose evasions that must be used sparingly. At the right time it preventscollapse, at the wrong time it promotes it.

«Confirm» It suggests, of course,that something has been agreed upon before. You are writing now only to make arecord of it. «I write to confirm that you admit  substantial default  in delivery»Frequently we encounter it in ordinary correspondence: «Confirming your order», «Confirming the main points of our agreement»,and so on.

«Furnish» It is a handy wordwhich  usefulness  lies in the avoidance  of worsealternatives. Suppose you transact to deliver a variety of elements as  a package.

«Deliver»  leaves out, even  though it  may  well be implied,  the preliminarypurchase or engagement of these elements, and at the other end it goes  very far in suggesting responsibility forgetting the package unscathed to where it belongs.

Alternativesalso  may go wrong,  slightly, each with its own implications.

«Assign» involves legal title;  «give»is  lame and  probably  untrue; «transmit» means  send.

Thus  each word misses some important — detail orimplies unnecessary things.

«Furnish»  is sometimes useful when more popular words fall short or go too far.It has a good professional ring to itas well:

«I agree to furnish all of the elementslisted on Exhibit A annexed hereto and made part hereof by incorporation.»

Whois  responsible for non-delivery and related questions can be  dealt with  in  separate clauses.

«Furnish»  avoids jumping the  gun. It keeps away from what ought to be treated independently but fills upenough space  to  stand firm.

Theword is good value.

«Right but Not  Obligation»  One of  the  most splendid phrases available.Sometimesthe  grant of  particular rights carries withit by implication a duty to exploit them. Authors, for example,  often feel betrayed by their publishes, whohave various rights «but do nothing about them.» Royalties decreaseas a result; and this situation, whether or not it reflects real criminality,  is repeated in variety  of industries  and court cases.Accordingly it well suits the granteeof  rights to make  clear at the very beginning that he mayabandon them.Thispossibility is more appropriately dealt with in separate clauses reciting the consequences.Still, contracts have been known to  contain inconsistent  provisions,  and preliminary correspondence may not  even  reach the subject of rights.A quick phrase helps keep you out oftrouble:«TheRight but  Not Obligation».Thus,

«We shall have the Right  but Not  Obligation  to grant sublicenses in Austria»(«But if we fail, we fail»).

Eventhis magic phrase has its limitations because  good faith may requirehaving a real go to exploiting the rights in question. Nevertheless «Rightbut Not Obligation»is useful, so much so   as  to become  incantation  and be  said  whenever circumstances allowit. I the othersidechallenges these words, it will   be  better to  know  this at  once  and work  out alternatives or finishup the negotiations completely.

«Exclusive» It’s importance in contractEnglish is  vast,  and its omission   creates difficulties  in  good many  informal drafts. Exclusivityas a contract term means that somebody is -barred from dealing with others in a specified area. Typically anemployment may be exclusive in that the employee  may not work for  any  one else, or a license may be exclusive in the sense that no competinglicenses  will  be issued.

Antitrustproblems cluster  around  exclusive arrangements but they are not all automatically outlawed.

Itfollows that one ought to specify whether or   not   exclusivity   is  part   of   many transactions. If not,  the phrase  «nonexclusive»  does well enough. On  the  other hand, if a consultant is to be engaged solely by one company,  or a distributorship awarded to nobody elseexcept  X,  then  «exclusive»  is a  word  that deserves recitation. «ExclusiveRight but Not Obligation» is an example that combines  two phrases  discussed  here.

The  linking of concepts is a  step in  building  a vocabulary  of  contract English.

«Solely on condition that» One of the few phrases that can be consideredbetter than its short counterparts. Why not just   «if»? Because  «if»  by itself  leaves  open the possibility of open contingencies:

«If Baker delivers 1,000 barrels I will buythem» is unclear if you will buy them only  from  Baker. Therefore what about «only if»? Sometimes this works out, butnot always.

«Iwill buy 1,000 barrels only if Baker delivers them» is an example  of «only if» going fuzzy.  One possible meaning is «not more than1,000 barrels» with «only» assimilated with the wrong word. Herethen a more elaborate phrase is justified.

«I will buy 1,000 barrels solely on conditionthat  Baker delivers them» makeseverything clear.

«Subject to»  Few contracts  can do without thisphrase. Many promises can be made good only if certain  things occur. The right   procedure   is  to   spell  out these  plausible impediments tothe degree  that  you can  reasonably  foresee them.

«We will deliver these subject to ourreceiving  adequate supplies»;

«Our agreement is subject to the laws ofConnecticut»;

«Subject to circumstances beyond our control».

Foreignesoteric words

Everynow  and then a scholarly phrase becomesaccepted in business usage.  «Pro rate»  and  «pari  passu»   are  Latin expressions but concern money. «Pro rata» proveshelpful when payments are to be in a proportion reflecting earlier  formulas in a contract.  «Pari passu» is used when several people are paid at the same level ortime out of a  common  fund. Latin, however, is not the only source of foreign phrases in businessletters.

«Force majeure»  is a French phrase meaning circumstancesbeyond one's control.

Englishitself  has plenty of rare words.  One example is «eschew»; how  many  times we  see  people struggling   with negativessuch  as «and  we agree not to produce (whatever it is) for a period of X». The moreappropriate phrase would be

«we will eschew production».

Buthere it should be mentioned  that  not  everyone  can understand such  phrases. Therefore rare words should be used only once in a long  while. Those  who  uses them  sparingly appears to bereliable.

Somewords against passive

Untilnow the  study  of writing  business  letters has consisted largely  of  contract phrases  accompanied by briefessays evaluating  their  usefulness. The   words   are  only samplings and are presented mainly to conduce writing businessletters in a proper way.  It will bewrong,  however, to bring this list  to an end without mention of a more generalproblem that arises in connection with no fixed word pattern at all. It arises,rather from using too many passives. Such phrases as «The material will bedelivered»;

«The start date is to be decided»;

«The figures must be approved» are obscure ones leaving unsettled who it isthat delivers, who decides,  and who doesthe approving.  Which side it is to be?Lawsuits  are  the plausible  outcome  of leaving it all unsettled. Passives used in contracts can  destroy the  whole negotiations.«You  will  deliver» is better for it identifies the one who will do delivering.  Certainly, «must be approved by us» violates other canons.  «We shall have the right but not theobligation to approve» is less unfortunate.  There is  no doubt that passives do notsuit business letters,  and if they goall the way through without adding something like «by  you» or «by us» they areintolerable.  Once in a long while onemay find passives used purposely to leave something  unresolved. In those circumstances  they  will be in class with «negotiate in goodfaith», which I've examined earlier.


Nowlet's turn to the practical point of writing business letters. They  may be divided into official andsemi-official. The first kind of letters is characteristic  of those  people working in  business: an executive,  a departmentmanager,  a salesman, a  secretary or  a  specialist in   business   and technology. But also many people maywant to buy something, to accept an invitation or to congratulate somebody — this  is a kind of semi-official letters. The first kind  of letters may inturn be subdivided into such groups as: inquiries, offers, orders, and so  on.  I am  going  to examine this group more carefully lookingat the correspondence of Chicago businessmen and English manufactures.





421Michigan Avenue



148Mortimer Street

LondonWIC 37D

England                                  October 21,1993


Wesaw  your women's  dresses  and suits at the London Fashion Show held inNew York on October 17.  The lines youshowed for teenagers, the «Swinger»  dresses  and trouser suits would be most suitable forour market.

Wouldyou kindly send us your quotation for spring and  summer clothing that  you could  supply  to us by the end of January next. We wouldrequire 2,000 dresses and suits in each of the sizes 10-14,  and  500 in sizes 8 and 16.  Please quote c.i.f. Chicago prices. Paymentis normally made by letter of credit.

Thankyou for an early reply.

Very truly yours,




Thisis undoubtedly an import inquiry letter. In the first part of a  letter there  is  a kind  of  introduction as  a prospective customer  approaches supplier for the first time ,andit  is from  this  part that  we  found out  that   the correspondents are engaged in textileindustry.

Thesecond   part   expresses  request   for   detailed information about the goods inquestion, their prices and terms of possible transaction.

Inthis   example   we  come   across  the abbreviation concerning the terms of delivery, that is commonlyaccepted  in the business  world. It is interesting to know what this kind of abbreviations means:

c.i.f. — cost, insurance, freight.

If consignment is  to  be delivered  according to c.i.f.,then the supplier insures  the  goods and pays for the whole delivery.

f.o.b. — free on board.

If consignment is  to  be delivered  according to f.o.b.,then  the supplier pays for transportation to port,  steamer or air shipment and dispatch; and thecustomer  pays  for onward  transportation andinsurance.

f.o.r. — free on rail.

It is   the   same  as  f.o.b.,  but for  railway transportation.

c & f — cost and freight.

If consignment is  to  be delivered  according to c & f,then the supplier pays for the whole delivery and the customer — for insurance.

Itis worth mentioning here  that  the whole  letter  is written in a  highly  polite way,  nevertheless  it is quite precise and sticks to the point.




148Mortimer Street

LondonW1C 37D



421Michigan Avenue

Chicago,III.60602                                  30th October, 1996


Weare pleased to make you an offer regarding our ‘Swinger’ dresses and trousersuits in the size you require. Nearly all the models you saw at our fashionshow are obtainable, except trouser suits in pink, of which the smaller sizeshave been sold out. This line is being manufactured continuously, but will onlybe available again in February, so could be delivered to you in March.

Allother models can be supplied by the middle of January 1997, subject to ourreceiving your form order by 15th of November. Our c.i.f. prices areunderstood to be for sealand transport to Chicago. If you would prefer thegoods to be sent by air freight, this will be charged extra at cost

Trousersuits sizes 8-16 in white, yellow, red, turquoise, navy blue, black

Sizes12,14 also in pink                     per 100 $2,650.00

Swingerdresses sizes 8-16

inwhite, yellow, red, turquoise, black          per 100 $1,845.00

Youwill be receiving price-list, cutting of our materials and a colour chart.These were airmailed to you this morning.

Yours faithfully,


Export Department

Asyou can clearly see it we face  the  second phase  of business correspondence  - the  answering letter.  It is very important, because it adjuststhe  relationships  between two partners. It does not only characterise the company,  but also advertises it.  The purpose of the letter is to  persuade the partner that you are the best in business.

Thisletter  contains  the quotation  in  reply to   an inquiry. In lots ofsimilar letters the quotations are simply prices and another information askedfor.  But this sample  is quite the opposite:  it  shows the  customer that he met thesales-cautious businessman,  who  uses every  opportunity   to stimulate his   correspondents   interest  in  his  goods by including the  sales  message. And the  assurance  that  the customer will  receive  personal attention is read between the lines.In order to draw the attention of the customer to  the products in  question the  supplier  offers «cuttings of our materials and a colour chart».  On the whole a firm  offer is subject to  certain  conditions, a deadline for the receipt of orders, or a special price for certainquantities.


Abusiness  transaction often starts withan inquiry which may later be followed by an order.

Bothinquiry  and  order are meant to arose and stimulatebusiness activity on the part of recipient. They are typically askingletters.  Orders  convey the  writer's intention to dobusiness with his correspondent,  usuallyto  buy some  goods from them.



421Michigan Avenue



148Mortimer Street

LondonW1C 37D                                     November 4, 1996


Thankyou for your quotation of October 30. We have pleasure in placing an order withyou for

1,900‘Swinger’ dresses                            at Price: $38,745

inthe colours and sizes specified below:


































Delivery:air freight, c.i.f., Chicago

Weshall open a letter of credit with your bank as soon as we receive your orderacknowledgement. Please arrange for immediate collection and transport since weneed the dresses for Christmas.

Very truly yours,

P. Wilson


Itis indisputably an import order,  and aswe can notice placing orders is simple from the point  of  view of  letter writing. The  fact is  that usually the purchasingdepartment or the buyer  fills  in an  order  form. But  in  this case the correspondent  prefers  to write a letter in order to make certainpoints  quite  clear.  There   are   special  import regulations which  aretouched upon in the last paragraph:  itis necessary to complete formalities and to  stress  delivery instructions.

Itshould  be  mentioned here  that  the supplier must send order acknowledgement as an answer to order promptly  to thank his customer for the order and toconfirm it.

Ifsome conditions have  changed,  the customer  must  be notified. In   the case  the  goods ordered  are  no longer available, a substitute may be offered.


Whatfollows the order acknowledgement is the advice  of dispatch.


148Mortimer Street

LondonW1C 37D



421Michigan Avenue

Chicago,III.60602                    20thNovember,1996


Wehave pleasure in notifying you that your credit was confirmed by our bankyesterday, 19th November. We have had the 1900 ‘Swinger’ dressescollected today for transport by British Airwa

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