Реферат: The Queen of the UK
The Queen was born in London on 21April 1926, the first child of The Duke and Duchess of York, subsequently KingGeorge VI and Queen Elizabeth. Five weeks later she was christened ElizabethAlexandra Mary in the chapel at Buckingham Palace.
<img src="/cache/referats/17464/image001.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1030">
The Princess's early years werespent at 145 Piccadilly, the London house taken by her parents shortly afterher birth; at White Lodge in Richmond Park; and at the country homes of hergrandparents, King George V and Queen Mary, and the Earl and Countess ofStrathmore. When she was six years old, her parents took over Royal Lodge inWindsor Great Park as their own country home.
Princess Elizabeth was educated at home with Princess Margaret, her youngersister. After her father succeeded to the throne in 1936 and she became heirpresumptive, she started to study constitutional history and law. She alsostudied art and music; learned to ride (she has been a keen horsewoman sinceearly childhood); and enjoyed amateur theatricals and swimming — she won the Children'sChallenge Shield at London's Bath Club when she was thirteen. She enrolled as aGirl Guide when she was eleven, and later became a Sea Ranger.
<img src="/cache/referats/17464/image002.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1026">As the Princess grew older she began to take part inpublic life. She broadcast for the first time in October 1940, when she was 14;she sent a message during the BBC's children's programmeto all the children of Britain and the Commonwealth, particularly to thosechildren who were being evacuated for safety reasons. In early1942she was appointed Colonel-in-Chief of the Grenadier Guards, and on hersixteenth birthday she carried out her first public engagement, when sheinspected the regiment. In April 1943, Princess Elizabeth carried out her firstsolo public engagement, when she spent a day with a Grenadier Guards tankbattalion in Southern Command.
Thereafter her official dutiesincreased, particularly in connection with young people: she was President ofthe Queen Elizabeth Hospital for Children in Hackney and the National Societyfor the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. From March 1944 onwards, she alsobegan to accompany the King and Queen on many of their tours within Britain.
Shortly after her eighteenth birthday in 1944, Princess Elizabeth was appointeda Counsellor of State during the King's absence on atour of the Italian battlefields and, for the first time, carried out some ofthe duties of Head of State. In August that year, with Queen Elizabeth, thePrincess received an address from the House of Commons, and replied on behalfof the Throne.
In September 1944, the Princess carried out her first official tour of Scotlandwith her parents, including her first opening ceremony in October when sheopened the recently reconstructed Aberdeen Sailors' Home. The Princess's firstflight by air was in July 1945, when she accompanied the King and Queen on atwo-day visit to Northern Ireland.
In early 1945 the Princess was madea Subaltern in the Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS).By the end of the war she had reached the rank of Junior Commander, havingcompleted her course at No. 1 Mechanical training Centreof ATS and passed out as a fully qualified driver.
After the end of the war, PrincessElizabeth's public engagements continued to grow, and she travelledextensively to attend public functions throughout the British Isles. Theseincluded the launching of a new aircraft carrier in Belfast and a tour ofUlster in March 1946, and attending the National Eisteddfod of Wales in August1946.
Her first official overseas visittook place in 1947, when she accompanied her parents and sister on a tour ofSouth Africa. During this tour she celebrated her twenty-first birthday, andgave a broadcast address dedicating herself to the service of the Commonwealth- a dedication she repeated five years later on her accession to the throne.
On her return from the South Africatour, Princess Elizabeth received the freedom of the City of London in June1947; in July, she received the freedom of the city of Edinburgh.
In November 1947, Princess Elizabethwas created a Lady of the Garter at a private investiture by the King.
<img src="/cache/referats/17464/image003.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1029">
MARRIAGE AND FAMILY
Shortly after the Royal Family returned from South Africa, the Princess'sengagement to Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten wasannounced. The couple, who had known each other for many years, were married inWestminster Abbey on 20 November 1947. Lieutenant Mountbatten,now His Royal Highness The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, was the son ofPrince Andrew of Greece and a great-great-grandson of Queen Victoria.
The Royal couple had four children,and seven grandchildren.
Prince Charles, now The Prince of Wales, Heir apparent to the throne, was bornin 1948, and his sister, Princess Anne, now The Princess Royal, two yearslater.
After Princess Elizabeth became Queen, their third child, Prince Andrew,arrived in 1960 and the fourth, Prince Edward, in 1964. Prince Andrew andPrince Edward were the first children to be born to a reigning monarch sinceQueen Victoria had her family.
Their grandchildren are Peter and Zara Phillips (b. 1977 and 1981); Prince William of Walesand Prince Henry of Wales (b. 1982 and 1984); Princess Beatrice of York andPrincess Eugenie of York (b. 1988 and 1990); and The Lady Louise Windsor,daughter of The Earl and Countess of Wessex (b.2003).
ACCESSION AND CORONATION
After her marriage Princess Elizabeth paid formal visits with The Duke ofEdinburgh to France and Greece; in autumn 1951 they toured Canada. She alsovisited Malta four times while The Duke was stationed there on naval duties. In1952, King George VI's illness forced him to abandon his proposed visit toAustralia and New Zealand. The Princess, accompanied by Prince Philip, took hisplace. On 6 February, during the first stage of this journey, in Kenya, shereceived the news of her father's death and her own accession to the throne.
Her Majesty'scoronation took place in Westminster Abbey on 2 June 1953. Representatives ofthe peers, the Commons and all the great public interests in Britain, the PrimeMinisters and leading citizens of the other Commonwealth countries, andrepresentatives of foreign states were present. The ceremony was broadcast onradio around the world and, at The Queen's request, on television. It wastelevision, then in its relative infancy, that brought home the splendour and the deep significance of the coronation tomany hundreds of thousands of people in a way never before possible. Thecoronation was followed by drives through every part of London, a review of thefleet at Spithead, and visits to Scotland, NorthernIreland and Wales.
ROLE AS MONARCH
<img src="/cache/referats/17464/image004.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1028">
In winter 1953 Her Majesty set out to accomplish, as Queen, the Commonwealthtour she had begun before the death of her father. With The Duke of Edinburghshe visited Bermuda, Jamaica, Fiji, Tonga, New Zealand, Australia, Ceylon,Uganda, Malta and Gibraltar. This was the first of innumerable tours of theCommonwealth they have undertaken at the invitation of the host governments.During the past fifty years The Queen and Prince Philip have also made frequentvisits to other countries outside the Commonwealth at the invitation of foreignHeads of State.
Since her Coronation, The Queen hasalso visited nearly every county in Britain, seeing new developments andachievements in industry, agriculture, education, the arts, medicine and sportand many other aspects of national life.
As Head of State, The Queenmaintains close contact with the Prime Minister, with whom she has a weeklyaudience when she is in London, and with other Ministers of the Crown. She seesall Cabinet papers and the records of Cabinet and Cabinet Committee meetings.She receives important Foreign Office telegrams and a daily summary of eventsin Parliament.
Her Majesty acts as host to theHeads of State of Commonwealth and other countries when they visit Britain, andreceives other notable visitors from overseas.
She holds Investitures in Britainand during her visits to other Commonwealth countries, at which she presents honours to people who have distinguished themselves inpublic life.
As Sovereign, Her Majesty is head ofthe Navy, Army and Air Force of Britain. On becoming Queen she succeeded herfather as Colonel-in-Chief of all the Guards Regiments and the Corps of RoyalEngineers and as Captain-General of the Royal Regiment of Artillery and the Honourable Artillery Company. At her Coronation she assumedsimilar positions with a number of other units in Britain and elsewhere in theCommonwealth. (A full list appears in Whitaker's Almanack.)
Every year, HerMajesty entertains some 48,000 people from all sections of the community(including visitors from overseas) at Royal Garden Parties and other occasions.At least three garden parties take place at Buckingham Palace and a fourth atthe Palace of Holyroodhouse, in Edinburgh. Additional'special' parties are occasionally arranged, for example to mark a significantanniversary for a charity. In 1997, there was a special Royal Garden Partyattended by those sharing The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh's golden weddinganniversary. In the summer of 2002 there was a special Golden Jubilee GardenParty for individuals born on Accession Day, 6 February 1952.
Her Majesty also gives regularreceptions and lunches for people who have made a contribution in differentareas of national and international life. She also appears on many publicoccasions such as the services of the Orders of the Garter and the Thistle;Trooping the Colour; the Remembrance Day ceremony;and national services at St Paul's Cathedral and Westminster Abbey.
The Queen is Patron or President ofover 700 organisations. Each year, she undertakes alarge number of engagements: some 478 in the UK and overseas in 2003.
In 1977 The Queen's Silver Jubilee was celebrated in Britain and throughout theCommonwealth. Accompanied by The Duke of Edinburgh, The Queen travelled some 90,000 kilometres(56,000 miles) to share the anniversary with her people. Enormous crowdsgreeted them wherever they went, and millions more shared in the celebrationsthrough radio and television. In 1986 The Queen took part in celebrations inWindsor and London to mark her sixtieth birthday.
Although it was not regarded as aJubilee, the 40th anniversary of The Queen's Accession in 1992 was marked by anumber of events and community projects in the UK. These were organised privately or through the Royal Anniversary Trust.On Accession Day itself, 6 February, the BBC broadcast Elizabeth R, atelevision documentary on The Queen's working life. This was subsequently shownin over 25 countries around the world.
On 20 November 1997 The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh celebrated their GoldenWedding. A special Garden Party for couples celebrating their Golden Weddingwas held at Buckingham Palace in July. The anniversary itself was marked by aservice at Westminster Abbey, a lunch hosted by the Government at BanquetingHouse and a family dance held in the newly restored State Rooms at WindsorCastle.
The year 2002 saw The Queen's GoldenJubilee, marking 50 years since The Queen's Accession (rather than the Coronation,which took place in 1953). This special milestone had previously been achievedby only five earlier British monarchs — King Henry III, King Edward III, KingJames VI and I, King George III and Queen Victoria.
Celebrations in the United Kingdom ran throughout the summer months of 2002,including extensive regional visits. The Jubilee Weekend<span Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;color:navy; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">
<img src="/cache/referats/17464/image005.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1027">Her Majesty takes a keen and highly knowledgeableinterest in horses. She attends the Derby at Epsom, one of the classic flatraces in Britain, and the Summer Race Meeting at Ascot, which has been a Royaloccasion since 1911. As an owner and breeder of thoroughbreds, she often visitsother race meetings to watch her horses run, and also frequently attendsequestrian events. In 1984, 1986 and 1991 Her Majesty made brief private visitsto the United States to see stallion stations and stud farms in Kentucky.