Реферат: Древняя aнглийская проза (Ancient English Prose)

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;font-style:normal">Ancient English prose<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; font-weight:normal;font-style:normal">

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<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">The earliest English prose work is the lawcode of King Aethelberht I of Kent. Itwas written in the very end of 6th century. The 7th and 8thcentury prose was practical in its character so a lot of laws and wills dateback to this period.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">The history of literature of this period is closelyconnected with Bede (673-735). Thisfamous monk was probably the greatest teacher and the best-known man of lettersand scholar in all contemporary Europe. He is to have translated the Gospelof St.John into Saxon, but the translation islost. He wrote in Latin on a vast range of subjects from natural science togrammar and history. His most important work is the Ecclesiastical History ofthe English People

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»">,<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">which is really a history of England from JuliusCaesar’s invasion to 731. According to it we find out that Bedecould relate things simply and well. But during much of this period conditionswere unfavorable to writing and literacy in England declined sharply between800 and the reign of King Alfred and then again after about 990.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">The deeds and thoughts of Alfred (849-901),king of the West Saxons, remain a strong moral influence on the world.Posterity rightly gave him the surname of “the Great”, as he is one of thecomparatively few great men of all time. He led a vigorous program to translateinto English “certain books that are necessary for all men to know”. His illhealth and the wars with the Danes did not keep him from trying to educate hispeople or from earning the title, “father of English prose”. Although most ofhis works are translations from the Latin, yet he has left the stamp of hisoriginality. For example he re-casted a Latin work onhistory and geography written in the 5th century by Orosius. Alfred the Great omitted some parts, changedothers, added some interviews so this book is known as Alfred’s Orosius

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»"> <span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">now.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Alfred also translated Pastoral Rule in order toshow the clergy how to teach and care for their flocks. Alfred was fond ofpeople and tried to examine their souls on his works. For example, he wrote:“Let us love the man but hate his sins“. His revision of the legal code, knownas Alfred’s Laws, shows his moral aim. Alfred also produced a work on moralphilosophy, by altering and amending the De Consolatione Philosophie of Boethius.In simplicity and moral power, some of Alfred’s original matter in this volumewas not surpassed by any English writer for several hundred years.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line">Alfred's interest in the historyof his people is evidenced, in the stimulus he apparently gave to the recordingof it in systematic fashion.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">The Anglo-SaxonChronicle<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> was probably originated in Alfred’sreign. This is the first history of any branch of the Teutonic people in theirown tongue. <span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line">From annalsalready existing and known Latin sources, a compiler put together (about 891)an account of previous English history from the age of Julius Caesar.Outstanding events falling in Alfred's reign were told «with breadth anddetail. This original version of the so-called Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was sent toa number of centres of learning and there carried forward as officialsupplements were circulated for addition to it. Local materials were also used.The oldest surviving version, closest to Alfred's original project, is theParker manuscript (thus named because it was once in the possession ofArchbishop Parker).<span Arial»,«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US"> The Chronicle has come down to usin several different texts. According as it was compiled or copied at differentmonasteries. The entries, relating to earlier events were copied from Bede’s Ecclesiastical History and from other Latinauthorities. The Chronicle contains chiefly those events which each yearimpressed the clerical compilers as the most important in the history of thenation. This work is a fountainhead to which writers of the history of thosetimes must turn. Sometimes the narrative is extremely vivid. For example theexcellence of the portraiture of William the Conqueror is evident.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">The Benedictine reform of the mid-10thcentury brought about a period of lively literary activity. Aethelwold,bishop of Winchester and one of the leaders of the reform, translated the ruleof St.Benedict. But the greatest and mostprolific writer of this period was his pupil Aelfric. Thisabbot followed Alfred’s example in writing native English prose. His chiefworks are his Homilies, a series of sermons, and The Lives of Saints.Although much of his writing is a compilation or a translation from the LatinFathers, it is often remarkably vigorous in expression. To modern readers themost interesting of Aelfric’s writings is his Colloquium,designed to teach Latin in the monastery of Winchester. The pupils wererequired to learn the Latin transformation of his dialogues in the Anglo-Saxonvernacular. Some of this dialogues are today valuable illustrations of thesocial and industrial life of the time.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line">Wolfsan

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line"> (died 1023) was a contemporaryand friend of Aelfric. Among (the homilies ascribedto him, the most famous and most eloquent is an address to the people ofEngland on the evils and calamities of his times. Wolfsan of course regardedthese quite simply as punishments (for moral transgressions. Wulfstan's intense feeling and his mastery of oratoricalstyle raise his Sermon to the English above the more conventional ones of thetime warning about an imminent end of the world.

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman»; mso-ansi-language:EN-GB;layout-grid-mode:line">So by the end of ancient periodEnglish had been established as a literary language with a polish andversatility unequalled among European vernaculars.

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