Реферат: Cyberterrorism

Computer crimes -> cyberterrorism, hacking

Defined broadly, the term «computer crime» could reasonablyinclude a wide variety of criminal offenses, activities, or issues. Thepotential scope is even larger when using the frequent companion or substituteterm «computer-related crime.» Given the pervasiveness of computersin everyday life, even in the lives of those who have never operated acomputer, there is almost always some nontrivial nexus between crime andcomputers.

<span Times New Roman CYR",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">By the FBI's definition, cyberterrorismis well beyond the scope of this paper. With increasing frequency this term isbeing used by the mass media. Absent any evidence of activity, we'll leave itin the «eye of the beholder» to determine whether cyberterrorismis currently being deterred, is a phantom menace

…orsomewhere in between.

A key distinction between electronic civil disobedience and politicizedhacking is anonymity. The motive for remaining secret is simple: the majorityof politically motivated hacks are clearly illegal. Most institutions recognizethat breaking into an opponent's computer and adding, changing or deleting(HTML) code, even if it is juvenile graffiti, violates some other’s rights.Attitudes and opinions begin to diverge markedly around this point however. Oneperson’s activist is another’s terrorist.

«A lot of groups are claiming that they're hacking into sites for ahigher moral purpose, but they're hiding beyond anonymity or pseudonymity. Taking responsibility is not something we seehappening.»

At the heart of this discussion is the question of motive. Opinionsdiffer just as much within the hacker community as outside over the efficacy ofcertain actions. The spate of (zombie) DDoS attacksagainst prominent e-commerce sites that occurred in February 2000 sparked adebate between two prominent hacker collectives. The ElectrohippiesCollective claims the Internet as a public space liable to be used by groupsand individuals as a means of protest. As activists, they admit no practicaldifference between how cyberspace and the street are used by society.

Recent actions on the Internet against e-commerce sites represent afundamental disagreement about the purposes of the Internet, and the increasingemphasis on the use of the ‘Net as a vehicle for profitable trade rather thanof knowledge and discussion.

The cDc, says, the targeted sites wereselected for their name recognition and prestige value, not for theircommercial attributes or activities.

You may make yourself feel good and get a lot of attention, but when youcrack a Web site, you are violating another person's rights. …what does thatmean? CRIME!

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