Реферат: Translatioin of Political Literature



Chapter I

§ <st1:place w:st=«on»>I.</st1:place> Translation and itsaims.

§ II. Translation of Political literature and terms.

Chapter II

§ <st1:place w:st=«on»>I.</st1:place> Grammaticaldifficulties of translation

§ II. Lexical difficulties of translation

§ III. Stylistic difficulties of translation

§ IV. The difficulty of translation of set phrases and idioms

§ V. List of set expressions used in Political Literature





In this Qualification Paper we’ve set forth to study thetranslation methods of Political literature and political terms at a deeperlevel, their types and ways of their translation of Political literature, toconsider the function of political literature in everyday life of the humanity. 

The object of this Qualification paper can be consideredas one that gives the detailed review of the ways political literature andpolitical terms can be translated into Russian language. It also helps toimprove one’s understanding of the principal rules of translation which playsleading role while processing translation.

The aim of this work is to introduce the translationapproach to Political literature so that to make it easy to perceive for thosewilling to keep up their educational and scientific carrier in the science oftranslation, it was purposed to broaden their view on translation studies andpeculiar features while translating Political literature.

In this work we set the following tasks:

-<span Times New Roman"">        

to review all the sources ofPolitical literature

-<span Times New Roman"">        

to reveal the methods oftranslation of Political literature

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to investigate grammatical,lexical, stylistic and phraseological difficulties of translation of politicalliterature

We should mention that this research work represents agreat theoretical value for those willing to take up their future carrier inthe field of translations as invaluable reference to the methods and the waysof translation of Political literature.

And the practical value of this work involves the ideathat translation represents a field aimed at training future translators/interpretersto translate verbal and written materials on Political subjects basing on thestudy of International politics, to differentiate the language features ofEnglish, Russian and other languages as well as political lexicology,phraseology, syntax and style.

The source information for this research work has beencarefully studied and investigated before it was applied to the given work.

The originality of this work is in its creativeapproach to the study and methods of translation, besides, it contains adetailed review of ways and methods of translation.

The given Qualification paper contains introduction,two chapters, conclusion and bibliography list.

The first chapter gives a detailed review of the studyof the theory of translation and also reveals the role of political literatureand terms in everyday life of the humanity which are believed to be interestingto future translator/interpreters. It also discussed the methods of translationof political literature with purpose to make it easier for translator toachieve adequate translation in the target language.

The second chapter deals with the detailed study ofgrammatical, lexical, stylistic difficulties involved in translation ofpolitical literature. It also gives some hints on translation of idioms and setexpressions and their behavior in literature.

We have also attached some samples of translation ofpolitical set expressions so that to enable the future translator to benefitfrom the given paper in their further researches in the fields of translation.

In conclusion we have summed up the results of ourlaborious investigation translation of political literature.

At the end of the research paper we have attached thebibliography list to enable the future translator to use information sources usedin this Paper.  



          §<st1:place w:st=«on»>I.</st1:place> Translation and its aims.

Most translators prefer to think of their work as aprofession and would like to see others to treat them like professionals ratherthan as skilled or semi-skilled workers. But to achieve this, translators needto develop an ability to stand back and reflect on what they do and how they doit. Like doctors and engineers, they have to prove to themselves as well asothers that they are in control of what they do; that they do not justtranslate well because they have ‘flair’ for translation, but rather because,like other professionals, they have made a conscious effort to understandvarious aspects of their work.

Unlike medicine and engineering, translation is a veryyoung discipline in academic terms. It is only just starting to feature as asubject of study in its own right, not yet in all but in an increasing numberof universities and colleges around the world. Like any young discipline, itneeds to draw on the findings and theories of other related disciplines inorder to develop and formalize its own methods; but which disciplines it cannaturally and fruitfully be related to is still a matter of some controversy.Almost every aspect of life in general and of the interaction between speechcommunities in particular can be considered relevant to translation, adiscipline which has to concern itself with how meaning is generated within andbetween various groups of people in various cultural settings. This is clearlytoo big an area to investigate in one go. So, let us just start by saying that,if translation is ever to become a profession in the full sense of the word,translators will need something other than the current mixture of intuition andpractice to enable them to reflect on what they do and how they do it. Theywill need, above all, to acquire a sound knowledge of the raw material withwhich they work: to understand what language is and how it comes to functionfor its users.

Translation is a process of rendering a text, writtenpiece or a speech by means of other languages. The difference of translationfrom retelling or other kinds of transfer of a given text is that thattranslation is a process of creating an original unity in contexts and forms oforiginal.

The translation quality is defined by its completenessand value. “The completeness and value of translation means definite renderingof the contextual sense of the original piece and a high-gradefunctional-stylistic conformity.”

Theconcept “high-grade functional-stylistic conformity” clearly points on twoexisting ways of rendering the form in unity with the meaning: the first one isa reproduction of specific features of the form of the original piece and thesecond one is the creation of functional conformities of those features. Itmeans when translating the specific features of an original literature weshould rather consider the style inherent for the given genre but than directcopying the form of an original. While translating, we should also rememberthat different lexical and grammatical elements of an original might betranslated differently if accepted by the norms of conformity to the wholeoriginal. The translation adequacy of separate phrases, sentences andparagraphs should not be considered separately but along with achievement ofthe adequacy and completeness of the translating piece as a whole because theunity of a piece is created through collecting the components.

No matterhow a translator (interpreter) is talented he should remember two mostimportant conditions of the process of translation: the first is that the aimof translation is to get the reader as closely as possible acquainted with thecontext of a given text and then second – to translate – means to precisely andcompletely express by means of one language the things that had been expressedearlier by the means of another language.

Atranslation can be done:

1.<span Times New Roman"">    

from one language into another,kin-language, non-kin,

2.<span Times New Roman"">    

from literary language into itsdialect or visa versa

3.<span Times New Roman"">    

from the language of an ancientperiod into its modern state

Theprocess of translation, no matter how fast it is, is subdivided into twomoments. To translate one should first of all to understand, to perceive themeaning and the sense of the material.

Furthermore,to translate one should find and select the sufficient means of expression inthe language the material is translated into (words, phrases, grammaticalforms).  

There arethree, most identified types of translation: literary, special andsociopolitical.

The waysof achieving the adequacy and completeness in those three types of translationwill never completely coincide with each other because of their diversecharacter and tasks set to translator (interpreter).

The objectof literary translation is the literature itself. And its distinctive featureis a figurative-emotional impact on the reader, which is attained through agreat usage of different linguistic means, beginning from epithet and metaphorup to rhythmical-syntactic construction of phrases.

Thus, inorder to preserve figurative-emotional impact on the reader while translating awork of art, the translator (interpreter) will try to render all the specificfeatures of the translating material. That’s why, on the first place one shouldreconstruct the specific features of an original and the creation of functionalconformities to the features of the original play the subordinate role.

Theobjects of special translations are materials that belong to different fieldsof human activities, science and technology. The distinctive feature of thistype of translation is an exact expression of the sense of translatingmaterial, which is attained through wide usage of special terms.

Thus, inorder to render an exact and clear meaning while translating such materialsalongside with the selection of term equivalents, on the first place one has tocreate functional conformities to the features of an original, and the creationof specific features of the original play the subordinate role.

Andfinally, the objects of social-politic translations are the materials ofpropaganda and agitation character, and therefore a bright emotional senseabundant with special terms.

Concerningthe achievement of adequacy this type of translation possesses the features ofliterary and special types of translation as well.

§ II. Translation of Political literature and terms.  

Politicalliterature like any other scientific kind of literature have languages itemscharacteristic to them, that requires the translator to be precise and sharp.Most books on general politics are characterized by the passion of expression,polemic style and the specific feature is in blending the elements ofscientific speech from one side with different emotionally colored means ofexpression from another side.

Thetranslation of political literature can be considered in two ways: as a fieldof linguistic activity and as a separate field in science.

As a field of linguistic activity translation ofpolitical literature represents one of the types of special translationspossessing as objects of its activity different materials of politicalcharacter.

Thepolitical translation comes out into a special field of study due to itsspecific features of written and verbal speech on political topics, which isspecified by its essential character and the knowledge of this science.Sometimes these features are so diverse that in order to understand them(Russian and English politics as well) one should have a special knowledge withoutwhich it would be very hard to clearly perceive the inner sense on politics ora translated piece.

Therefore,the study of specific features of written and verbal speech acquires greatimportance to translators (interpreters). To the features mention above belongthe following:

1.<span Times New Roman"">                     

maximal filling the politicalliterature with special political terms, and in verbal speech (among thepoliticians) – filling it with words of political jargon – slang.

2.<span Times New Roman"">                     

presence of special idiomaticexpressions and phraseological units in verbal and written speech that arerarely used in colloquial speech and general literature.

As an example, I should bring the following idioms: blitzkrieg – молниеноснаявойна, <span PROMT Helv WE"">Comprehensive Program ofDisarmament

<span PROMT Helv Cyr"">- <span PROMT Helv Cyr";mso-ansi-language:RU">Всеобъемлющая<span PROMT Helv Cyr""><span PROMT Helv Cyr";mso-ansi-language:RU">программа<span PROMT Helv Cyr""><span PROMT Helv Cyr";mso-ansi-language:RU">разоружения<span PROMT Helv Cyr"">, principal powers – крупныедержавы, status quo – статусквоand many others. We have to mark -  if the quantity of political idioms islimited, then the amount of “politically” related phraseological idioms is vastin English and Russian languages.

3.<span Times New Roman"">                     

the presence of some stylistic deflectionfrom general literary norms is sometimes very great.

a)<span Times New Roman"">    

wide usage of ellipticconstructions, especially in periodically publishing materials, propaganda andother kinds of politically important printing media.

b)<span Times New Roman"">   

preciseness and beauty ofself-expression which is achieved by the usage of elliptic constructions alongwith wide usage of passive constructions and an often substitution of придаточных предложенийby absolute constructions and деепричастными оборотами.

c)<span Times New Roman"">    

the presence of officialwriting style, mostly in documents of official provisions that coveradministrative and political questions.

d)<span Times New Roman"">   

strictly regulated use ofverbal forms and word phrases in special chapters of political literature andpolitical documents.

As wastold before, while translating a political character, like doing any otherspecial translation a great importance is given to translation of specialterms.

In ourphilological literature exist lots of definitions to the concept of term, butthe essence of majority comes to the following:

Term – is a word or a combination of words, whichdefine a notion (subject, a phenomenon, property, relation or a process) thatis characteristic for the given field of science, technology, art or a sphereof social life.

Termsdiffer from the words of general usage by definite semantic limitations andspecific meanings they define. Its very hard to overestimate the general andscientific meaning of terms since the concrete knowledge demands definiteexpression and a term does not only fix the concept by its notion (name) butspecifies it diverging it from adjacent components.

For betterfunctioning, terms must express systematization of notions, express theiressence or at least be semantically neutral and at the same time be unambiguousand precise.    

Thephenomenon of a separate field of science and the terms that fix them should besystemized that offers gender availability around which group notions areformed. Thus an English term representative which presents agroup notion and forms a group of notions that belong to this group: representativeforum (представительный форум), business world representative(представитель делового мира), representative to the talks (представитель напереговорах), representative to the public (представитель общественности),representative of political circles (представитель политических кругов),representative to NATO (представитель НАТО), representative of various strataor the population (представитель различных слоёв населения).

The capability of a term to express asystematic state of notions and easily merge with new phrases that representnew group notions that consequently appear along with the development of adefinite field of science or knowledge maybe called its systematic capability.

Thesystematic capability of notions helps us to clarify the relation of notions,raise their semantic definiteness and ease their understanding and remembering.

Interms, formed on the base of mother tongue we may differ direct meaning andterminological meaning.

Thedirect meaning of a term is formed through the elements of the language usedfor their formation; the terminological meaning defines the concept of notionexpressed by the term.

Theterms, direct and terminological meaning of which correspond to each other,correctly orientate and underline the so-called their interrelation. Theseterms are able to express the essence of notions.

Theterms, whose direct and terminological meaning does not correspond to eachother belong to semantically neutral group of terms.

Andat last, the terms whose direct and terminological meaning contradict eachother, should be admitted as completely unsatisfactory because they distort thegenuine relations among the notions, disorientate the hearer and do not possessany semantic definiteness.

Unambiguousnessof a term also influences its clear semantic features but since we do not haveany researches in this field this concept cannot always be applied. Therefore,up to 10% of English and American political terms do not possess even arelative semantic definiteness, i.e. definiteness in some political concerns.This situation may be explained by the fact that the terms according to theirnature are firstly simple words, and consequently, they develop according to generallaws of linguistics. The result of this is the appearance terminologicalhomonyms that hinder the normal functioning of political terms in a language.

Thedefiniteness of a term requires preciseness of an expressed idea. It alsoraises the semantic definiteness of the term averting its misusage according toit form.

Notall the terms, of course, possess the above-mentioned qualities, but the translator/interpreterof political material should take them into consideration while forming newterms and solving the question of preference to one of the availableterm-synonyms.

Thecorrect translation of political literature is a laborious work despite theterms’ considerable possession of definite semantic clearness and independencein usage.

Whilespeaking of difficulties of translation, we imply as a matter of the firstimportance, the translation general political literature, which either do notyet have any equivalents in the translating language or have several similarnotion for the term in question or at least have one equivalent but of doubtfuladequacy. There are lots of word phrases and idiom and terms of this kind andtheir number is growing with development of technology and interrelation ofpeople and especially with the development of Political sciences.

To achieve a correct translation we canrecommend to group the political literature and the used in them according totheir field of application and some principles of translation of each group.All the political terms and idioms existing in politics can be divided intothree groups:

1.<span Times New Roman"">                     

terms – defining the notions of aforeign reality but identical to the reality of the Russian language march- марш

2.<span Times New Roman"">                     

terms – defining the notions of aforeign reality absent in the Russian one but possessing generally acceptedterm-equivalents National Guard – Национальная Гвардия, Territorial Army –Территориальная Армия.

3.<span Times New Roman"">                     

terms – defining the notions of a foreignreality that are not available in the Russian language and not having generallyaccepted term-equivalents: alert hanger – ангар вылета по тревоге.

Theadequacy of translation of the first group is achieved by the use of termsimplementing corresponding notions in Russian language.

Atthe same time, it is very important for the notion expressed by the notion ofanother language to correspond in meaning rendered in Russian language only byits main, essential attributes. The translation of an English term poll intoRussian опросы населения (голосование) is possible only for the correspondenceof their principal meaning though the organization and methods of polling arequite different in both countries.

Anadequate translation of the second group is comprised in the selection ofgenerally accepted Russian terminological equivalents.

Eventerms, not fully meeting the above mentioned requirements due to theterminological meaning fixed for it through the linguistic activity willadequately fit into these rules.

Anadequate translation of the words of the third group may be achieved by meansof creation of a new terms, which will have to completely merge into theexisting system of political terms underlying the systematization of availablenotions, reflect the essence of the notion it expresses or at least not tocontradict it and possess an unambiguousness within its field of application.

Thus,we have considered all the general principals in achieving and adequatetranslation including translation of political literature and the essentialfeatures of translation of political terms.

Chapter II

§ <st1:place w:st=«on»>I.</st1:place> Grammaticaldifficulties of translation

 The translation process of politicalliterature from one language into another is inevitable without necessarygrammatical transformations (change of structure). It gets great importancewhile making translation to add or omit some words since the structures oflanguages are quite different. Grammatical transformations are characterized byvarious principles – grammatical, and lexical as well, though the principalrole is given to grammatical ones. Very often these grammatical changes aremixed so that they have lexical-grammatical character.

The vigil ofthe British Embassy, supported lastweek by many prominent people and still continuing, the marches last Saturday,the resolutions or organizations havedone something to show thatBlair doesn’t speak for <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

Круглосуточная демонстрацияу здания британского консульства,получившая на прошлой недели поддержку многих видных деятелей, всё ещёпродолжается. Эта демонстрация и состоявшиеся в субботу поход, а такжепредпринятые различными организациями резолюции, явно свидетельствуют о том, что Блэр отнюдь не говорит от имени всего английского народа.

Whiletranslating this article we have made the following changes.

Thesentence was divided into two parts. We often do that when translating shortnewspaper articles (news in brief) and the first lines of the articles ofinformative character (leads). Practically, we are forced to do that becausethe first lines usually contain main information given in the paragraph. Thesesentences containing various information are not characteristic to the style ofRussian writing. The division of the sentence made us repeat the word демонстрация.

The word vigil – бдение acquired here quite another politicalmeaning круглосуточная демонстрация. Since ночноебодрствованиеis one of the semantic components of the word vigil the term круглосуточнаядемонстрацияfully renders the sense of the given word. Besides, wehave to mention that one of the words was translated like word expression получившаяподдержку.

Wehavealsoaddedadditionalwordslikeу здания (посольства), состоявшиеся(в субботу походы), а также принятые различными (организациями резолюции). The word last in the last Saturday was omitted because it would make the translationmore difficult, but we can conceive it by the contextual meaning of thesentence.

Thestrengthening function of the phrase havedone something to show was rendered by the adverb явносвидетельствуют.

And theEnglish cliche to speak for wastranslated by the Russian one говорить от имени. And at last I should say that I metonymically translated the word <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region> into весьанглийскиенарод.

Thus,while translating this sentence we have made use of grammatical transformationsand lexical as well.

As youknow, English has an analytical character and therefore the relation betweenwords is mostly expressed by word-order, that’s by syntactic means, and morphologicalmeans play the secondary role. The priority of the role of syntactical changesappears in many cases but they do not always have similar conformities inRussian language which makes the translator make use of various transformationswhile translating a piece of political literature. Here we can point towell-known features of the location of syntactic items in the English, e.i. thecombination of logically incompatible homogeneous part of the sentence, the essentialuse of introductory sentences, the break of logical chain of the sentence, andespecially while expressing the noun and the attribute of the sentences.

Thesyntactic structure of a language imposes restrictions on the way messages maybe organized in that language. The order in which functional elements such assubject, predicator, and object may occur is more fixed in some languages thanin others. Languages vary in the extent to which they rely on word order tosignal the relationship between elements in the clause. Compared to languagessuch as German, Russian, Finnish, Arabic, and Eskimo, word order in English isrelatively fixed. The meaning of a sentence in English, and in languages withsimilarly fixed word order such as Chinese, often depends entirely on the orderin which the elements are placed. (cf. Theman ate the fish and The fish ate theman).  

Thestructural features of English language require structural completeness of thesentence. One can not omit a word without supplying another one instead. Thiscriterion is governed by stylistic preference of the language to prevent wordand make the sentence more emphatic. Even if the repetition is frequent inEnglish its use in most cases is logically required and stylistically proved tobe necessary. Otherwise, repetition is accepted as unnecessary component of thesentence or one of the stylistic shortcomings of the translation. The demand ofsyntactical completeness of the sentences and others stylistic criteria explainhere the wide usage of structure fillingwords (слова заместители). The structure filling words include pronouns (one, ones, this,that, these, those) and verbs (to do, to be, to have, shall, should, will,would, can, could, might, may, must, ought, need, dare).

Its quiteevident that the structure filling words do not have denotative meaning, theyare absolutely contextual. They should be related to conforming nouns and theverb form the fill and only afterwards they acquire lexical completeness. Theverb-filling words are usually divided into two parts: fully filling andpartially filling ones. To the first group belong the verb to do in the Present Indefinite which act in the role of fullyfilling word. It can replace the verbs of function. To the second group belongall other structure filling words. They act like a part of the whole just likethe representative of compound verb form.

Whiletranslating the structure filling words we have to use words with completemeaning (sometimes pronouns) or make use of some other kinds of functionalfilling.

The new British Government will face many problems,both acute and chronic: an acute one willbe <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Northern Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>,acute among chronic ones will beinflation and rising prices.

Новое британское правительствостолкнётся со многими проблемами как неотложного, так и затяжного характера. Кнеотложным проблемам относитсяположение в Северной Ирландии, а к проблемам, носящим затяжной характер, — инфляция и рост цен.

Whiletranslating this piece we had to decipher the structure filling words andrender their meaning by means of conforming nouns.

Whencomparing the grammatical categories and forms of English and Russian languageswe identify the following differences: a) the absence of the categories in oneof the comparing languages, b) partial correspondence and c) completecorrespondence. The necessity of grammatical transformations arise only on twofirst cases. When comparing the English with Russian we should mention thatRussian does not have the notions like article and gerund and absolutenominative constructions as well. Partial conformity and unconformity inmeaning and usage of corresponding forms and constructions also demandsgrammatical transformations. We can refer to this case the partial unconformityof the category of number, partial unconformity in the forms of passiveconstructions, partial unconformity of the form of infinitive and gerund andsome other differences in expressing the modality of the clause and so on.

 First of all we should consider the articlefor article both definite and indefinite which despite its abstract meaningvery frequently demands semantic expression in translation. As we know boththese articles originated from pronouns; the definite one originated from indexpronoun and the indefinite one from indefinite pronoun, which refers to number one. These primary meanings aresometimes obvious in their modern usage. In this cases their lexical meaningshould be rendered in translation otherwise the Russian sentence would beincomplete and ambiguous for denotative meaning of articles is an inseparablepart of the whole context meaning of a given sentence. There are cases whenclassifying function of indefinite articles is so obvious that one should renderits meaning by some lexical item.

It is commonly stated that government should resign ifdefeated in a major issue in the House of Commons which has been made one ofconfidence. (TheTimes).

Обычно утверждают, что правительстводолжно подать в отставку, если оно потерпит поражение в Палате общин по какому-нибудь серьёзному вопросу,который оппозиция считает вопросом о доверии правительству.

In thiscase the indefinite article acquires the meaning of the pronoun some.One can easily see its historical relation with the number one inthe following example:

Yet, H.G. Wells had not an enemy on earth.

Однако у Герберта не было ни единоговрага на свете.

As hasbeen pointed before the most difficult are cases when classifying meanings ofindefinite articles demand semantic transfer in translation.

We need a Governmentwhich believes in planning ahead for jobs and which will use available labor tobuild homes for the British people.

Нам нужно такое правительство, которое было бы убеждено в целесообразностипланирования занятости и использовало бы наличную рабочую силу в строительстведомов для населения.

Theemphatic role of the indefinite article in its classifying function is moreexpressed in the following sentence.

The Vietnam war had revealed the true nature of a <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>U.S.</st1:place></st1:country-region> foreignpolicy that can be purchased ruthlessly for the benefit of a view in the“military-industrial complex”.

Война во Вьетнаме вскрыла истиннуюприроду той внешней политики США,которая проводится беспощадными методами ради выгоды немногих представителей«военно-промышленного комплекса».

Prettyoften the definite article demands translation in cases when it comes beforenumerals.

The two sides also signed aTreaty in the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Tests.

Обе стороны подписали договор обограничении подземных испытаний атомного оружия.

The Southern nations remainedquiet between 1948 and 1958 as <st1:place w:st=«on»>Latin America</st1:place>’seconomy grew at an impressive annual rate of 4.3 percent.

С 1948 по 1958 южные страныпребывали в относительном спокойствии, в то время как экономика ЛатинскойАмерики развивалась впечатлительным темпом в 4.3 процента в год. 

In thefollowing sentence both articles demands translation.

The influence and authority of the UN Secretariatdepends to an extent (though notnearly to the extent that ispopularly supposed) on the talents of one individual – the Secretary-General. Thejobisapeculiarone.

Влияние и авторитет секретариата ООНзависят в известной степени (хотя ине в такой степени, как обычнополагают) от качеств одного человека – Генерального секретаря. Это чрезвычайно своеобразная должность.

Thelexical meaning of the article is strongly expressed when it acts in like alink connecting parts of the sentences or two separate sentences as given inthe example above. From the mentioned above cases we can judge that missingarticle translation may lead to misinterpretation or incorrect and incompletetranslation of a sentence.

The roleof verb complexes in English is quite evident therefore we will consider onlysome peculiar cases of verb transformations during translation.

First ofall let us consider the verb construction with the preposition for:

…American military bases on foreign territories whichare intended for launching missiles possessed by <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region>’ armed forces.

… американские военные базы натерриториях других государств, которые предназначены для запуска ракетамериканскими ВВС.

 In thiscase the infinitive construction is translated like adverbial modifier ofpurpose.

Theconstruction with secondary predicate (so-called Nominative with theInfinitive) is widely used in newspaper style due to its preciseness andbecause it help to avoid the responsibility for the given information.

The <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region> Congress is aimed to control all the financial expenses of the Government.

Целью конгресса Соединённых Штатов являетсяконтроль всех расходов правительства.  

It isnatural that transformation is required while translating sentences withparticiples of absolute nominative construction.

 But often enough grammatical transformations are necessary whilerendering conforming forms and constructions for some divergence in theirmeaning and usage. Such differences of opinions are observed in cases of usageof the category of number. This refers to both countable and uncountable nouns.Countable nouns have single and plural forms in both languages that usuallycoincide still we observe cases when their usage is different, ex.:

War Atrocity onPeace Conference Eve (news head).

Зверства (интервентов) наканунемирнойконференции

Concerninguncountable nouns, especially those expressing abstract notions we may havemuch more difficulties because most of them are paradigmatic. For example: ink – чернила, money– деньги and so on.

Increasingly, <st1:place w:st=«on»>Southern Africa</st1:place>is becoming the arena of national liberation struggles.

Южная Африка всё больше и большестановится районом национально-освободительной борьбы.

Sometimes,despite the availability of the plural form in Russian – its usage is impossibleowing to difference in combination and usage.

The <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Nile</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Valley</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> appears to havebeen unfit for human habitation during the Stone Ages.

Долина Нила, по-видимому, была непригодна для жизни человека на протяжении всего каменного века (во все периоды каменного века).

In Russianthe Stone Age expression is of a historical nature and is never used in plural.

In caseswhen plural form is to be preserved for it carries some inherent sense one hasto apply countable nouns, ex.:

Strikes broke out in many British industries.

В ряде отраслей промышленности Англии вспыхнули забастовки.

Sometimes,owing to some reasons some of constructions has wider usage in one languagescomparing with other languages. The best example of this is the passive form –widely used in English mostly due to disappearance of word flexion. As aresult, both indirect and predicative object maybe transformed into the objectsof passive construction.

Stones and bottles were showered upon a Negro demonstration in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Milwaukee</st1:place></st1:City> by white racists.

Белые расисты обрушили град камней ибутылок на негритянскую демонстрацию в Милуоки (забросали камнями и бутылками).

We shouldnotice that the passive-active transformation can not give sufficient resultfor in passive construction the stress is being made on the object of actionand in the active construction the stress is being made on the agent of action.The widespread use of passive construction in English happens often enoughbecause it is explained by unimportance of the doer of that action and it ismost often in newspaper style at the same time the most important is to attractattention to the passage. Since the structure and word order of simple sentenceis subject+ predicate + object the importance of stylistics is bigger then todistinguish the object one chooses the passive construction.

Divergenceare found in some other cases of infinitive usage – infinitive insubstantivized constructions (like post-positive attribute) and infinitiveexpressing following actions, for example:

The president warned of drastic steps to be taken against racialists in theZambian copper belt.

Президент предупредил, что будут предприняты решительные мерыпротив белых расистов в Медном поясе Замбии.

Theinfinitive functioning as attribute is translated into object clause with theverb in the Future tense.

TheContinuative Infinitive is often mistaken for the infinitive of purpose, but inthis function it expresses the action following the after the action expressedby predicate and represents the logical development of things.

The <st1:place w:st=«on»>Soviet Union</st1:place>decided to sign the Treaty with <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Germany</st1:place></st1:country-region>and only did to discover that <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Germany</st1:place></st1:country-region>itself violated it two years later.

Советский Союз решил заключитьдоговор с Германией. Но два года спустя Германия сама нарушила его.

 TheContinuative infinitive very often is used with the adverb only which stresses it.This emphatic function can be rendered in many ways.

Thus, allthe considered cases – absence of conforming form, partial correspondence,differences in character and use – urge translators to make necessarygrammatical transformations while translating some piece. Those grammaticaltransformations maybe divided into following types:

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Substitutionis one of the grammatical relations among the parts of the sentences. In substitution, an item (or items) isreplaced by another item (or items), ex:

I like politics.                             And I do.

In thisexample, do is a substitute for like politics. Items commonly usedin substitution in English include do, one, and the same, as in thefollowing examples from Halliday and Hasan:

You think US will start the war against <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Iraq</st1:place></st1:country-region>? – No onedoes.

We makeuse of substitution while translating a piece because of several reasons:absence of similar construction in Russian language, unconformity in usage ofcorresponding forms and constructions and some lexical reasons, which includedifferent word usage and different norms of combinability in English andRussian and the absence of the part of speech with corresponding meaning.

An attemptedoverthrow in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Peru</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

Попытка совершить переворот в Перу.

In Russianwe do not have the conforming participle II of the verb пытаться. And this made us change the part ofspeech; the participle attempted was translated intoRussian by the noun попытка. The expression попытка переворота does not conform to the norms ofRussian language that’s why we have to apply additional word совершить.

Whiletranslating the following text we will have to use substitution several times.

On the whole the “popular’’ press – with the <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>New York</st1:place></st1:State> Daily News asits cheer-leader – is vociferous in itssupport of the President’s policies and merciless toward those who attack them. But among the so-called“quality” papers led by the New York Times thereis a growing mood of doubt and questioning.

В общем «массовые» газеты, во главес Нью-Йорк дейли ньюс», громогласноподдерживают политику президента и беспощаднообрушиваются на тех, кто критикует её. Но среди так называемых«качественных» газет, возглавляемых «Нью-Йорк таймс», всё больше растутсомнение и неуверенность (в её правильности).

In thefirst sentence are used the verbal noun, verb link and two predicative partsexpressed by adjectives with object clauses. In this translation verbal nounsvery replaced by predicative ones (именныесказуемые были заменены глагольными): поддерживают and обрушиваются.  Both predicative parts of thesentence have been translated by adverbs: громогласно, беспощадно.In thesecond sentence the introductory construction there is was translatedby predicative verb and the participle growing was transformed into thefunction of an attribute. The noun mood was omitted and its attribute ofdoubt and questioning was turned into its object.

Thetransformation of ‘active’ into ‘passive’ is also when a translator usessubstitution.

More light wasshed yesterday on the effect of C.S. gas, which was claimed by Pentagon to be virtually harmless to health.

Вчера поступили дополнительные сведения о вредном действии газа C.S., который,по утверждению Пентагона, якобы неопасен для здоровья.

Thephraseological unit more light was shed was translated by means of lexicaltransformation and the passive construction was replaced by an active one. Thepassive construction in the object clause also undergone lexical transformation– verbal construction was substituted by substantive one: по утверждению.

Thisexample can illustrate the fact that lexical and grammatical transformationsare closely related with each other.

Transposition,that’s, change of structure of the sentence may be caused by several reasons.But the main of them, as it has been mentioned before is the difference in thestructure of the English and Russian languages. The fixed order of words inEnglish bears hierarchic character, first come the primary parts of thesentence; noun, predicate followed by secondary parts. In Russian the wordorder is not fixed but one can observe the tendency to locate the maininformation at the end of sentences expressing it be the noun. The academicgrammar of Russian points that the word order in Russian sentences follows themodel: adverbial modifier, predicate and then the noun – that’s the orderabsolutely opposite to English. In Russian, the secondary part of the sentencecan stand at the beginning if it represents the starting point of expressionand introduces theme of given information, ex:

Вчера в Вашингтоне состоялась пресс-конференция.

Theessence of the information is пресс-конференция– which is expressed by the noun located at the end ofthe sentence. Nevertheless, this word-order is not obligatory, ex:


Here wefind the main essence at the beginning of sentence.

InEnglish, according to fixed word order, the noun of the sentence stands at thebeginning of clause. One of the prominent English linguists, Halliday marksthat, usually (but not always) a starting point is intrinsic to Englishsentences.

Still inmany cases the English sentence happens to be the center of informativemessage, compare A Press Conference was held in <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Washington</st1:place></st1:State>yesterday. Usually it happens when the noun of the sentence isexpressed with an indefinite article. Something, semantically new has got to beexpressed in the sentence, and the earlier one should be opposed to the newone, which is being expressed. Therefore the indefinite article functionsrepresents this new information, introduces it.

A smash-and-grabraid on two of the most important nationalizedindustries is being organized by the Tory Party.

Консерваторы собираются обрушиться на две самые значительныенационализированные отрасли промышленности.

(themetaphor smash-and-grab has not been preserved in translated version)

Nevertheless,similar word order in English and Russian sentences are also evident.

A meeting of firemen’s and employers’ representativesscheduled for today has been postponed.

Намеченная на сегодня встречапредставителей пожарников и предпринимателей была отложена.     

A Catholicpriest in<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>South Africa</st1:place></st1:country-region>told of the malnutrition, disease and starvation there.

Один католический священник из Южной Африки рассказывал осуществующем там недоедании, болезнях и голоде.

Transpositionis required when the English sentence contains a large group of nouns withindefinite article and then it is natural that they, being the center ofinformative message are placed at the end of the sentence. Besides, a short,compared with the noun predicate can not bear the emphatic sense of a largegroup of nouns.

A big wave of actions by all sections of workers –skilled and unskilled, men and women, manual and non-manual – for higher wagesand equal pay, for shorter hours and a greater say in shaping the environmentat work is rising.

Сейчас нарастает огромная волна забастовок трудящихся всех категорий –квалифицированных и не квалифицированных, мужчин и женщин, работниковфизического и умственного труда – за повышение зарплаты, за равную оплатуженского труда, за сокращение рабочего дня, за улучшение условий труда.

It is veryfrequent when grammatical and lexical transformations demand supplementation oromission of some words or elements. Therefore omission and supplementation arefrequently combined with other types of grammatical transformations and morefrequently with substitution of parts of speech. Supplementation of parts ofspeech are characterized by several factors: difference in structures of thesentences and that short English sentences demand spread translation in the Russianlanguage. Absence of some corresponding word or lexical-semantic variant inboth languages is also one of the reasons of applying additional words intranslation.

The American troops were thought to be heading toward <st1:place w:st=«on»>Saigon</st1:place>,but no one seemed to be aware of fierce resistance of the nation.

Полагали, что американские войсканаправляется на Сайгон, но казалось, что никто не знал о жестоком сопротивленииместного населения.

Theconstruction Nominative + Infinitive with two omitted elements (which was) was given in object clauseplus introductory sentences… который, какполагалираньше, движется… Thus, the difference in the structure of sentences demandedsupplementation in the given translation.

In thefollowing example, supplementation was caused by absence of corresponding wordin Russian to English conservationists.

The actions of Congress and of <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>North Carolina</st1:place></st1:State> and <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Tennessee</st1:place></st1:State> statesmen, aided by gifts of wise conservationists, have set this landaside as <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Great</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Smoky</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>National Park</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>.

Эта местность на берегу рекиСмоки-Хилл была превращена в Национальный парк благодаря усилиям Конгресса игосударственных деятелей штатов Северная Каролина и Теннеси, а также благодаряпожертвованиям любителей природы,понимающих всю важность её сохранения.

Whiletranslating this sentence besides transposition we have made many othertransformations and as a matter of the first importance we should mentions thesupplementation we have accomplished. In regard to the absence on correspondingword in the Russian language to the English conservationists we haverendered it by two words любителейприроды;and taking into consideration thecombinability of the attribute wise we have translated it byadverbial modifier applying introductory words like понимающих всюважность её сохранения, the noun сохранения rendersall the essence of the given sentence which is contained in conservationists.To make the perception of the sentence easier we have we added the words штатов, на берегу реки. The last supplementation was madeon the basis of its spread context. The passive participle aided was rendered bypreposition благодаря. We should also point to lexico-grammatical transformation: haveset this land aside – эта местность…былапревращена.

Ellipsisinvolves the omission of an item. In other words, in ellipsis an item isreplaced by nothing. This is a case of leaving something unsaid which isnevertheless understood. It doesn’t include every instance

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