Реферат: Interactive method of teaching English grammar
Theuse of games in learning grammar.
Grammar acquisition isincreasingly viewed as crucial to language acquisition. However, there is muchdisagreement as to the effectiveness of different approaches for presentingvocabulary items. Moreover, learning grammar is often perceived as a tediousand laborious process. In this report I would like to examine some traditionaltechniques and compare them with the use of language games for grammar presentationand revision, in order to determine whether they are successful in presentingand revising grammar than other methods.
From my teaching experience Ihave noticed how enthusiastic students are about practicing language by meansof games. I believe that the grammar games are not only fun but they helpstudents learn without a conscious analysis or understanding of the learningprocess while they acquire communicative competence as second language users.
There are numerous techniquesconcerned with grammar presentation. However, there are a few things that haveto be remembered irrespective of the way new lexical items are presented. Ifteachers want students to remember new grammar it needs to be learnt in thecontext, practiced and then revised to prevent students from forgetting.Teachers must take sure of that students have understood the new words, whichwill be remembered better if introduced in a “memorable way”. Bearing all thisin mind, teachers have to remember to employ a variety of techniques for newgrammatical presentation and revision.
We suggest the following typesof grammar presentation techniques:
1 Visual techniques.These pertain to visual memory, which is considered especially helpful with thegrammar retention. Learners remember better the material that has beenpresented by means of the visual aids. The visual techniques lend themselveswell to presenting concrete items of grammar. They help students to associatethe presented material in a meaningful way and incorporate it into their systemof the language units.
2.Verbal explanation.This pertains to the use of illustrative situations connected with the grammarmaterial studied.
Theadvantages of using games.
A lot of experienced textbookand methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not justtime-filling activities but they have a great educational value. We hold thatmost grammar games make learners use the language instead of thinking aboutlearning the correct forms. The grammar games should be treated as central, notperiphericalto the foreignlanguage teaching programme. Games, as Richard Amato thinks, are to be fun, buthe warns against overlooking their pedagogical value, particularly in foreignlanguage teaching programmes. There are many advantages of using games ingrammar.
1. Games can lower anxiety, thusmaking the acquisition of input more likely.
2. Games are highly motivatingand entertaining, and they can give shy students more opportunities to expresstheir opinions and feelings.
3. They also enable learnersto acquire new experience within the foreign language that are not alwayspossible during a typical lesson.
4. Games add diversion to theregular classroom activities, break the ice and introduce the new ideas.
5. In the easy, relaxedatmosphere which is created by using games the students remember things fasterand better.
6. Grammar games are a goodway of practicing the language, for they provide a model of what learners willuse the language for in real life in future.
7.Grammar games encourage,entertain, teach, and promote fluency.
If not for any of thesereasons they should be used just because they help students to see beauty in aforeign language and not just problems, and this is the main reason to usegames when studying English grammar.
There are many factors toconsider while discussing games, one of which is appropriacy. Teachers shouldbe very careful about choosing games if they want to make them profitable forthe learning process. If games are to bring desired results, they mustcorrespond to either the students’ level, or age, or the materials that are tobe introduced or practiced. Not all of the games are appropriate for allstudents irrespective of their age. Different age groups require varioustopics, materials and modes of games. For example, children benefit most fromgames which require moving around, imitating a model, competing between groups,and the like. Furthermore, structural games that practice or reinforce acertain grammatical aspects of language have to relate to students’ ability andprior knowledge. Games become difficult when the task or the topic isunsuitable or outside the students’ experience.
Another factor influencing thechoice of a game is its length and the time necessary for its completion. Manygames have time limits but according to Siek Piscozub, the teacher can either allocatemore or less time depending of the students’ levels, the number of people in agroup, or the knowledge of the rules of a game, etc.
Whento use games.
Games are often used as shortwarm-up activities or when there is some time left at the end of the lesson. AsMr. Lee observes, a game should not be regarded as a marginal activity fillingin odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do. Gamesought to be at the heart of teaching foreign languages. Mr. Rixon suggests thatgames should be used at all stages of the English lesson, provided that theyare suitable and carefully chosen. At different stages of the lesson, theteachers’ aims connected with a game may vary:
1. Presentation. It presentsand provides a good model making its meaning clear.
2. Controlled practice. It elicitsa good imitation of the language and appropriate responses.
3. Communicative practice. Itgives to the students a chance to use a foreign language.
Grammar games also lendthemselves well to revision exercises helping learners to recall a grammarmaterial in a pleasant, entertaining way. All authors referred to in my reportagree that even the grammar games resulted only in noise and entertainedstudents, they are still worth paying attention to and implementing in theclassroom since they motivate learners, promote the communicative competence,and generate the fluency. However, can they be more successful for presentationand revision than other techniques? My teaching practice proves that the answerto this question is absolutely affirmative.