Реферат: British monarchy and its influence upon governmental institutions

The <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Institute</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Ecology</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>, Linguistics and Low

<span Garamond",«serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:Tunga;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Degree work

<span Georgia",«serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:Tunga;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">«BRITISH MONARCHY

<span Georgia",«serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:Tunga;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">AND ITS INFLUENCE

<span Georgia",«serif»; mso-bidi-font-family:Tunga;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">UPON GOVERNMENTALINSTITUTIONS»

Dunaeva Nina

<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Moscow</st1:place></st1:City>, 2003





TheUnited kingdom of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Great Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region> and Nothern <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>… 4

Direct meaning ofthe word «monarchy»… 6

The Britishconstitutional monarchy… 7




Kings and Queens of England… 9

The Anglo-Saxon Kings… 9

The Normans… 23

The Angevins… 30

 TOC o «1-3» <span HYPERLINK 022http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page58.asp022 "">The Plantagenets…


<span HYPERLINK 022http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page51.asp022 "">The Lancastrians…


 TOC o «1-3» The Yorkists… 46

The Tudors… 48

The Stuarts… 58

The CommonwealthInterregnum… 63

The Hanoverians… 75

Saxe-Coburg-Gotha… 85

The House of Windsor… 87

Part Three



The Queen’s role… 91

Queen’s role in themodern State… 91

Queen andCommonwealth… 91

Royal visits… 92

The Queen’s workingday… 92

Ceremonies andpageantry… 92

The Queen’sceremonial duties… 93

Royal pageantry andtraditions… 93

Royal succession… 93

The Royal Household… 93

Royal Householddepartments… 94

Recruitment… 94

Anniversaries… 95

Royal finances… 95

Head of Stateexpenditure 2000-01… 95

Sources of funding… 96

Financialarrangements of The Prince of Wales… 96

Finances of theother members of the Royal Family… 96

Taxation… 97

Royal assets… 97

Symbols… 98

National anthem… 98

Royal Warrants… 99

Bank notes andcoinage… 100

Stamps… 102

Coats of Arms… 103

Great Seal… 104

Flags… 105

Crowns and jewels… 105

Transport… 105

Cars… 106

Carriages… 107

The Royal Train… 108

Royal air travel… 109

Part Four



Membersof the Royal Family… 111

HMThe Queen… 111

HRHThe Duke of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Edinburgh</st1:place></st1:City>… 111

HRHThe Prince of Wales and family… 112

HRHThe Duke of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>York</st1:place></st1:City>… 112

TRHThe Earl and Countess of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Wessex</st1:place></st1:country-region>… 112

HRHPrincess Royal… 112

HRHPrincess Alice… 113

TRHThe Duke and Duchess of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Gloucester</st1:place></st1:City>… 113

TRHThe Duke and Duchess of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Kent</st1:place></st1:country-region>… 113

TRHPrince and Princess Michael of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Kent</st1:place></st1:country-region>… 114

HRHPrincess Alexandra… 114


HM Queen ElizabethThe Queen Mother… 115

HRH The PrincessMargaret… 115

Diana, Princess of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:place></st1:country-region>… 115

Part Five



The RoyalCollection… 116

About the RoyalCollection… 116

The RoyalCollection Trust… 117

Royal CollectionEnterprises… 117

Publishing… 118

Royal Residences… 118

Royal CollectionGalleries… 118

Loans… 119

The Royal Residences… 119

About the RoyalResidences… 119

<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Buckingham</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Palace</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>… 120

The Queen’sGallery, <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Buckingham</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Palace</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>… 120

The Royal Mews… 121

<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Windsor</st1:place></st1:City>Castle… 121

Frogmore… 122

The <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Palace</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Holyroodhouse</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>… 122

Balmoral Castle… 123

<st1:place w:st=«on»>Sandringham</st1:place>House… 123

St James’s Palace… 124

<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Kensington</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Palace</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>… 124

Historic residences… 124

Bibliography… 126


<img src="/cache/referats/14974/image004.jpg" v:shapes="_x0000_i1025">

Sovereign:Queen Elizabeth II(1952)

Government:The<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United Kingdom</st1:place></st1:country-region>is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a queen and aParliament that has two houses: the House of Lords, with 574 life peers, 92hereditary peers, 26 bishops, and the House of Commons, which has 651 popularlyelected members. Supreme legislative power is vested in Parliament, which sitsfor five years unless sooner dissolved. The House of Lords was stripped of mostof its power in 1911, and now its main function is to revise legislation. InNov. 1999 hundreds of hereditary peers were expelled in an effort to make thebody more democratic. The executive power of the Crown is exercised by thecabinet, headed by the prime minister.

Prime Minister:Tony Blair (1997)

Area:94,525 sq mi(244,820 sq km)

Population (2003 est.):60,094,648 (growthrate: 0.1%); birth rate: 11.0/1000; infant mortality rate: 5.3/1000; densityper sq mi: 636

Capital and largest city (2000est.):<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City>,11,800,000 (metro. area)

Other large cities:<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Birmingham</st1:place></st1:City>, 1,009,100; <st1:place w:st=«on»>Leeds</st1:place>,721,800; <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Glasgow</st1:place></st1:City>,681,470; <st1:place w:st=«on»>Liverpool</st1:place>, 479,000; <st1:place w:st=«on»>Bradford</st1:place>,477,500; <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Edinburgh</st1:place></st1:City>,441,620; <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Manchester</st1:place></st1:City>,434,600; <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Bristol</st1:place></st1:City>,396,600

Monetary unit:Pound sterling(£)

Languages:English, Welsh,Scots Gaelic

Ethnicity/race:English 81.5%;Scottish 9.6%; Irish 2.4%; Welsh 1.9%; Ulster 1.8%; West Indian, Indian,Pakistani, and other 2.8%

Religions:Church of England(established church), <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Church</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>(disestablished), Church of Scotland (established church—Presbyterian), Churchof <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>(disestablished), Roman Catholic, Methodist, Congregational, Baptist, Jewish

Literacy rate:99% (1978)

Economic summary:GDP/PPP (2000est.): $1.36 trillion; per capita $22,800. Real growth rate: 3%. Inflation:2.4%. Unemployment: 5.5%. Arable land: 25%. Agriculture: cereals,oilseed, potatoes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, poultry; fish. Labor force: 29.2million (1999); agriculture 1%, industry 19%, services 80% (1996 est.). Industries:machine tools, electric power equipment, automation equipment, railroadequipment, shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics andcommunications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and paperproducts, food processing, textiles, clothing, and other consumer goods. Naturalresources: coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt,clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica, arable land. Exports: $282 billion(f.o.b., 2000): manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals; food, beverages, tobacco.Imports: $324 billion (f.o.b., 2000): manufactured goods, machinery,fuels; foodstuffs. Major trading partners: <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>EU</st1:City>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>U.S.</st1:country-region></st1:place>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

Communications: Telephones:main lines in use:34.878 million (1997); mobile cellular: 13 million (yearend 1998). Radiobroadcast stations: AM 219, FM 431, shortwave 3 (1998). Radios: 84.5million (1997). Television broadcast stations: 228 (plus 3,523repeaters) (1995). Televisions: 30.5 million (1997). Internet ServiceProviders (ISPs): 245 (2000). Internet users: 19.47 million (2000).

Transportation: Railways:total: 16,878 km(1996). Highways: total: 371,603 km; paved: 371,603 km (including 3,303km of expressways); unpaved: 0 km (1998 est.). Waterways: 3,200 km. Portsand harbors: Aberdeen, Belfast, Bristol, Cardiff, Dover, Falmouth,Felixstowe, Glasgow, Grangemouth, Hull, Leith, Liverpool, London, Manchester,Peterhead, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Scapa Flow, Southampton, Sullom Voe, Tees,Tyne. Airports: 489 (2000 est.).

International disputes: Northern Irelandissue with Ireland (historic peace agreement signed 10 April 1998); Gibraltarissue with Spain; Argentina claims Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); Argentinaclaims South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Mauritius and theSeychelles claim Chagos Archipelago (UK-administered British Indian OceanTerritory); Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark and Iceland;territorial claim in Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory) overlapsArgentine claim and partially overlaps Chilean claim; disputes with Iceland,Denmark, and Ireland over the Faroe Islands continental shelf boundary outside200 NM.


Monarchy,form of governmentin which sovereignty is vested in a single person whose right to rule isgenerally hereditary and who is empowered to remain in office for life. Thepower of this sovereign may vary from the absolute to that strongly limited bycustom or constitution. Monarchy has existed since the earliest history ofhumankind and was often established during periods of external threat orinternal crisis because it provided a more efficient focus of power than aristocracyor democracy, which tended to diffusepower. Most monarchies appear to have been elective originally, but dynastiesearly became customary. In primitive times, divine descent of the monarch wasoften claimed. Deification was general in ancient <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Egypt</st1:place></st1:country-region>, the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Middle East</st1:place>, and <st1:place w:st=«on»>Asia</st1:place>, and it was alsopracticed during certain periods in ancient <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Greece</st1:place></st1:country-region> and <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Rome</st1:place></st1:City>. A more moderate belief arose inChristian Europe in the Middle Ages; it stated that the monarch was the appointedagent of divine will. This was symbolized by the coronationof the king by a bishop orthe pope, as in the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Holy Roman Empire</st1:place>.Although theoretically at the apex of feudal power, the medieval monarchs werein fact weak and dependent upon the nobility for much of their power. Duringthe Renaissance and after, there emerged “new monarchs” who broke the power ofthe nobility and centralized the state under their own rigid rule. Notableexamples are Henry VII and Henry VIII of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region> and Louis XIV of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>France</st1:place></st1:country-region>. The16th and 17th cent. mark the height of absolute monarchy, which found itstheoretical justification in the doctrine of divine right. However, even the powerfulmonarchs of the 17th cent. were somewhat limited by custom and constitution aswell as by the delegation of powers to strong bureaucracies. Such limitationswere also felt by the “benevolent despots” of the 18th cent. Changes inintellectual climate, in the demands made upon government in a secular andcommercially expanding society, and in the social structure, as the bourgeoisiebecame increasingly powerful,eventually weakened the institution of monarchy in <st1:place w:st=«on»>Europe</st1:place>.The Glorious Revolution in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>(1688) and the French Revolution (1789) were important landmarks in the declineand limitation of monarchical power. Throughout the 19th cent. Royal power wasincreasingly reduced by constitutional provisions and parliamentary incursions.In the 20th cent., monarchs have generally become symbols of national unity,while real power has been transferred to constitutional assemblies. Over the past200 years democratic self-government has been established and extended to suchan extent that a true functioning monarchy is a rare occurrence in both Eastand West. Among the few remaining are <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Brunei</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Morocco</st1:place></st1:country-region>, and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Saudi Arabia</st1:place></st1:country-region>.Notable constitutional monarchies include <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Belgium</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Denmark</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Great Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region>, the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Netherlands</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Norway</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Sweden</st1:place></st1:country-region>, and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Thailand</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

Constitutional monarchy:<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">

System of government in which a monarch has agreed to share power with aconstitutionally organized government. The monarch may remain the de facto headof state or may be a purely ceremonial head. The constitution allocates therest of the government's power to the legislature and judiciary. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region> becamea constitutional monarchy under the Whigs; other constitutional monarchiesinclude <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Belgium</st1:place></st1:country-region>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Cambodia</st1:place></st1:country-region>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Jordan</st1:place></st1:country-region>,the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Netherlands</st1:place></st1:country-region>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Norway</st1:place></st1:country-region>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Spain</st1:place></st1:country-region>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Sweden</st1:place></st1:country-region>,and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Thailand</st1:place></st1:country-region>.


«The British ConstitutionalMonarchy was the consequence of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and wasenshrined in the Bill of Rights of 1689. Whereby William and Mary in acceptingthe throne, had to consent to govern 'according to the statutes in parliamenton.»

 Amonarch does not have to curry favour forvotes from any section of the community.

A monarch is almost invariably more popular than an Executive President,who can be elected by less than 50% of the electorate and may thereforerepresent less than half the people. In the 1995 French presidential electionthe future President Chirac was not the nation's choice in the first round ofvoting. In <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>,governments are formed on the basis of parliamentary seats won. In the 1992General Election the Conservative Prime Minister took the office with only 43%of votes cast in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region>and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:place></st1:country-region>.The Queen however, as hereditary Head of State, remains the representative ofthe whole nation.

Elected presidents are concerned more with their own political futuresand power, and as we have seen (in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Brazil</st1:place></st1:country-region> for example), may use theirtemporary tenure to enrich themselves. Monarchs are not subject to theinfluences which corrupt short-term presidents. A monarch looks back oncenturies of history and forward to the well being of the entire nation underhis/her heir. Elected presidents in their nature devote much energy to undoing theachievements of their forebears in order to strengthen the position of theirsuccessors.

A long reigningmonarch can put enormous experience at the disposal of transient politicalleaders. Since succeeding her father in 1952 Queen Elizabeth has had a numberof Prime Ministers, the latest of whom were not even in Parliament at the timeof her accession. An experienced monarch can act as a brake on over ambitiousor misguided politicians, and encorage others who are less confident. Thereality is often the converse of the theory: the monarch is frequently thePrime Minister's best adviser.

Monarchs,particularly those in <st1:place w:st=«on»>Europe</st1:place> are part of anextended Royal Family, facilitating links between their nations. As Burke observed,nations touch at their summits. A recent example of this was the attendance ofso many members of Royal Families at the 50th birthday celebrations for <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Sweden</st1:place></st1:country-region>’s KingCarl XVI Gustav. Swedish newspapers reported that this this was a much betterindication of their closeness to the rest of <st1:place w:st=«on»>Europe</st1:place>than any number of treaties, protocols or directives from the European Union.

A monarch istrained from Birth for the position of Head of State and even where, as afterthe abdication of Edward VIII, a younger brother succeeds, he too has enormous experienceof his country, its people and its government. The people know who willsucceed, and this certainly gives a nation invaluable continuity and stability.This also explains why it is rare for an unsuitable person to become King.There are no expensive elections as in the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>US</st1:place></st1:country-region> where, as one pro-MonarchistAmerican says, «we have to elect a new ' Royal Family' every fouryears.» In the French system the President may be a member of one party,while the Prime Minister is from another, which only leads to confusedgovernement. In a monarchy there is no such confusion, for the monarch does notrule in conflict with government but reigns over the whole nation.

In ceremonialpresidencies the Head of State is often a former politician tainted by, andstill in thrall to, his former political life and loyalties, or an academic orretired diplomat who can never have the same prestige as a monarch, and who isfrequently little known inside the country, and almost totally unknown outsideit. For example, ask a German why is <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>'s Head of State and a highproportion will know it is Queen Elizabeth II. Ask a Briton, or any Non- German,who is Head of State of Germany?, and very few will be able to answercorrectly.

Aided by hisimmediate family, a monarch can carry out a range of duties and publicengagements — ceremonial, charitable, environmental etc. which an ExecutivePresident would never have time to do, and to which a ceremonial Presidentwould not add lustre.

A monarch andmembers of a Royal Family can become involved in a wide range of issues whichare forbidden to politicians. All parties have vested interests which theycannot ignore. Vernon Bogdanor says in ' The Monarchy and the Constitution' — «Apolitician must inevitably be a spokesperson for only part of the nation, notthe whole. A politician's motives will always be suspected. Members of theRoyal Family, by contrast, because of their symbolic position, are able tospeak to a much wider constituency than can be commanded by even the mostpopular political leader." In a Republic, then, who is there to speak outon issues where the 'here today, gone tomorrow' government is constrained fromcriticising its backers, even though such criticism is in the nationalinterest.

All nations aremade up of families, and it's natural that a family should be at a nation'shead.

While the questionof Divine Right is now obsolescent, the fact that «there's such divinitydoth hedge a King» remains true, and it is interesting to note that eventoday Kings are able to play a role in the spiritual life of a nation whichpresidents seem unable to fulfil.

It has beendemonstrated that, even ignoring the enormous cost of presidential elections, amonarch as head of state is no more expensive than a president. In <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region> manycosts, such as the upkeep of the Royal residencies, are erroneosly thought tobe uniquely attributable to the monarchy, even though the preservation of ourheritage would still be undertaken if the county were a republic! The <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>US</st1:place></st1:country-region> governmenthas criticised the cost to the Brazilian people of maintaining their president.

Even Royal Familieswhich are not reigning are dedicated to the service of their people, andcontinue to be regarded as the symbol of the nation's continuity. Prominentexamples are H.R.H. the Duke of Braganza in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Portugal</st1:place></st1:country-region> and H.R.H. the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>County</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Paris</st1:PlaceName></st1:place> in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>France</st1:place></st1:country-region>. Royal Families forced tolive in exile, such as the Yugoslav and Romanian, are often promoters ofcharities formed to help their countries.


The history of theEnglish Crown up to the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Union</st1:place> of the Crowns in1603 is long and varied. The concept of a single ruler unifying differenttribes based in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>developed in the eighth and ninth centuries in figures such as Offa and Alfredthe Great, who began to create centralised systems of government. Following theNorman Conquest, the machinery of government developed further, producinglong-lived national institutions including Parliament.<span Verdana",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">

The Middle Ages sawseveral fierce contests for the Crown, culminating in the Wars of the Roses,which lasted for nearly a century. The conflict was finally ended with theadvent of the Tudors, the dynasty which produced some of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>'s mostsuccessful rulers and a flourishing cultural Renaissance. The end of the Tudorline with the death of the 'Virgin Queen' in 1603 brought about the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Union</st1:place> of the Crowns with <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region>.


In the Dark Ages duringthe fifth and sixth centuries, communities of peoples in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>inhabited homelands with ill-defined borders. Such communities were organisedand led by chieftains or kings. Following the final withdrawal of the Romanlegions from the provinces of Britannia in around 408 AD these small kingdomswere left to preserve their own order and to deal with invaders and waves ofmigrant peoples such as the Picts from beyond <st1:place w:st=«on»>Hadrian's Wall</st1:place>, the Scots from <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region> and Germanic tribes fromthe continent. (King Arthur, a larger-than-life figure, has often been cited asa leader of one or more of these kingdoms during this period, although his namenow tends to be used as a symbol of British resistance against invasion.)

The invadingcommunities overwhelmed or adapted existing kingdoms and created new ones — forexample, the Angles in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Mercia</st1:place></st1:country-region>and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Northumbria</st1:place></st1:country-region>.Some British kingdoms initially survived the onslaught, such as Strathclyde,which was wedged in the north between Pictland and the new Anglo-Saxon <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>kingdom</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Northumbria</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>.

By 650 AD, the <st1:place w:st=«on»>British Isles</st1:place> were a patchwork of many kingdoms foundedfrom native or immigrant communities and led by powerful chieftains or kings.In their personal feuds and struggles between communities for control andsupremacy, a small number of kingdoms became dominant: <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Bernicia</st1:place></st1:country-region> andDeira (which merged to form <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Northumbria</st1:place></st1:country-region>in 651 AD), <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Lindsey</st1:City>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>East Anglia</st1:country-region></st1:place>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Mercia</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Wessex</st1:place></st1:country-region> and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Kent</st1:place></st1:country-region>. Until thelate seventh century, a series of warrior-kings in turn established their ownpersonal authority over other kings, usually won by force or through alliancesand often cemented by dynastic marriages.

According to thelater chronicler Bede, the most famous of these kings was Ethelberht, king ofKent (reigned c.560-616), who married Bertha, the Christian daughter of theking of Paris, and who became the first English king to be converted toChristianity (St Augustine's mission from the Pope to Britain in 597 duringEthelberht's reign prompted thousands of such conversions). Ethelberht's lawcode was the first to be written in any Germanic language and included 90 laws.His influence extended both north and south of the river <st1:place w:st=«on»>Humber</st1:place>:his nephew became king of the <st1:place w:st=«on»>East Saxons</st1:place> andhis daughter married king Edwin of Northumbria (died 633).

In the eighth century,smaller kingdoms in the <st1:place w:st=«on»>British Isles</st1:place>continued to fall to more powerful kingdoms, which claimed rights over wholeareas and established temporary primacies: Dalriada in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Munster</st1:place></st1:State> and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ulster</st1:place></st1:country-region> in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>. In <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Mercia</st1:place></st1:country-region> andlater <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Wessex</st1:place></st1:country-region>came to dominate, giving rise to the start of the monarchy.

Throughout theAnglo-Saxon period the succession was frequently contested, by both theAnglo-Saxon aristocracy and leaders of the settling Scandinavian communities.The Scandinavian influence was to prove strong in the early years. It was thethreat of invading Vikings which galvanised English leaders into unifying theirforces, and, centuries later, the Normans who successfully invaded in 1066 werethemselves the descendants of Scandinavian 'Northmen'.

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<span Comic Sans MS";mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">HOUSE OF <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>WESSEX</st1:place></st1:country-region>AND <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>ENGLAND</st1:place></st1:country-region>

<span Comic Sans MS";mso-bidi-font-family:Arial;color:black;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">802 – 1066

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">EGBERT   =   

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">Redburga

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">                                                                                    (802–839)

<img src="/cache/referats/14974/image005.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1047"><span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">                                                                                                  ETHELWULF   =   

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">Osburga dau. of Oslac of <st1:place w:st=«on»>Isle of Wight</st1:place><span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">

<img src="/cache/referats/14974/image005.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1048"><span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">     (839–855)

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<img src="/cache/referats/14974/image006.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1026 _x0000_s1027 _x0000_s1028 _x0000_s1029 _x0000_s1030"> <span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">                                                                    ETHELBERHT                                                        ALFRED theGreat   =  

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Ealhswith

<img src="/cache/referats/14974/image005.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1031"><span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">                                         ETHELBALD      (860–866)                ETHELRED                           (871–899)

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">                                        (855–860)                                             (866–871)                                                                    

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">                            

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">                                                                                                                                                 

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">                                                                                                                                            Ecgwyn=  EDWARD THE ELDER=  Edgiva

<img src="/cache/referats/14974/image007.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1032"><img src="/cache/referats/14974/image005.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1033"><span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">                                                                                                                                                             (899–924)

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<img src="/cache/referats/14974/image008.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1034 _x0000_s1036"> <span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<img src="/cache/referats/14974/image009.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1035"><img src="/cache/referats/14974/image005.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1037"><img src="/cache/referats/14974/image005.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1038"><span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">             ATHELSTAN

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">             (924–939)

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<img src="/cache/referats/14974/image010.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1293"><span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">                               Elgiva  =    EDMUND I                                                                                                                             EDRED                                                              (939–946)                                                                                                                              (946–955)

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">                                                                                                                                  

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<img src="/cache/referats/14974/image011.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1040 _x0000_s1041 _x0000_s1042"> <span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">                                       EDWY              

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Ethelfleda =     EDGAR     =Elfrida,dau. of Ordgar, Ealdorman of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>East Anglia</st1:place></st1:country-region>

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">                                      (955–959)         

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">dau. of              (959–975)

<img src="/cache/referats/14974/image012.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1043"><span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">                                                                  Ealdorman

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">                                                                 Ordmaer

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<img src="/cache/referats/14974/image005.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1044"> <img src="/cache/referats/14974/image013.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1045 _x0000_s1046"> <span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">                                                                

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">EDWARD THE MARTYR   

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">                                                                (975–979)

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">                                                                                                                   Elfgifu   =   ETHELRED II THE UNREADY  =    Emma

<img src="/cache/referats/14974/image014.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1049"><span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">                                                                                                         

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">(979–1016)                                       (later                                

<img src="/cache/referats/14974/image015.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1050"><span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">      

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">                                                                                                     <span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">(deposed 1013/14)                            married

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">                                                                                                                                                                                               CANUTE)

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<img src="/cache/referats/14974/image016.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1051 _x0000_s1052"><span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">                                                                                                                                                                             

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<img src="/cache/referats/14974/image017.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1058"><img src="/cache/referats/14974/image018.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1057"><span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">   

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">EDMUND II IRONSIDE                           <span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">                                                                      

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">    (Apr.–Nov.1016)                                

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">                                                                                                                                                             

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Godwin<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">  <span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">=<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">   <span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">Gytha<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">                                            <span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">

<img src="/cache/referats/14974/image005.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1053"> <span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<span Arial",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

<img src="/cache/referats/14974/image005.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1055"><img src="/cache/referats/14974/image005.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_s1056"><img src="/cache/referats/14974/image019.gi

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