Реферат: Economic Relations between Kazakhstan and Russia
1.<span Times New Roman"">THE RUSSIAN-KAZAKHSTAN RATIOESAT THE PRESENT STAGE 5
1.2 Cooperatingin oil gas and power 15
1.3 Cooperatingin sphere of transport and communication 18
2.<span Times New Roman"">CONDITION OF FOREIGN TRADE BOTHDEV’T OF THE JOINT / ENTERPRISES KAZAKHSAN AND RUSSIA
2.1 Someaspects of economic interaction Kazakhstan and Russia 22
2.2 Thefactors of economic interaction of Kazakhstan and Russia 24
2.3Engagingthe foreign investments 26
2.4Cooperating in the field of electric power industry 27
2.5Cooperating in the field of machine construction industry 28
2.6Cooperating in the field of a uranium industry 29
3.<span Times New Roman"">involvement in international organizations, kazakhstan andrussia 31
3.1The Eurasian Union:Realities and Perspectives 34
4. VITAL PROBLEMS OF THEPRESENT-DAY STATE OF 44 KAZAKHSTANI-RUSSIAN RELATIONS
LIST OF USED SOURSES 65
Theorigins of Kazakhstani-Russian relations lie in hoary antiquity, when Kazakhsand Russians lived on the vast Eurasian territory and, being neighbors,developed good-neighborly relations in all the spheres of human activity.
In analyzing the relationsbetween Rus and the Great Steppe, one cannot fail to mention the work of thegreatest specialist in this field, Lev N. Gumilyov. In his preface toGumilyov's book, Ancient Rus and the Great Steppe, Academician Dmitry S.Likhachev wrote this: Rightly taking into account the links between subsistenceeconomy and the level of prosperity of ancient societies, and thus theirmilitary power, the author also compares historical events and climacticfluctuations of the steppe zone of Eurasia. In this way he arrived at a seriesof clarifications, which enabled him to describe in detail thehistorical-geographic backdrop against which various cultural influences camein conflict with the local forms of the original culture of Eastern Europe.
It must be noted in anyanalysis of the emergence of the 15 new, post-Soviet states on the map ofEurasia that certain specific features marked the genesis of each of them. Thepresent study focuses on the processes of sovereignty of Kazakhstan, and thespecificity of these processes lies in that from the very beginning therepublic's political leadership did not initiate centrifugal tendencies,regarding reasonable integration an imperative of the times and endeavoring toease as much as possible the destructive consequences at every stage in thedisintegration of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last former Sovietrepublic to declare its independence — not out of any strong gravitation towardthe past or peripheral political development let us recall that Kazakhstan wasone of the first to experience, in December 1986, the repressive power oftotalitarianism then already withering away but because it understood thatartificial acceleration of this process is fraught with the danger of seriousupheavals. The history of numerous bloody ethnic, social, and even interstateconflicts in the post-Soviet space bears striking evidence of that.
The immediate subjectmatter of the present study is not just the isolated process of the sovereigntyof one of the post-Soviet countries but the emergence and development againstthis background of new interstate relations of two major republics of theSoviet Union, Kazakhstan and Russia. In our view, it is relations betweenprecisely these two countries that can be seen as a model for the establishmentof equal and mutually advantageous between newly independent states. This viewis borne out by a sufficiently smooth and planned, though far fromproblem-free, development of bilateral Kazakhstani-Russian relations, ameaningful historical tradition of mutual relations, and an absence of sharpturns or wavering due to subjective or external causes.
Another unifying factoris time—the many centuries of the history of mutual relations between thepeoples of the two countries that have been neighbors in these great openspaces since the beginning of time. This far from simple history, full of dramaand heroism, these strata of time bound together by the unremitting toil ofnumerous generations, unite the two peoples.
The Soviet period in therelations between the two states let us recall that, according to the 1977Constitution of the USSR, the constituent republics of the Soviet Union weredeclared to be «sovereign Soviet socialist states» united in theUnion of Soviet Socialist Republics and having the right to enter intorelations with foreign states, conclude treaties and exchange diplomaticrepresentatives, and — theoretically -secede from the USSR was marked by theprevalence of the so-called converted forms. The ubiquitous and all-rounddominance of All-Union structures made meaningless all talk of real interstaterelations between Kazakhstan and Russia. Both sides were in this case theobjects of a grandiose social experiment. Although positive achievements oftills period cannot be discarded either.
The emergence andfurther development of relations of equal partnership between new independentstates, the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation, became a sortof synthesis of the entire centuries-old history of Kazakh-Russian relations.Only now can the relations between the two countries be justifiably describedas subject-subject ones. At this stage, both states solved such problems asdefining their status in the system of world politics, establishing relationswith leading world nations, and entering the field of international law.
The dominant role ofKazakhstani problems has determined the chronological framework of theinvestigation.
The overall time framecovers the period from December 1991 the setting up of the Commonwealth ofIndependent States, which finally marked the disintegration of the USSR to theend of 1995.
In the four years,bilateral Kazakhstani — Russian relations went through a series of significantstages the study of which can adequately determine the level of mutualrelations between the two countries, the scope and range of integration. Wesingle out three stages in the development of Kazakhstani-Russian relations:
— Defining the legalinterstate relations of the two countries December 1991 — May 1920
— Searching for a modelof economic and political cooperation between the states May 1992 — March 1994
— Expanding and deepeningintegration between Kazakhstan and Russia in the economic and other spheresMarch 1994 — 1995.
Although some elements oflegal contractual relations between Kazakhstan and Russia may be discoveredbefore December 1991, when attempts to preserve the Soviet Union were made, itwill be more chronologically correct, in our view, to choose the moment atwhich the CIS was legally formed and the activity of the Union structures ofauthority was discontinued as the starting point of the study.
We propose that thesigning in May 1992 of the treaty of friendship, cooperation, and mutualassistance between the two countries be singled out as the concluding moment ofthe first stage in the relations between Kazakhstan and Russia and at the sametime as the beginning of the new stage. That document became the foundationfor qualitatively new relations in the history of the two states, opening thefirst page in the official interstate relations in the new history ofKazakhstan and Russia. It determined the principles of bilateral relations inthe political, economic, military-strategic, cultural, and spiritual spheres,lending a colossal impulse to the entire subsequent negotiation process.
During the search for amodel of interstate economic and political cooperation between Kazakhstan andRussia, the principles were developed for bilateral relations, which werelater recorded in the treaty of friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance.The first official visit of President Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan to the RussianFederation in March 1994 marked the beginning of the third stage in thedevelopment of Kazakhstani-Russian relations — that of expanding and deepeningintegration between Kazakhstan and Russia.
Thisdivision of the time frame of bilateral Kazakhstani-Russian relations intoperiods shows that one of the goals of the present work is to demonstratecontinuous development between Kazakhstan and Russia in the post-Soviet period.
Asthe period of political history analyzed here is extremely close to thepresent, it cannot be regarded as worked out in detail in Russian and foreignscientific literature. However, the problems of development of the newstatehood of post-Soviet countries of Kazakhstan in this case, of the birth andevolution of interstate relations, of their entry into the internationalcommunity, are being studied ever more actively.
The crucial period ofthe disintegration of the USSR and the emergence on the map of the world ofnew, independent states was primarily reflected in scientific periodicals.Special mention should be made of the collective work The New Treaty of Union:The Search for Solutions.
Problems of mutual relations betweennewly independent states have also become the subjects of attention of Russianexperts and political scientists. The period of disintegration of the USSR andof the development of Kazakhstan as a sovereign independent state are atpresent actively studied by Kazakhstan scientists. Works have been written onthe problem of the emergence of the new statehood, development of the system ofseparation of powers, democratization of society, evolution of party structuresand institutions of democracy, and the construction of a new legal and judicialsystem. Present State and Works on the subject of bilateral Kazakhstani-Russianrelations from the moment the two states achieved independence can be dividedinto several groups. The first and the most numerous one deal with relationsbetween Kazakhstan and Russia within the framework of the Commonwealth of IndependentStates.
In recent years thedevelopment of market relations has considerably boosted interest for economicand trade cooperation between the two independent states. Mention must be madeof a joint work by the staff of the Russian Institute for Strategic Studiesunder the title Kazakhstan: Realitiesand Perspectives of Independent Development, It should be noted, though, thatthis work suffers from an obviously incomplete documentary and factual basisand a certain superficiality in the analysis of the problem.
Thestudy is based on such sources as legal acts and interstate Kazakhstani-Russiantreaties, agreements, declarations, joint protocols, and other documents andmaterials, as well as decrees, decisions, and resolutions of the organs ofstate power in Kazakhstan and Russia.
Extremelyimportant sources for the study of the last five years in the history ofKazakhstan and of Kazakhstani-Russian relations are the works of PresidentNursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan: Without the Right or the Left, The Strategyof the Formation and Development of Kazakhstan as a Sovereign State, TheStrategy of Resource Saving and the Transition to the Market, The Market andSocioeconomic Development, and especially his new book, On the Doorstep of the21st Century, as well as his speeches at various forums.' Just as important assources for the present study are the books by President Yeltsin of Russia:Confessions on a Given Theme, Memoirs of a President as well as his officialspeeches, and also the works of other Russian politicians and public figures,which afford a deeper grasp of the essence of events happening in thepost-Soviet space in the 1990s.
The process of marketreform in the republic and the tendencies and prospects for further reform inthe socioeconomic sphere are reflected in several books by Kazakhstan's PrimeMinister A.M.Kazhegeldin: The Socioeconomic Problems of Development of theRepublic of Kazakhstan in Times of Reform, Kazakhstan in Times of Reform,Problems of State Regulation Under the Conditions of SocioeconomicTransformation.
The formation of therepublic's diplomatic service and problems of its civilized entry in the worldcommunity are studied in the works of K.K.Tokayev, Kazakhstan's foreignminister.
Intense legislative processes at alllevels in the given period necessitated close attention to the legal basis ofthe newly independent states. As far as Kazakhstan is concerned, that legalbasis includes above all the Constitutions of 1993 and 1995, of which thecontent and the sociopolitical background may be seen as the quintessence ofthe given period in the country's history.
The main distinctivefeature of the source base of the study is the fact that most documents of thegiven period of political history have not yet been moved to the archives; itwas therefore necessary to turn on many occasions to various central anddepartmental current archives. The identification and systematization of manysources, their publication in a collection of materials devoted to thedevelopment of Kazakhstani-Russian relations was in themselves an importanttask.
It may thus be said that extensivesources have been used in the analysis of the above-mentioned problems; theirstudy made it possible to paint a comprehensive picture of the development ofKazakhstani-Russian relations against the background of the sovereignty ofKazakhstan in 1991-1995.
1.THE RUSSIAN-KAZAKHSTAN RATIOES AT THE PRESENT STAGE
In a context of events, which have taken place inregion after September 11, the role of Russia in Central Asia a little hasvaried, as well as all has varied geopolitical formulated in region last years.
In theseconditions of one of important external policies of tasks of Kazakhstan is theadjusting of tactics and strategy in ratios with Russia, which would correspondby modern geopolitical realities and long-term interests of our country.
Central Asia and Caspian Sea, so-called recentlyCaspian – Central Asia region, go into an region of traditional interests ofRussia.
In thisregion it always had the important national interests, which, however, indifferent periods were defined by different circumstances and factors.
The key interests of Russia in this region at thepresent stage can be reduced to the following.
Central Asia has the important value in of a safety of Russia.
The importance of this region for Russia is stipulated not oil by thefactor implying from desire to save influence on Caspian Sea;
Our region is of interest for Russia territorial, where its compatriotslive. Are those, on our sight three dominating interest of Russian Federation,dominating, Caspian – Central Asia region at the present stage. It in thisregion has also other interests trade, cosmotron of “Baikonur”, industrialcommunications etc. but they now in basic carry not so priority character.
Until recently Russiaensured above-mentioned interests without the special efforts. All countries of region in themajority were that or are otherwise dependent on Russian Federation.But theevents, which have occurred after September of the last year, have brought inserious enough variations to a geopolitical situation in Central Asia and haveaffected on common position of forces in region.
One of the occurred key variations consists that the break in sphere oftraditional vital interests of Russia is watched which today faces to necessityCentral Asia of policy.
As a whole by 2001 in Central Asia the private tripartite balancebetween interests of Russia, China, USA was folded.
The given balance canfiguratively be presented as a triangle, in which upper corner Russia, in onelower corner — USA, in the friend — China settled down. These countries haveoccupied three strategic niches in Caspian – Central Asia region:military-political, oil and gas, commodity-raw.
The Russian presence at regionlast years was ensured, first of all, with strategic military-politicalcomponent. A peaking of a problem extremism and the terrorisms in Central Asia,activation Islamic of driving of Uzbekistan, irreconcilable part of IntegratedTadjik opposition at immediate support Talib have established in 1999 — 2001real threat for the countries of region.
In these conditions only Russia was considered by the states of regionas the real factor and safety. It is enough to recollect, that these years thecontacts through link DKNB, intensive two-sided ratios in military andmilitary-engineering sphere were especially made active.
Thus, USA has occupied oil and gases a niche in our region, and Russiaand China by virtue of economic circumstances could not with it compete in thisdirection.
In this geopolitical triangleRussia all the same occupied a little bit dominating positions. This majoringin many respects was determined strategic military-political component, whichrole in the international ratios is traditionally high.
In a context of a commonglobal situation Russia forced to be reconciled with a determination ofmilitary basses of USA in region of its traditional interests.
Taking into account all these circumstances, Russia faces to necessityof the policy in Central Asia. The further prolongation above-mentioned of thetendencies will have for it painful enough consequences.
Despite of some variation of arole of Russia in Central Asia, for Kazakhstan the strategic interests in aratio of Russia continue to be saved.
The necessity of activation of ratios with Russia and holding ofconstructive cooperating on much important for Kazakhstan to directions isdictated as well by that in case of essential weakening of Russia in CentralAsia it will be fraught with negative consequences. The situation in region canbecome unstable and badly forecast.
In the whole traditionalinterests of Kazakhstan in a ratio of Russia are founded on four factors havinglong-time character and diminuendos by such eternal categories, as geographyand history.
First, the maintenance partner of ratios with Russia is necessary validintercontinental of an arrangement of Kazakhstan, for which the exit on theworld market is vital for an economic development. Russia in this respectoccupies the strategically important position; being by the state, on whichregion pass vital for us strategy of transport and communication.
Secondly, Russia is one of the important subjects of the internationalsystem, having significant political weight and rather largemilitary-engineering opportunities. The Russian factor in many respectsdetermines external policy a situation around of Kazakhstan, both on regional,and at the international level.
Thirdly, Russia is the majoreconomic partner Republic of Kazakhstan. It not only imports differentproduction and techniques to Kazakhstan, but also is the market of selling ofKazakhstan production. About 70 % of Kazakhstan industrial potential isinvolved on economy.
In — fourth, both states are combined with ahistorical generality, spiritual and cultural links. In region of Russia theman is Kazakh Diasporas including 740 thousand. In Kazakhstan Russian aresecond on number ethnic group, making about 30 percents of the population ofthe country.
In this context the Russian direction of exteriorpolicy of Kazakhstan remains to one of priority and strategic.
As a whole at the present stage in theRussian-Kazakhstan ratios the following most priority and perspectivedirections of cooperating are meant:
• Mutual trade.
• Interaction in oil and gas and power sphere.
• Cooperating in sphere of transport and communications.
• Cooperating in sphere of safety.
1.1 Mutual Trade.
The interests of both countries are answered withmagnifying of mutual trade. Russian Federation traditionally occupies the firstplace among the basic trade partners of Kazakhstan both on export, and onimport. Trade turn over in 2001 from Russian Federation has made 4 639,3million of US dollars (Diagrama1,2).
It is necessary to mark, that last years the growth ofa share of Russian Federation in import and reduction in export is watched. Thespecific gravity of Russia in total amount of the Kazakhstan export issequentially reduced (from 44,5 % in 1994 up to 20,2 % in 2001) and isaugmented in import (from 36,3 % per 1994 up to 45,4 % per 2001). Withinseveral last years of Kazakhstan has negative trade balance with RussianFederation.Basic trade partners, inimport, 1994-2001 (%)
<img src="/cache/referats/12861/image002.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1025">
Basic trade partners, in export, 1994-2001 (%)
<img src="/cache/referats/12861/image004.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1026">
Considering structure of export and import on groupsof the commodity spectrum, it is possible to select the followingcharacteristic features.
Export. Structure of export Republic of Kazakhstan inRussian Federation for the last few years has varied the separate commoditygroups have occupied a leading position.
Now on four commodity groups (glow iris3) (fuel mineral, oil andpetroleum; products of inorganic chemistry; grain bread and ores) are necessaryabout 80 % of the Kazakhstan export in Russia, whereas in 1994 on the pointedgroups it was necessary 53,3 %. In 2001 as contrasted to 2000 the separateoutbound delivering tended to lowering, so, for example, the specific gravityof export of a grain was reduced from 12 % up to 6 %; the export of products ofinorganic chemistry was reduced from 14 % up to 13 %. Certainly, on lowering ofexport in Russia renders influence a variance between the in-house prices andprices of outbound delivering.
At the same time it is necessary to mark, that thereduction of export has taken place not on all basic groups of the commodityspectrum. The specific gravity of export of ore has increased from 8 % up to 10% and export of fuel from 46 % up to 47 %.
Import of republic of Kazakhstan goes into first fiveof the countries of the basic trade partners of Russia in import. The specificgravity of import of Russia has increased in total amount of the Kazakhstanimport from 36,7 % per 1999 up to 45,4 % per 2001. There were insignificantvariations in groups of imported commodity production. So, the volumes ofimport were reduced
<img src="/cache/referats/12861/image006.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1027">
<img src="/cache/referats/12861/image008.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1028">
Transport, accordingly, from 15 % in 2000 up to 11 % in 2001, alongsidewith it the magnifying of import on such commodity groups is marked: fuelmineral (from 17 % up to 21 %), chemical production (from 14 % up to 16 %),black metals and work pieces from them (from 11 % up to 13 %) (Diagrama4).
The analysis of export and import displays, that in structure of importas against export there is no predominance of separate commodity groups, itmore diversification, at the same time grows a specific gravity of articles offood, products of processing ready articles.
From 89 regions of RussianFederation 72 have trade — economic links with Republic of Kazakhstan.Depending on volume trade turn over with Kazakhstan these regions Russia candivide into a series of groups. The active participants of the foreign tradeactivity with Kazakhstan are first three groups of regions of Russia (table 1).
As a whole on 16 regions of Russian Federation from 72 it is necessary80 % exterior trade turn over of Russia with Kazakhstan. The high activitypointed 16 regions is stipulated by more developed structure of theirindustrial manufacture with predominance of fuel-raw, petrochemical andmachine-building specializations.
Feature of transport -geographicalinterregional links of regions of Russia with Kazakhstan is the directednessmutual goods traffic primarily with Ural, Western and East Siberia, and alsowith Moscow and Moscow region.Basicgroups of the trade partners of Kazakhstan in Russia
Annual commodity circulation
A share in common commodity circulation
From 200,0 up to 500,0 mln of dollars
Moscow, Chelyabinsk, Ekaterenburg, Orenburg and Tyumen region
From 100,1 up to 200,0 mln of dollars
Omsk, Irkutsk, Kemerovo, Moscow region. Altay region and Novosibirsk region
From 50,1 up to 100 mln of dollars
Kurgan region, Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic of Hakasya, Krasnoyarsk region and Samara region
From 20,1 up to 50,0 mln of dollars
Perm, Tomsk region, Republic of Tatarstan, Nizhniy- Novgorod, Belgorod, Volgograd, Saratov, Rostov, Vladimir, Tula region and. St.-Petersburg
Up to 20 mln dollars
Others 45 regions of Russian Federation
The important place in the Russia -Kazakhstan links occupies frontiercooperating, on which share it is necessary 71,5 % from common commoditycirculation. Most actively explicate trade -economic links with frontierregions of Kazakhstan Omsk, Orenburg, Astrakhan, Chelyabinsk, Novosibirskregion and Altay region. From regions of Russia the ready roll stock of blackmetals, pipe steel, petroleum, electric motors, automobiles, forest products,coal, footwear, fabrics and other goods is taken out. In export of manyfrontier subjects of Federation significant volume is necessary on productionof a petrochemical industry (Volgograd, Omsk, Samara region, Altay region — more than 70 %).
In the Russia -Kazakhstan frontier region more 300 share enterprises,among which such large interstate join, as “Kazroshim”, “Koksohim”, automobilecomplex on basis Ural — for and Kustanay diesel factory operate.
The essential propagation in trade with Kazakhstan was received withbarter operations (57 %). So, Orsk meat factory the combine sends in Kazakhstanin basic production of the manufacture and receives in exchange raw materialfor manufacture of this production — living cattle and meat. The joint-stockcompany “Nosta” receives from Kazakhstan immovable coal and delivers metals.
The significant experience of mutual economic cooperating with frontierregions of Kazakhstan accumulated in the Orenburg region, and also Pavlodarregion of Kazakhstan with frontier regions of Russia. Now 18 % of the Orenburgexport and more than 40 % of import have on Kazakhstan.
By the largest foreigntrade partner of Republic Bashkortostan, Altay and Krasnoyarsk edges, Kemerovo,Irkutsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Sverdlovsk andChelyabinsk regions is the Pavlodar region.
As a whole before Kazakhstanin mutual trade with Russia there is a series of perspective tasks, whichdecision will influence definitely a common economic situation in the country.
One of the important tasks is the variation trade balance of Kazakhstanfrom Russian Federation from negative in positive. Besides the gradualvariation of structure commodity circulation in favorable for Republic ofKazakhstan a direction is desirable.
Radiating from interests of two states, it is expedient in the nearestperspective to consider a complex of measures on hardening links of frontierregions. The necessity of creation of legal fundamentals of a development offrontier regions does not call doubts. On our sight, it is necessary to speedup development of the defining laws. Among them Laws About state support of asocio economic development of frontier territories Republic of Kazakhstan,About free economic regions, About frontier trade. It is necessary also tospeed up ratification four sided of the Agreement on basic principles offrontier cooperating of the states — the participants of the Contract about adeepening of integration in economic and humanitarian regions from March 29,1996.
Obvious presence of potential and mutually advantageous opportunities ofRussia and Kazakhstan also is by way of use of the optimum shapes ofspecialization, density of the industrial and financial capital, use ofeffective financial instruments, architecture of optimum commodity, financialand transport streams. In this connection special urgency in a developmentKazakhstan – Russia of links was got with problems of a synchronization oflegislative and normative basis of the countries. It would be expedient torealize step-by-step transition to collection of the VAT on destination inKazakhstan – Russia to trade, having begun it(him) from machines, equipment,vehicles.
Not less important the coordinated marketing strategy of Kazakhstan andRussia in the international markets is represented, where the saving andhardening of common positions is quite possible. The priority direction representsperfecting the organizational shapes of activity Kazakhstan and Russiansuppliers in the world markets. Them can become cartel of the agreement.
One of the important instruments of hardening of two-way communicationscould become creation of conditions for expansion of contacts between theenterprises, creation of the share enterprises. On official dates (2000) inrepublic 220 share Russia -Kazakhstan enterprises and 88 enterprises with the100--percent Russian capital actively work. The majority JV in republic,including Russia-Kazakhstan JV, has trade –intermediary directedness. Howeveras against other states Russia- Kazakhstan JV of an industrial directednessenvelop considerably wider spectrum of spheres of activity — from productionand processing of natural operational life up to production of a high scale ofprocessing that in a defined measure confirms an overall performance Russia-Kazakhstan JV. At the same time Russia –Kazakhstan JV for the present do notplay that role, which they could play in a development of trade -economiccooperating. Therefore in this direction the active support is expedient on thepart of state structures.
1.2 Cooperating in oil gas and power sphere.
The given direction of cooperating between two countries by us is one ofperspective. The structure of the Kazakhstan export of oil on the countries in2001 is characterized by lowering of a share of delivering in the countries ofCIS (17 %) and expansion of geography of export of oil in the countries offoreign countries (83 %) (Diagrama5).
The indexes of export ofpetroleum in 2001 essentially have varied as contrasted to 2000. Alongside withexport of Kazakhstan realizes import of petroleum. And 98 % of all importedvolumes of petroleum are necessary on Russian Federation.
The lowering of the excise rates on imported petrol with 80 up to 31EURO per ton in 2001 and falling recently of world prices per oil promotedmagnifying of delivering of the Russian oil for in-house processing. The exportof petroleum to the countries of CIS became more attractive for Russia, thanthe delivering of oil on the world market, as, for example, in Kazakhstan ofthe price on the same aspects of petroleum is much higher Russian.
Kazakhstan more than on 50 % depends on Russia in a ratio of deliveringof crude oil on refinery factory in Shimkentand Pavlodar receive west Siberianoil on the algorithm manifold from Omsk. Pavlodar refinery factory on 100 %depends from west Siberian of oil. Shimkent usually works on 75 % on westSiberian and on 25 % on raw material Kumkol of a deposit. Today dependence fromof west Siberian oil “Orgsintez” is reduced half at the expense of use of theAktyubinsk oil, transport by a railway transportation from west of Kazakhstan.Because of lowering production of oil on west Siberian deposits, fadeout ofpayments and mutual debts the question of security by oil Pavlodar and Shimkentrefinery factory more than once acquired critical character, and the capacityfactor of powers of these enterprises frequently lowered below 0,5.
Its technological dependence on Russia falls into basic problemsPavlodar refinery factory: the production cycle of the enterprise is calculatedfor consumption west Siberian of oil with the low contents of sulfur andparaffin. The perspectives flagship of the Kazakhstan oil processing iscomplicated with its neighborhood with the Russian factories — competitors:
Omsk, Ufa, Volgograd refinery factory by the enterprises beingvertically — integrated, they have stable access to crude oil, besides onreduced prices, which the necessities of northern Kazakhstan in petroleum couldat desire completely satisfy.Structure of export of theKazakhstan oil, 2001
<img src="/cache/referats/12861/image010.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1029">
In oil and gas of branch the cooperating explicates also through link ofshare development of the Kazakhstan deposits. Russia in the projects on naturalresources users in region of Republic of Kazakhstan, as it is possible to seefrom the Diagrama6, occupies the fourth place and makes 6 %. The Russian investmentsin a mineral-raw complex (MSK) of Kazakhstan have made in 2000 32,2 million ofdollars, including in investigation hydrocarbon of raw material (UVS) 3,5 mlnof dollars, in production of hard minerals (TPI) — 28,7 mln of dollars.
Two Russian investors “Bashnevt” and OJSC “Lukoil” submit theinvestments in UVS. In oil branch of Kazakhstan the company “Lukoil” issubmitted in such large projects, Tengiz and Karachiganak Besides “Lukoil” isready to expand the presence at Kazakhstan, messages not only development ofready deposits, but also prospecting operations.
The large interest in relation to Kazakhstan is expressed with the largeoil Russian company “Yokus” which has received a section for developments inRussia and region of Kazakhstan.
Structure of the direct foreigninvestments in Kazakhstan,2000<img src="/cache/referats/12861/image012.gif" v:shapes="_x0000_i1030"> Diagram 6
In sphere TPI of Kazakhstan the Russian investors are submitted by suchlarge companies, as the Russian Academy of Science of European EconomicCommunity (83,9 %), OJSC “Magnitogorsk” metallurgical combine (10,6 %) and NPK“Investor” (3,8 %).
The Kazakhstan enterprises also show interest to the Russian projects.So, “Kazakhoil” (“Kazmunaigas”) negotiates for share developments in Tomskregion, on a deposit “Komsomolsk” in the Astrakhan region. At Kazakhstan oilmanthere are intentions to develop deposits in the Arkhangelsk region.
Since 2000 the electric powersystem of Kazakhstan works in a parallel condition from European EconomicCommunity of Russia and grid system of the countries of Central Asia.
The parallel operation of electric power systems considerably hasboosted quality of electrical power and reliability of electro supply ofconsumers of Kazakhstan, Central Asia and Russian Federation, and also hasallowed operatively to realize surplus of electricity both transit ofelectrical power and powers, it is more rational to use power powers ofelectrical stations. The electric power system of Kazakhstan and RussianAcademy of Science European Economic Comminity of Russia is called secure eachother in case of crashes.
In the whole cooperating of Kazakhstan and Russia in fuel and energysphere has noticeable perspectives.
Rather perspective the project of transfer of a direct current Ekibastuz- Tambov by voltage 1 500 sq is. This project opens an opportunity of transportof the electric power of the Siberian power stations and Ekibastuz heater incentral regions of Russia and in the countries of Europe.
With the purposes of security of a mutually acceptableuniform tax condition of trade in the electric power, utilities equipment it isexpedient to realize transition of the countries at collection of indirecttaxes on a principle the countries of assignment. In this connection for aheightening of efficiency of a parallel operation of electric power systems thesimplification of customs procedures is important at migration of electricalpower through the customs boundary.
The major factor of a development of the power market is the deepeningof cooperating in the field of scientific researches and developments ofadvanced techniques in manufacture of power, electro technical equipment. Nowall aspects of equipment are made for power stations in Russia, (Leningradmetal factory, Belenergomash, Uralenergomash, Siberenergomash). Withdisintegration of Union economic links between the manufacturers and consumersof a utilities equipment considerably have worsened, that is negativelyreflected in availability index of product of power complexes of the country.On this question it is expedient except of concrete measures at a level ofGovernment.
1.3 Cooperating in sphere of transport and communications.
Cooperating in sphere of transport and communications one of the mostperspective regions of a development of two-sided ratios between Kazakhstan andRussia. Both states in a context of a development of transport cooperating havethe friend for the friend a strategic value, as, apart from a wide nationaltransport web, occupy defining a geographical position.
Kazakhstan and Russia areclosely coupled by the transport communications. In this connection ofKazakhstan is sensitive reacts to any variations under the tariffs for freighttraffic on region of Russia.
One of key here of questions — transportation of oil and gas through region of Russia. In aggregatetransportation of the Caspian oil and in the whole oil is one of the majorsides of the Russia -Kazakhstan cooperating. First of all this magnifying of achannel capacity of an oil pipeline Atyrau – Samara up to 15 millions tons ofoil per one year. The intimation into service CPC ensures export of theKazakhstan oil on a long-term perspective.
In a period with 1995 and till1999 Russia gave Kazakhstan such quota, which did not allow the Kazakhstanexporters to involve the algorithm manifold Atyrau – Samara on an apparentwatts its annual channel capacity in 10,5 mln of tons of oil. And only in 1999the algorithm manifold was loaded almost on 100 %. The agreement on magnifyingof a quota at transit of oil in long-distance foreign countries at first up to5 mln of tons (December 23, 1998) was signed, and then (February 25, 1999) upto 7,5 mln of tons (the quota in short-range foreign countries has remainedformer — 3,5 mln of tons). This decision initiated occurrence of the project ofreconstruction and modernizing of the algorithm manifold Atyrau – Samara formagnifying of a channel capacity at first up to 12 mln of tons, then — up to 15mln of tons.
This project, designedtransport companies of both countries — Russian “Transoil” and Kazakhstan“Kazakhoil”, is favorable to both sides. For “Transoil” the transportation ofthe Kazakhstan oil on the algorithm manifolds that for complete use of theirpowers does not suffice 20 mln tons, brings additional profit.
The first stage ofreconstruction of the algorithm manifold Atyrau — Samara- its channel capacitynow is realized is lifted up to 12 mln of tons. Due to this the arrangementwith Russia about magnifying of a transit quota in 2000 also was reached.
For Kazakhstan the magnifying of a channel capacity of the algorithmmanifold Atyrau – Samaraand export of oil through Russia opens the perspective market ofselling, what Europe is. On a system of oil pipelines "«Friendship"the Kazakhstan oil can act in Germanium, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia, Czechia andSlovakia, where there is a stable demand for oil. Under the forecasts of theexperts, by 2010 Central and East Europe will import about 80 mln of tons ofoil to one year. Now more than half of volumes of imported oil in this regionmake delivering of the countries of CIS, primarily — from Russia (51 %). Havingexpanded outbound opportunities in this direction, Kazakhstan can become one ofthe largest suppliers of raw material in the European countries.
By share efforts of Kazakhstan and Russia is put into operation CaspianPipeline Consortium (CPC). The common extent of the algorithm manifold makes 1580 km, primal channel capacity 28 mln ton / year. Thus for reaching a maximumchannel capacity 67 mln of tons of oil per one year (from them 45 mln ton — forKazakhstan oil supplier) it is necessary only to augment opportunities of pumpstations, that is recognized schedule to carry out in four stages. There is aconstruction of the algorithm manifold up to Atyrau, which will connect Karachiganakwith CPC and will allow originally pumping up to 7 mln of tons of oil, and infuture — up to 11 mln of tons.
During nearest of forty yearsCPC will be a stable source of the incomes for the shareholders, and alsoRussia and Kazakhstan. According to accounts, for a period of maintenance ofthe algorithm manifold in federal and regional budgets of Russia will arriveapproximately 23,3 billion of US dollars as deductions and profit, ofKazakhstan will receive approximately 8,2 billion of dollars.
The development of transport cooperating with Russian Federation is mostactual for Kazakhstan’s for today within the framework of architecture ofregional and transcontinental transit.
Regional transit. Russian Federation is one of the basic countries ofshaping and assignment of transit weights; on its share it is necessary about26 % of shaping and 20 % of assignment of weights from total amount of alltransit transportations.
Transcontinental transit. In the whole transit streams in directionsSoutheast and East Asia Europe are evaluated approximately in 330 — 400 billionof dollars. Thus up to 20 % of these streams can pass through region of Russiaand Kazakhstan.
Taking into account in the whole size commodity circulation,iron roads of the Eurasian continent and primarily Kazakhstan and Russia havereal potential for partial stylus orientations transcontinental good trafficwith sea on railway routes.
For Kazakhstan in this directionof activity has a primary value a development of transportations on Northerncorridor Trans Asian of a railway turnpike on a route “China — Kazakhstan — Russia – ByelorussiaPoland — Germany. Now Kazakhstan together with Russia Europe — Asia and backcarries on active operation on shaping this terrestrial transport corridor bythe message.
As a whole in transport-communication sphere before Kazakhstan thefollowing tasks stand:
• Saving conditions fortransit of the Kazakhstan power resources through region of Russia, maintenanceat a necessary level of quotas on transit of oil for Kazakhstan.
• Scheduled magnifying ofa channel capacity CPC.
• Decision ofaccumulating questions between the Ministry of means of communication ofRussian Federation and CJSC of “Kazakhstan Temir Joli” on railroad rates andother questions.
• Creation of the shareenterprises in transport branch.
• Realization share transport — communication of the projectson active use of transit potential of Kazakhstan and Russia.
2.<span Times New Roman"">ABOUT A CONDITION OF FOREIGN TRADE BOTH DEV’T OF THE JOINT / ENTERPRISES KAZAKHSAN AND RUSSIA
Indexes of foreign trade of RK with RF, 1995-2001
Commodity circulation mln of US dollars
In % to the appropriate period of the previous year
Export, mln of US dollars
In % to the appropriate period of the previous year