Реферат: Политический лидер-Хосни Мубарак
For years of board Mubarak has recommended itself, if not as the big statesman, that, at least, as the sincere and reliable Arabian head. Can solve numerous problems of the country, he, nevertheless, uses the best efforts to prevent degradation.
HOSNY MUBARAK- " MISTER HONESTY "
Ten centimeters! Such distance separated vice-president Hosni Mubaraka from death October, 6-th, 1981 when during military parade was killed (more precisely to tell — Egyptian president Anvar Sadat is executed).
He till now hears singing the bullets flying around of him. Remembers that instant when one of aggressors has shouted to him: " Stand aside! You are necessary for us not, the Pharaon is necessary for us! " Sees Sadat, laying in a pool of blood…
In the evening of the same day, shocked, but safe, Mubarak officially has informed compatriots on death of the head of the state. In one week he became the president of Egypt. In that year to him it was executed 53 years and he, apparently, was rather pleased with the role of vice-president. But...
April, 15, 1975 Sadat has appointed the 47-years commander of Air Forces Hosny Mubarak vice-president.
— I have chosen him for loyalty and reliability, — he has explained the step some weeks after.
Hardly later, speaking about Mubarak, the Egyptian president will note his such qualities, as persistence, fidelity and competence.
Wife of Sadat — Djihan which by then had already sufficient influence on the husband, has agreed with this choice. She, on an own recognition, found Mubarak" deprived any ambitions to remain devoted to his spouse ".
Itself Mubarak, as he said, was surprised and puzzled, when Sadat as caused him and has offered a post of vice-president. Him career political or the statesman as he secretly dreamed become the chief of the Joint Staff of the Egyptian army never interested.
It is necessary to tell, that so unexpected choice has thrown into confusion also his nearest environment. However, soon the reasons of this step of steel are clear: the president wanted to get support of militarians. It was found out also, that a choice of the Egyptian leader has affected, as spoke in retinue Sadat, «unity of sights on rapproachement of Cairo with Washington „and an allergy“ to Soviet Union which suffered both that, and another.
Anyway, Mohammed Hosny Seid Mubarak (his full name is those) became the second person in Egypt, right hand of Sadat, his shadow. Before it he has made an outstanding career of the professional militarian.
The Future president was born May, 4-th, 1928 in Egyptian country — in small village Kafr an ale — Musyl'ha (province Manufia), in delta of Nile. His father owned a small site of the ground and simultaneously worked in legal management of a province.
Hosny it was brought up not in luxury. His friends and schoolmates were children of fellah. Probably, it the openness and simplicity of the president speak.
He studied persistently, and after leaving school parents advised him to continue education at Cairo university at faculty of fine arts. However he has decided on other…
War of 1948 with Israel has shown: the Arabian armies are disabled. In the Egyptian officer case inflow of youth began from average layers, including from a countryside. Hosny Mubarak has selected a trade of the pilot. Having finished with distinction in 1949 military college, he served on Sinai, then was the instructor of air academy. Repeatedly left in 50th years in the USSR where it was trained in flights on modern types of planes which Soviet Union delivered Egypt.
In 1956 Mubarak took part in reflection English, French and Israel aggressions.
Abilities of the young pilot were noticed, and in 1959 he was appointed the commander of a squadron of bombers TU — 16. In some years he became the commander of a brigade. The maximum military education has received in the USSR, in Academy of a name of Frunze in which studied in 1964-1965 years.
When in 1962 civil war began from Northern Yemen, Mubarak appeared in structure of the Egyptian contingent directed to this country. He took part in operations and has recommended himself the brave and skilful military pilot.
By the way to tell, officers envying him, using this fact, began to spread rumours, that Mubarak, being in Moscow, has turned in „procommunist“. A reality, however, another. He not bad speaks Russian, gives due to planes of the Soviet manufacture, but he in any way cannot be counted „procommunist“. Faster on the contrary…
The most difficult test for Egypt became 1967. Israel has put heavy defeat of the Egyptian army. Practically the aircraft completely was destroyed.
At once after war Mubarak was appointed the chief of military college in Bilbeis. Of him have set the task: taking into account the danger which has hung above the country to increase release of pilots, having reduced term of their preparation with 4 till 2 years. It was necessary to break all system of training. Mubarak days did not leave college, personally watched observance of the daily routine and study of cadets.
He Noticed by president Gamalem Abdel' Naserom, becomes the general of aircraft in 1969 and is appointed the chief of a staff of the Egyptian Air Forces. In 1972 he already — the commander military — air forces and simultaneously the deputy minister of defense.
These posts have allowed him to reorganize the Egyptian aircraft which was not answering at that time modern requirements and to prepare it for war with Israel, begun October, 6, 1973. It is necessary to recognize, that then the Air Forces of Egypt have achieved impressing results.
Mubarak becomes the national hero, receives from hands Sadat » Star of Sinai" — the highest Egyptian military award — and погоны the general of army. Military «ascention» he is a native of simple family — is obliged to epoch of Nasere. To political rise of him has pushed Sadat, having appointed vice-president and, thus, having opened him a way to the supreme authority.
Since then this broad-shouldered, a dense constitution the general began to seize art of political «pilotage». Sadat has given him for this purpose the ample opportunities, having made him some kind of " departure ambassador ". He has assigned on Mubarak performance delicate, sometimes difficult assignments.
Aspiration of Sadat to play the leading part on international scene, his often trips abroad gave Mubarak an opportunity to strengthen the positions inside the country. He began that has reorganized political police and confidential services which have penetrated into all chink the Egyptian society. He, certainly, did not manage to cure all illnesses of these departments, but as a result of the carried out cleaning he could get rid of the elements which have compromised.
Becomingin 1978 vice-president national — democratic, created by Sadat in exchange him of the spoiled Arabian socialist union, Mubarak has got influential friends, that has strengthened his position even more.
During six with superfluous years vice-president honesty put into practice a policy of the cartridge. In the top echelons of power about him responded yours faithfully, marked his intelligence, natural sharpness, hardness and frankness, serviceability.
Simple Egyptians appreciated vice-president incorruptibility. He has managed to remain away from corruption with which his relatives, many high-ranking officials, which were infected Sadat, not hesitating, plundered the country. It is no surprising, that Egyptians till now name Mubarak " mister honesty ".
Probably, he and would remain diligent vice-president, but the bullets which have struck Sadat, have advanced Mubarak further away — he became the president of Egypt.
Mubarak has inherited from Sadat almost monarchic mode isolated in the Arabian world and wallowing in external duties. However in people and in the environment of secular opposition which many representatives appeared at Sadat behind a lattice, coming to power new president have met with the big hopes for changes.
«The New leader have supported therefore, — known Egyptian journalist Hejkal, wrote in one of articles — that he was the most suitable person, capable to disseminate the fear reigned in Egypt and to heal the mental traumas put to the country. The person who would not began to make grandiose plans was necessary for Egyptians, but also would not finish the country before accident ».
Quiet, modest, but resolute — Mubarak has provided transition of authority practically without a uniform false step. As has shown time, the former military pilot who has gone in the first independent flight as the head of the state, not only has not given in before getting from Sadat troubles, but with honour has left many followed tests, having strengthened the authority. Acknowledgement to that — participation of president Mubaraka in meeting of chapters of the Arabian states and the governments, taking place in Casablanca in May, 1989, and then his election on a post of the chairman of the Organization of African Unity (OAU).
But it will be later… While Mubarak, having borrowed a presidential armchair, has set free on all political prisoners and has shaken hands with them. Members of the organization finishing with Sadat, were prosecuted, and then executed or imprisoned. To tell the truth, many secret extremist Islamic groupings soon were revealed, one of which — «Al-Aksa» in May, 1982 has sentenced the president to a death penalty.
However, due to the vigorous activity of confidential services, Mubarak has managed to separate the «moderate» elements of Islamic opposition rejecting violence as a method of internal political struggle, from " incorrigible extremists ". In result, for first twelve months of board he has released 4.000 Islamic active workers.
Running forward, I shall tell, that Mubarak, knowing about the danger proceeding from Islamic extremists, avoids drastic measures in religious sphere. He understands, that the problem of radical Islamic fundamentalism still remains on the agenda. Though extremists also are tired out in a underground, they at any time can appear, how it already happened in October, 1981, when was killed (or is executed) Sadat.
As to secular opposition, that, having come to authority, the president at once has declared readiness to start dialogue with its leaders. He has resolved activity of opposition parties, and even their representation in parliament. Besides he has agreed with renewal of the edition of newspapers of opposition.
Aspiring to strengthen the position, and at the same time being compelled to be considered with supporters Sadata, kept key posts in the political and economic life, the new president started to carry out gradual «desadatation». Under his direct instruction were prosecuted the brother of the deceased -president Ismat Sadat and his sons supervising roguish operations. Process above them has allowed Mubarak to show the determination to liquidate corruption in the Egyptian society.
The majority of those who watched activity Mubarak at the initial stage, unanimously marked, that he has declared himself as the figure of " new type ". When him have asked: " You are going to follow What political line — of Nasere or of Sadat? ", he has answered with a smile: " Own, certainly ".
On the spot has specified, that his policy will be based on four principles: democratic pluralism, an openness, honesty and the decision of economic problems.
No, president Mubarak did not call in question (anyway, public) the basic directions of a political rate of the predecessor. But tried to expand freedom of actions in the inherited frameworks, refusing simultaneously from sensational gestures in style of Sadat. Moreover, he did not try to disguise verbal demagogy problems facing to Egypt as it was done by the former leader. In opposite to Sadat Mubarak did not undertake ostentatious attempts to solve internal problems by reviewing the study. But in the first speeches he constantly called for growth of labour productivity, amplification of feeling of the responsibility, to social justice.
As against Sadat new the head of the state abstained from promises, but invariable tried to give a new pulse to economic policy. He slowly but to develop began truly in Egypt democracy, trusting what exactly it will provide in long-term prospect political stability to a mode. It is more than that, he has frankly declared people, that the government can solve all problems facing to it.
— New Egypt will be constructed only by work of Egyptians, — the president likes to repeat.
Nevertheless, Mubarak in the intention to improve economy still recognizes that «infitah» — the policy of open doors begun by Sadat, basically was correct, but it was put into practice unsuccessfully and was discredited corruption, reigned in Egypt. Having received thanking Camp-Daving to agreements «special» attitudes from USA, president Mubarak tried to squeeze out from them a maximum possible. Both in political, and in the economic plan, skilfully playing on aspiration of Americans to be fixed on Near East.
Using such trump card as threat of freezing, and even a severance of diplomatic relations with Israel, Mubarak has received to some extent to influence a middle East policy of USA. Certainly, a degree of this influence to overestimate does not cost, but it, undoubtedly, is.
President Mubarak, certainly, appreciates communications of Egypt and USA as receives from them two, and even it is more, billions dollars annually as gratuitous gifts, loans and military credits. These injections of steel for him that «lifebuoy ring» which keeps on shallow the Egyptian economy.
But also here there are strict limits on cooperation, is especial at a political level. So, for example, on the offer of USA to help with construction of military base on Red sea for the forces of fast expansion the Egyptian president has answered with resolute refusal.He has declared, that Egypt will construct its itself and will keep there the control. Americans can use it when Cairo will consider military intervention of Washington necessary.
Never refusing «special» attitudes from USA, Mubarak at the same time has made appreciable efforts for restoration of normal diplomatic relations with Soviet Union which were completely normalized in 1984. Practically all obstacles, long time braking development of attitudes between our countries today are eliminated.
It is not necessary to think, however, that " independent flight " passed president Mubaraka smoothly. The Israeli intrusion into Lebanon in June, 1982 has caused internal pressure on Mubarak with the purpose to change character of the egipetsko-Israeli attitudes. One more test for him steel of excitement of 17 thousand employees of forces of the internal safety, having a place in February, 1986. The army has quickly suppressed these excitements, and the president, due to resolute actions, has strengthened the positions even more.
In October, 1987 the National assembly of Egypt unanimously has selected Hosny Mubarak the president on the second six-year term. In November of the same year the League of Arabian countries (LAC) has made the decision that its members can restore if will wish, full diplomatic relations with Egypt. Nine countries, including Saudi Arabia, almost immediately have directed the ambassadors to Cairo.
In December of the same year in Cairo the flag above representation of Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was lifted. Thus Mubarak has shown, that Egypt again is ready to play a role of the «traffic controller» assisting negotiations PLO and USA, Jordan and Israel about convocation of peace conference on Near East.
One of the key factors which have defined finally success of a strategic rate of diplomacy Mubarak on full returning of Egypt in the Arabian numbers, precisely thought over, consecutive behaviour of Cairo in its contacts to Tel Aviv was. From the moment of coming to power by the new president very successful form of the attitude of Egypt to Israel was produced: " Prospects of development of bilaterial communications are defined by the general situation on Near East, process of middle East settlement ".
Such formulation (and Mubarak followed it strictly) enabled to hold Israel on respectful distance. On the other hand, the similar position obviously directed on protection common Arabian of interests, could not remain unnoticed in the Arabian capitals.
Has not remained unnoticed and such fact: president Mubarak — the unique Egyptian head of a high rank whom has refused to visit Israel, despite of numerous official invitations. To tell the truth, when him already «have absolutely got», and he could not resist to pressing, he had to go at some o'clock per the small Israeli settlement located in desert Negev. " I have made it against my heart… " — he has admitted later.
Besides the Egyptian president willingly offered the services for settlement of many bilateral conflicts, for example, irano-Iraq. All this has helped creation of completely new representation about Egypt, radical image distinguished from Sadat's representation. In many respects this was promoted also by the person of Mubarak.
Sadat loved formal receptions, magnificent suppers, ceremonial. Mubarak does not love high life, hates everything, that, in his opinion, is an excess. Sadat adored to appear on public in motley military uniforms at numerous awards. Mubarak does not put on the form since the civil post has held.
Sadat was completely corrupt, Mubarak — the incorruptible patriot. Sadat spent time in magnificent palaces. Mubarak lives in the small 2-storeyed country house constructed by him(it) on own means still(even) in 1971.
Sadat the born actor, the fan of light of a stage and long tiresome speeches. Mubarak has no eloquence, but he also is deprived propensities of the predecessor to eccentric to theatrical gestures, frankly dislikes chatterers.
Intellectuals laugh at him, tell about him every possible histories. But not malicious, as about Sadat.
Mubarak it is sincerely devoted to business of democracy, Sadat only dexterously juggled with this term. The new president in practice has proved, that his performances in protection of a personal freedom — not mere words. At him political life in the country began more democratic, than at Sadat.
In Egypt many consider, that Mubarak, becoming the witness of attempt at the predecessor, has learnt from this the important lesson: it is better to move forward gradually and to risk only insignificant failures, than to try to supervise over the country in the dictatorial style of Sadat fraught with shocks. Probably, for this reason care, the pragmatism, moderation and a sequence became distinctive features of a political rate at the new president.
Naming Mubarak «embodiment of care», already mentioned Heikal emphasizes, that it «care of the skilled pilot to which before he will lift the plane in top, the exact data on weather, loading and other data » are necessary.
In opinion of one western diplomat, Mubarak, in essence, has remained " the rectilinear commander who gives orders and expects obedience ". But he not the dictator. He first of all the militarian who annoys if his orders are not carried out.
Egyptians in the greater degree, than inhabitants of other countries, appreciate a shade of some greatness in the heads. Therefore many criticize Mubarak for his modest suits, the not refined speech and excessive shyness. They consider, that he has not enough scope of the present statesman.
Anyway, but due to persistence and thin feeling of a step president Mubarak has managed to rally Egypt and to return to it former authority. Arabs could not understand unpredictable of Sadat and did not trust him. Mubarak with his consecutive and realistic foreign line to them it be clear and causes trust. With him want to deal.
Having disseminated the extremely adverse impression made on Arabian world by Sadat, president Mubarak has managed to turn to itself arabs.
Year of 1989 became rotary both for Egypt, and for Mubarak. The president started to play more and more appreciable role on middle East, African and even world stages.
The National hero Egyptians come back of Casablanca Mubarak where there passed the interArabian meeting have met. At this summit the president of Egypt already in the first speech with resoluteness inherent in him has let know, that Cairo is going to provide to itself indisputable leadership in the Arabian world.
Alongside with increase of the prestige abroad, the Egyptian president has strengthened the authority and inside the country.
The Ministry of Educatuon of the Russian Federation
The State University of Humanitarian Sciences
The Department of Foreign Languages
HOSNY MUBARAK – THE PRESIDENT OF EGYPT
The student of the first year
the Department of political studies
Nikolaeva Ekaterina Alekseevna
1. Hosny Mubarak – “Misner Honesty”.
2. Independent fligyt.
In an extreme antiquity the territory of Egypt became a cradle of one of the first in a history of mankind of civilizations. It many times was exposed to invasions of foreign conquerors. In 1882 Egypt was occupied by England, in 1914 is posted by the English protectorate. Formal declaration Egypt as independent kingdom has taken place in 1922. Having imposed to Egypt in 1936 the unequal contract, England continued to occupy a zone of Suez canal. June, 18, 1953 Egypt is proclaimed by republic.
After revolution of 1953 at life of the oustanding figure of the Arabian national-liberation movement of president Nasera in Egypt progressive social and economic transformations were carried out. The antiimperialistic foreign policy, a rate on friendship and widespread cooperation from the USSR and was consistently carried out by other socialist countries.
From the beginning 1970 years внетренняя and the foreign policy of Egypt began to undergo essential changes. Its management led by Садатом began to pursue a policy of " liberalization of economy " and " open doors ", характеризовавшуюся wide encouragement of the private capital and foreign investments. Over a policy of the Egyptian management has prevailed proimperialistic a rate. In result the country experiences sharp sociopolitical and an economic crisis.
In Egypt counteraction to an antinational reactionary rate of a mode amplified on the part of various political forces. Trying to suppress this counteraction, authorities resorted to more and more wide reprisals. It has resulted in an aggravation of conditions in the country. October, 6, 1981 during military parade in Cairo the group of the military men belonging to the Muslim religious organization, accomplishes attempt on Sadat and he was killed.
The New Egyptian management continues to carry out in basically a foreign policy leaning on close cooperation with USA. Inside the country it has cancelled some repressive measures. The significant number of political prisoners is released.
The constitution Working in Egypt is accepted September, 11, 1971. The supreme body of legislature — National assembly.
Many recollect, that in the first years of board Mubarak has taken advantage in the interests of a condition of the general simplification which has come after destruction of Sadat, and the termination of the dramatized performances of the former president. Prudence new heads of the state was perceived faster as the certificate of wisdom, instead of as an attribute of shyness. He typed glasses, making special accent on modesty and focusing mass media on reduction of attention to his person and members of family. Among some other innovations he has sworn himself to limit the speeches till one hour.
Today, as well as within service in the Air Forces, president Mubarak wakes up in five mornings and prepares for breakfast for family. From six up to eight studies reports and messages then leaves for the office.
Till 15-00 — meetings with foreign delegations, meetings with members of the government and experts. Then two school hours sports in club of the Air Forces — gymnastics and «squash» (game reminding tennis). The tightened figure the president can give odds to young people.
In the Evening — continuation of a working day.
For years of board Mubarak has recommended itself, if not as the big statesman, that, at least, as the sincere and reliable Arabian head. Can solve numerous problems of the country, he, nevertheless, uses the best efforts to prevent decline.
The tasks worth today before the president, hard for Egypt is located in region where the extremism represents the usual phenomenon, and the moderate approach — exception.
Hosny Mubarak can make still very much. The only thing, that he should not make is to wait...
1) The directory of “The Country of the world”, 1986.
2) The big encyclopaedic dictionary, 1991.
3) The concise Oxford dictionary of politics, 2001.