Реферат: Обзор экономики Грузии за 2004 год

<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>TBILISI</st1:City>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»>GEORGIA</st1:country-region></st1:place>

Private Sector and Human-resource Development in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>

Author: Lasha Martashvili

E-mail: lmg@bk.ru


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 TOC o «1-3» h z u 1.      Government Policies. PAGEREF _Toc84649293 h 5

<span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka">1.1        <span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka">Government promotion policies of small andmedium size enterprises. PAGEREF _Toc84649294 h 5

1.2        National Investment Agency of Georgia… PAGEREF _Toc84649295 h 5

1.3        Georgian Investment Center. PAGEREF _Toc84649296 h 5

1.2.1     Government’s ExportPromotion Policy. PAGEREF _Toc84649297 h 6

1.2.2     Georgian ExportPromotion Agency (GEPA)PAGEREF _Toc84649298 h 9

1.4        ForeignInvestment Promotion… PAGEREF _Toc84649299 h 14

1.3.1     Government’s Foreign InvestmentPromotion Policy. PAGEREF _Toc84649300 h 14

1.3.2     Foreign Investment Advisory Council (FIAC)PAGEREF _Toc84649301 h 21

1.5        TaxRegime. PAGEREF _Toc84649302 h 23

1.3.3     TaxationSystem and Tax Rates in Georgia. PAGEREF _Toc84649303 h 23

1.3.4     ExistingTaxation Practices. PAGEREF _Toc84649304 h 34

1.3.5     TaxReform Areas. PAGEREF _Toc84649305 h 38

1.6        Legislative Basis for the Operation ofthe Private Companies. PAGEREF _Toc84649306 h 44

1.5.1     Lawof Georgia on Entrepreneurs (LoE) (Corporate Law)PAGEREF _Toc84649307 h 44

1.5.2     Law of Georgia onSecurities Market (SML)PAGEREF _Toc84649308 h 51

1.5.3     Employment Regulations in Georgia. PAGEREF _Toc84649309 h 57

1.5.4     Regulations about Real Estate in Georgia. PAGEREF _Toc84649310 h 59

1.7        The Business Environment in Georgia… PAGEREF _Toc84649311 h 61

1.8        Institutional Arrangements. PAGEREF _Toc84649312 h 64

1.3.1     Securities Industry. PAGEREF _Toc84649313 h 64

2.      Society… PAGEREF _Toc84649314 h 65

<span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka">2.1        <span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka">Poverty issues. PAGEREF _Toc84649315 h 65

3.      Economics. PAGEREF_Toc84649316 h 70

<span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka">3.1        <span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka">Main economic indicators. PAGEREF _Toc84649317 h 70

3.2        <span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka">Agriculture. PAGEREF _Toc84649319 h 77

<span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka">3.3        <span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka">Trade. PAGEREF _Toc84649320 h 104

<span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka">3.4        <span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka">Construction… PAGEREF _Toc84649321 h 106

4.      Business. PAGEREF _Toc84649322 h 110

<span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka">4.1        <span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka">Company Registration and Licensing System… PAGEREF _Toc84649323 h 110

4.1.1     CompanyRegistration System… PAGEREF _Toc84649324 h 110

4.1.2     Company LicensingSystem… PAGEREF _Toc84649325 h 117

<span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka">4.2        <span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka">Local Enterprises. PAGEREF _Toc84649326 h 119

4.1.3     Joint Stock Companies traded at GeorgianStock Exchange. PAGEREF_Toc84649327 h 120

4.1.4     Joint Stock Companies not traded at GeorgianStock Exchange. PAGEREF_Toc84649333 h 132

4.3        <span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka">Human-ResourceDevelopment in the Private Sector. PAGEREF _Toc84649334 h 134

5.      Other Donors’ Activities. PAGEREF _Toc84649336 h 138

5.1        <span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka">TheWorld Bank and IMF. PAGEREF_Toc84649337 h 138

5.1.1     List of the Active World Bank Projects inGeorgia. PAGEREF _Toc84649338 h 138

S – Satisfactory. PAGEREF _Toc84649339 h 138

U — Unsatisfactory. PAGEREF _Toc84649340 h 138

5.1.2     List of the Closed World Bank Projects inGeorgia. PAGEREF _Toc84649341 h 139

5.1.3     Description of the Closed World BankProjects in Georgia. PAGEREF _Toc84649342 h 140

<span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka;text-transform:uppercase">5.1.4     The World Bank and IMF Cooperation inGeorgia. PAGEREF _Toc84649343 h 149

<span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»; text-transform:uppercase">5.1.5     The World Bank Country AssistanceStrategy for Georgia. PAGEREF _Toc84649344 h 154

<span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»; text-transform:uppercase">5.1.6     The World Bank Partners in Georgia. PAGEREF _Toc84649345 h 161

5.2        USAID… PAGEREF _Toc84649346 h 162

5.3        EBRD… PAGEREF _Toc84649347 h 162

5.4        EU… PAGEREF _Toc84649348 h 162

5.5        GTZ… PAGEREF _Toc84649349 h 163

5.6        CIDA… PAGEREF _Toc84649350 h 163

5.7        DFID… PAGEREF _Toc84649351 h 163

<span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»">5.8        <span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»">The Government of theNetherlands. PAGEREF _Toc84649352 h 163

5.9        IFAD… PAGEREF _Toc84649353 h 164

5.10      UNDP. PAGEREF _Toc84649354 h 164

5.11      UNICEF. PAGEREF _Toc84649355 h 164

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(Exchange rate as of <st1:date Month=«2» Day=«1» Year=«2004» w:st=«on»>01 Feb. 2004</st1:date>)

Currency Unit = Georgian Lari (GEL)

1 USD = 2.11 GEL

1.0 GEL = 0.47 USD

Abbreviations and Acronyms


Country Assistance Strategy of the World Bank


Country Financial Accountability Assessment


Commonwealth of Independent States


Country Policy and Institutional Assessment


Department for International Development, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>U.K.</st1:place></st1:country-region>


European Bank for Reconstruction & Development


Economic Dev’t & Poverty Reduction Program


European Union


Food and Agriculture Organization


Foreign Direct Investment


Foreign Investment Advisory Service


Financial Sector Assessment Program


Former <st1:place w:st=«on»>Soviet Union</st1:place>


Fiscal Year


Gross Domestic Product


Georgian Lari


Gross National Product


Government of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>


Georgian Stock Exchange


German Technical Cooperation


International Development Association


Institutional Development Fund


Internally Displaced Persons


International Finance Corporation


International Monetary Fund


The International Organization of Securities Commissions


Joint Stock Company


German Financial Cooperation


Limited Liability Company


Millennium Development Goals


Ministry of Finance


National Bank of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>


Non-Governmental Organization


National Bank of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>


Non-Governmental Organization


Organization For Economic Coop’n & Development


Public Expenditure Review


Purchasing Power Parity


Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility


Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper


Structural Adjustment Credit


Structural Adjustment Technical Assistance Credit


Security and Exchange Commission


Swedish International Development Agency


Social Investment Fund


Small and Medium Enterprises


Structural Reform Support Project


Technical Assistance to the CIS (EU)


United Nations Development Program


United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees


United States Agency for International Development


Value Added Tax


World Trade Organization

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: EN-US;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">
<span Times New Roman",«serif»">1.<span Times New Roman"">   <span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka">Government Policies<span Times New Roman",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka"><span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman Bold»;mso-bidi-font-family:«Times New Roman Bold»; text-transform:none">1.1<span Times New Roman""> <span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka; text-transform:none">Government promotion policies of small and medium sizeenterprises<span Times New Roman Bold",«serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka;text-transform: none"><span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-fareast-font-family:Osaka;mso-bidi-font-family: «Times New Roman»;color:black">


[To be described:] «Small and <st1:place w:st=»on"><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Medium</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Enterprise</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>State</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> Support Program for2002 — 2004 in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>"

[To be described:] Law of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region> «On Promotion of Smalland Medium Enterprises»

1.2<span Times New Roman"">  National Investment Agency of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>

[To be described:] Law of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region> «On NationalInvestment Agency of <st1:country-region w:st=»on"><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>"

[To be described:] Activities of theNational InvestmentAgency of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>

1.3<span Times New Roman"">  <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Georgian</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Investment</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Center</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>

[To be described:] Activities of theGeorgian Investment Centre

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<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">1.2.1<span Times New Roman"">       <span Times New Roman",«serif»">Government’s ExportPromotion Policy<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

Foreign Trade Regimes. Reforms carried out in recent years in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>, including serious legalreforms, are working successfully to create a favourable foreign trade regimein the country. Since 1995 the following major reforms have taken place inGeorgian legislation:

The system of quotas has been eliminated. Products included in the nation's export embargo policy include only works of art and antiques and items of national historical importance. There is no customs duty for exports in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>. A fiscal policy aimed at stimulating exports has been introduced whereby all export goods are free of VAT and excise duty;

Export of goods requiring an exportlicense have been reduced to the following classes:

Collectionsand collectors' pieces of zoological, botanical, mineral, anatomical,historical, archaeological, paleonthological, ethnographic or numismaticinterest (HS — 9705);

Wood and timber(4401, 4403,4404, 4406, 4407);

Seeds of <st1:place w:st=«on»>Caucasus</st1:place>Pine (120999100);

Ferrous and non-ferrousmetal scrap (7204, 7404, 7602).

The system of compulsoryregistrationof foreign trade contracts was eliminated in November 1997.

The establishment of favourable traderegimes with partner countries through bilateral and multilateral agreementshas commenced. During the period 1992 — 1998, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region> signed trade agreementswith 22 countries. Agreements on free trade have been signed with eight CIScountries and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>already has working free trade agreements with <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Russia</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ukraine</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Azerbaijan</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Armenia</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Kazakhstan</st1:place></st1:country-region> and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Turkmenistan</st1:place></st1:country-region>.Currently a multilateral agreement on CIS free trade zone is being enforced.According to these agreements signatories to the agreement need not use customsduties and taxes for exports or imports of the goods originated in theterritory of one party and destined to the territory of the other party.

Furthermore, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>has become a part of several international conventions.

On <st1:date Month=«10» Day=«6» Year=«1999» w:st=«on»>October 6, 1999</st1:date><st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>became a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) which granted <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region> thestatus of the Most Favoured Nation with 135 WTO member countries. Through themechanisms of this organisation, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region> will be protected fromdiscrimination, unfair competition, falsification and unjustified limitations.

In 1996 <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>signed an agreement on partnership and cooperation with the European Unionwhich deals with economic relations in almost every sector. In fact theagreement covers all sectors of the economy.

In 1999 <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>became a member of the Council of Europe with full rights, which will furtherfacilitate trade-economic relations between Georgia and member countries of theEuropean Union.

Many countries have granted to <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>reductions in import customs taxes to their countries, under the General Systemof Preferences. These include the countries of the European Union, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Switzerland</st1:place></st1:country-region>,the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Czech</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Republic</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Slovakia</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Canada</st1:place></st1:country-region> and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region>. This isone of the most important influences on the successful growth of exports for <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>. Theeffective use of facilities such as GSP will substantially promote Georgianexport development.

Law of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>«On Technical Barriers to Trade». The law«On Technical Barriers to Trade» lays down the basis for eliminatingthe technical barriers to trade during the process of the preparation, adoptionand application of the technical regulations, standards and the procedures forthe assessment of conformity.

The national technical regulations andstandards should not create unnecessary obstacles to trade, which will putnational products in favourable conditions. Therefore, the development of thenational technical regulations and standards should be carried out on the basisof a direct use of the international standards.

Georgian legislation did not envisagethe concept of technical regulations. The concept of technical regulations wasdefined by Law of Georgia «On Standardization» adopted in 1999. Thetechnical regulations is a legal act, which defines the technicalspecifications for products or service, which is done directly or by means ofreferring to Georgian standards and requiring that complying with thesestandards is compulsory.

The principles of the state standardsthat are effective in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>envisage the application of the national standards on a compulsory basis fromthe moments of its effectiveness. However, based on the principles that definethe standards as voluntary, the international practice envisages two-stageapproach to making a standard as mandatory requirement: the standard that wasadopted by national body is optional and it may be used by any party, howeverit will become mandatory, if it is defined by:

The legislation;

Such stipulation is indicated in thetechnical regulations;

A producer or supplier of servicesassumed such responsibility by the assessment of conformity.

The first chapterof the present draft law lays down the legal basis for eliminatingthe technical barriers to trade during the process of the preparation, adoptionand application of the technical regulations, standards and the procedures forthe assessment of conformity.

It defines the terms, including«Technical barriers to trade», which in fact is the discrepancy inrequirements from those used at a national level or in international practicewith respect to the technical regulations, standards and the procedures for theassessment of conformity.

It defines the different categories oftechnical regulations, which include:

Legislative acts, the decrees of thePresident of Georgia, which consist of the product requirements;

The national standards, theapplication of which is mandatory;

The agency specific normative actsissued by government bodies, the competency of which, according to thelegislation of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>,includes laying down the mandatory product requirements.

The second chapterdefines the requirements to the content of technical regulations,preparation of technical regulations and procedures for the assessment ofconformity, coordination of the activities related to the development of technical regulations,and recognizing the technical regulations of foreign countries as an equivalentto the national technical regulations.

Chapterthreedefinesthe procedure of applying technical regulations and standards, which includesmaking references to standards in technical regulations, fulfillment ofstandards as a mandatory requirement, fulfillment of standards as a voluntaryrequirement, and the national arrangements for applying the technicalregulations and standards with respect to the national and imported products.

Chapterfourdefinesthe principles of providing information relating to technical barriers totrade. The main emphasis is placed on the Central Information Center ofStandards, the main function of which is the relationship with the World TradeOrganization. The Central Information Center of Standards provides informationabout the technical regulations, standards and the procedures for theassessment of conformity that are already developed or are in the process ofdevelopment. It should carry out the coordination of activities of the centersset up in this field by other government bodies.

Chapterfivedefinesthe authority and responsibility of the National Standardizing Body and othergovernment bodies.

Chaptersixlays downthe principles of the state control and supervision on complying with therequirements of technical regulations, as well as the responsibility forviolating the requirements of the law.

Chaptersevenstatesthat the process of developing technical regulations has to be financed by thestate on a mandatory basis.

Chaptereightcontainsthe provisional clauses, which states that the government bodies should adoptand publish those technical regulations, which envisage complying on amandatory basis with the standards that ensure the quality of products,processes and service, security, protection of human life, protection of thehealth, property and environment. With this respect it will be significant toemploy, whenever developing the technical regulations, the directives issued bythe countries that are members of the European Union.

Chapterninedefinesthe amendments that have to be made into Georgian legislation after this lawbecomes effective.

TheLaw of Georgia «On Technical Barriers to Trade» should initiate thepractical efforts towards the preparation, adoption and application of thetechnical regulations, which will be step forward towards setting up voluntarystandardization system that is one of the attributes of modern marketrelationships.

<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">1.2.2<span Times New Roman"">       <span Times New Roman",«serif»">GeorgianExport Promotion Agency (GEPA)<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

TheGeorgian Export Promotion Agency was set up by the Georgian Government and theEuropean Union's Technical Assistance Programme TACIS with the principal aim ofassisting Georgian companies to increase exports and thus to stimulate animprovement in the country's trade balance. The GEPA was established in April1999. Since then, the German Government's Technical Assistance Programme GTZ(Deutsche Gesellschaftfur TechnischeZusammenarbeitGmbH) has also invested in theagency both in its personnel and in its activities.

GEPAsupports Georgian business interests in the global marketplace, assists inforging business alliances, facilitates establishment of international businessrelationships. GEPA provides comprehensive information on businessopportunities both for Georgian and overseas companies.


<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Export</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Information</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Center</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. GEPA Export Information Centre(EIC) promotes Georgian companies and their products on the global marketplace.It offers the services of two Georgian business information officers and alibrarian who work in cooperation with specialists from EU countries. The EICholds a wide range trade information resources including reference materials,manuals and textbooks on exporting, sector related journals from overseas,CD-ROM and online databases, information on local and foreign markets, traderegulations and has wide access to trade leads databases.

The EIC services include but are not limited to:

Providingmarket information to Georgian exporters

IntroducingGeorgia and Georgian products to companies around the world

Assistingforeign companies in sourcing products in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region>

Offeringonline trade leads both for Georgian exporters and overseas importers

AssistingGeorgian companies in developing an export marketing strategy

OverseasExhibitions and Trade Missions. GEPA is actively involved in preparing overseas business visits forGeorgian business groups to meet with new trading partners; we also prepare andpart finance Georgian sectors' participation at international exhibitions. Manyforeign delegations, commercial and governmental, pay a visit to our agencyduring their visits to <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Tbilisi</st1:place></st1:City>.Study tours for sectors with potential have been organized to <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Canada</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>UK</st1:place></st1:country-region> and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Germany</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

With financial assistance from the German government's technical assistanceprogramme, GTZ, GEPA part-finance participation of Georgian exporters inoverseas trade shows/exhibitions. GEPA/GTZ have already assisted companies totake part in exhibitions in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Germany</st1:place></st1:country-region>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>France</st1:place></st1:country-region>,<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Italy</st1:place></st1:country-region>and the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Middle East</st1:place>.

Conditions for participation are that export products must be of exportquality, prices examined by German specialists and a group of a minimum ofthree producers from one sector participates in each exhibition.

<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Training</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Center</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>. GEPA offers a wide range of exporttraining courses to Georgian businessmen, civil servants, and commercial banks,on subjects ranging from export pricing to utilizing e-commerce in exporting.All courses are taught by international and Georgian specialists in their givenfields of specialization.

A newTraining Programme that Georgian Export Promotion Agency offers to Georgiancompanies differs considerably from the Programme already conducted by GEPAwithin the framework of previous TACIS project. It includes an In-CompanyTraining that is designed to meet the training needs of companies participatingin GEPA's Export Development Program.

Customized programs have been developed for specific companies to increase theprofessional skills of company managers and staff and thereby help them improvetheir export activities. In-company training is considered as part of theconsultancy service provided by GEPA to existing exporters and to companieswith the potential to export. Format and content of training depends onbusiness features of individual companies. Mostly practical exercises and casestudies have been used to achieve the best results.

Alongside in-company training, GEPA continues to offer general training inExport Marketing, Export Promotion, Strategic Business Planning etc.

GEPA hopes that new arrangements run in the field of training, will be of realassistance to Georgian companies in enhancing their export marketing activitiesand in achieving increased export orders.<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">

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Publications. GEPA staff prepares a variety ofpublications for both Georgian exporters and overseas companies. Thesepublications include Export Newsletter, Market Briefs, Fact Sheets and theDirectory of Georgian Exporters. Recently a brochure on Georgian viticultureand winemaking was prepared in corporation with the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Institute</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Viticulture</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>.

ExportNewsletter.Export Newsletter is available both in print and electronic formats on ourwebsite. It is circulated to Georgian companies and internationalorganizations. It includes information on opportunities outside <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Georgia</st1:place></st1:country-region> forexporters, case studies on successful Georgian and foreign companies and anupdate on any changes in Georgian, and foreign legislation, which may affectexporters. It also advises of forthcoming exhibitions and incoming buyingmissions from overseas.

MarketBriefs. MarketBriefs are prepared in Georgian and are available for Georgian companiesinterested in specific industries and markets. Market briefs prepared to dateare as follows:<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">

1.<span Times New Roman"">     

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>UK</st1:place></st1:country-region>Wine Market

2.<span Times New Roman"">     

Pipes' Market in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Italy</st1:place></st1:country-region>

3.<span Times New Roman"">     

Organic Food market in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Germany</st1:place></st1:country-region>

4.<span Times New Roman"">     

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>UK</st1:place></st1:country-region>Nuts Market

5.<span Times New Roman"">     

Timber Market in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Germany</st1:place></st1:country-region>

6.<span Times New Roman"">     

UK Tea market

7.<span Times New Roman"">     

Intellectual Property — overview

8.<span Times New Roman"">     

EU Fertilizer Market

9.<span Times New Roman"">     

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>USA</st1:place></st1:country-region>and EU Markets for Essential Oils

10.<span Times New Roman""> 

Wine Market in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region>

11.<span Times New Roman""> 

Mineral Waters in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region>

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Sample Market Brief: WineMarket in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region><span Verdana",«sans-serif»; text-transform:none"><table cellspacing=«0» cellpadding=«0» "> <table cellspacing=«1» cellpadding=«0» ">

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»; color:white">Wine Market in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region>

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<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">1.

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Market Overview

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">1.1

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Market conditions

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">1.2

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Trends in local production

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">1.3

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Wine imports

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">1.4

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Consumption trends

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">2.

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Import regulations

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">2.1

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Import restrictions and application procedures

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">2.2

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Labelling requirements

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">2.3

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Tariff rates

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">3.

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Distribution Channels

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">4.

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Consumption trends

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">4.1

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Prices

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">4.2

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Wine categories

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">4.3

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Japanese consumption traditions

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">5.

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Market Entry

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">5.1

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Entering Japanese market

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">5.2

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Wine sales promotion strategies

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">6.

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Annexes

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Sample Market Briefs: MineralWaters in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region><span Verdana",«sans-serif»"> <table cellspacing=«0» cellpadding=«0» "> <table cellspacing=«1» cellpadding=«0» ">

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»; color:white">Mineral Waters in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region>

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">1.

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Market Overview

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">1.1

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Supply Trend

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">1.2

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Import Trend

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">2.

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Import System and Regulations

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">2.1

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Imports Regulated by Food Sanitation Law

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">2.2

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Tariff rates

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">2.3

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Classification of Mineral Water

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">2.4

<span Verdana",«sans-serif»">Labelling requirement and a labelling