Реферат: История рок музыки в Великобритании

Федеральное агентство пообразованию Российской Федерации

Новгородскийгосударственный университет  им. ЯрославаМудрого


Rock music in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>



Студент группы1262

ИвановЯ. О.


Александрова Г.П.

В. Новгород

2006 г.

History of British music

Littlesurvives of the early music of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>,by which is meant the music that was used by the people before theestablishment of musical notation in the medieval period. Much that survives offolk music must have had its origins in this period, although the melodiesplayed by morris dancers and other traditional groupscan also be from a later period.

Some of theearliest music to remain is either church music, or else is in the form ofcarols or ballads dating from the 16th century or earlier. Troubadorscarried an international courtly style across western Europe. It was common intimes before copyright for melodies to be interchangeable, and the samemelodies will often have been used (with differing words) for secular andreligious purposes. Melodies like that of the Sussex Carol or Greensleeves will have had a long history of eclectic useover the centuries.

During the15th century, a vigorous tradition of polyphony developed in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>, asexemplified in the music of composers such as LeonelPower, John Dunstable and Robert Fayrfax.The music of this school was famous on the continent, and occasionally rivaledthe music of the contemporary Burgundian school inexpressiveness and renown; indeed Dunstable is recognizedas one of the strongest influences on the early development of the music of theBurgundians. Unfortunately, however, the vastmajority of British music manuscripts from this period were destroyed duringthe Dissolution of the Monasteries carried out by Henry VIII in the late 1530s;only a few isolated survivals remain, including the Old Hall Manuscript, theEton Choirbook, the Winchester Troper,and a handful of scattered sources from the continent.

16th to 17th Centuries

With thegrowth in wealth and leisure-time for the noble classes, tastes in music beganto diverge sharply. While in the early part of the period it is possible fortavern songs like Pastime with Good Companie to beattributed (apocryphally) to King Henry VIII, by the middle 16th Century therewere distinct styles of music enjoyed by the differing social classes.Renaissance influences made the acquisition of musical knowledge an almostessential attribute for the nobleman and woman, and ability to play aninstrument became an almost mandatory social grace.

The Rennaisance influence also internationalized courtly musicin terms of both instruments and content, the lute dulcimer and early forms ofthe harpsichord were played, ballads and madrigals were sung. The pavane and galliard were danced. Henry Purcell became courtcomposer to King Charles II and wrote incidental music to plays and events.

For otherclasses instruments like pipe, tabor, bagpipe shawm, hurdygurdy and crumhorn accompanied folk music andcommunity dance. The fiddle gradually grew in popularity. Differing regionalstyles of folk music developed, in geographically separated areas such as <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Northumbria</st1:place></st1:country-region>,<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City> and theWest Country.

<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>British</st1:PlaceName><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Madrigal</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>School</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>

From about1588 to 1627, a group of composers known as the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>British</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Madrigal</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>School</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> became well-knownin <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>and abroad. These madrigalists composed light acappella songs for three to six voices, based on Italian models. The Schoolbegan when Nicholas Yonge published Musica transalpina in 1588, usingpoetic forms like the sonnet and inspired by the work of Alfonso Ferrabosco, an Italian composer in Elizabeth I's court.

18th Century

As courtlymusic grew more elaborate and internationalised, withcomposers such as Handel and Mozart, writing operas, oratorios and symphonicworks, an British musician called John Gay produced The Beggar's Opera, arevolutionary popular opera which used British folk forms.

19th Century

With theIndustrial Revolution came a parallel revolution in British popular music aspeople moved from stable agrarian communities into the growing industrial centres with the rise of the brass band in the North of Britain.Folk Music went through a rapid series of transformations as different regionalidioms came together and reformed themselves into the first universallyacceptable and commercial popular music. This change began first in thealehouses and later in what became known as the Music Hall. Music Hall becamethe dominant form of British popular music for over a century from its birth inthe 1850s. While folk music continued to enjoy popularity in the countryside,it was replaced for the majority by the new forms.

Early 20th Century

Edward Elgar was the dominant classical composer of the early partof the century. British tastes also tended towards light classical composerssuch as Edward German, Ketelbey and Eric Coates,whose music was spread by the new medium of Radio.

Radio alsoplayed a part in the increasing popularity of big band dance music, popularised by the orchestras of Geraldo, Ambrose, HenryHall and Billy Cotton, and singers like Al Bowlly,and Jack Buchanan.

Operetta andMusical Comedy were very popular forms in this period, and leading Britishcomposers included Ivor Novello,Noel Coward, and Noel Gay.

Popularsingers in the Music Hall idiom included, Marie Lloyd, VestaTilley, George Formby, Flanagan and Allen and Gracie Fields. With the advent ofWorld War II the taste for a more reflective and romantic style of music wasled by singers like Anne Shelton and Vera Lynn.

The Fifties

A significantfactor in the early growth of folk clubs was Topic Records. A.L. Lloyd wrotemany of the sleeve notes for the records for the next 20 years and sang onseveral of their albums. Ewan MacColltoured widely in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>,and recorded many of the Child Ballads. Collets records in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City> was the best shop to find folk recordsand magazines. From the mid-fifties skiffle and Rockand Roll songs began to be home-produced by British performers.

The modern period

In the 60s and70s, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>was in a state of social upheaval as a counterculture developed, from whichcame an explosion of American blues-derived musical innovation as well as arevival of British folk, inspired by pioneering artists like the Copper family.There was mixing between the two groups, with bands like Fairport Conventionand Steeleye Span pioneering a folk-rock fusion. Nic Jones, Davy Graham, Roy Harper, Ralph McTell, June Tabor, Shirley Collins, John Renbourn and John Kirkpatrick were among those who balancedinnovation with tradition, and criticized the worst excesses of folk-rock. WhenMartin Carthy «plugged in» in 1971, the Britishtraditional scene erupted in an uproar of criticizing. Ashley Hutchings andDave Pegg had been earlier innovators of the fusion,and Hutchings helped propel Fairport Convention into the star position of the Britishfolk-rock scene, starting with the album «What We Did On OurHolidays».

The seventieswere probably the heydays for Folk Music Publications. The popularity of Britishfolk declined in the later 1970s, however, losing ground to glam rock, disco,punk rock, heavy metal and lovers rock. In the mid-1980s a new rebirth began,this time fusing folk forms with energy and political aggression derived frompunk rock. Leaders included The Men They Couldn't Hang, Oyster Band, BillyBragg and The Pogues. Folk-dance music also becamepopular in the 80s, with the British Country Blues Band and Tiger Moth. Laterin the decade, reggae influenced British country music due to the work ofEdward II & the Red Hot Polkas, especially on their seminal Let's Polkasteady from 1987. In the 21st century, <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Oxford</st1:place></st1:City> produced a youngduo Spiers and Boden

Northumbrian folk

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Northumbria</st1:place></st1:country-region>, at the northern edge of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>,bordering on <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Scotland</st1:place></st1:country-region>across the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Tweed</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>River</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> has the most vital traditionalmusic of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>,with a strong scene and some mainstream success. Many of the most populartraditional songs of today were written by legendary composers like TommyArmstrong in the late 19th century. In contrast to the rest of <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Northumbria</st1:place></st1:country-region>shows a strong Irish Celtic influence in the music, the result of immigration.Accordions and fiddles, for example, remain popular as a lasting influence from<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Ireland</st1:place></st1:country-region>.

<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Northumbria</st1:place></st1:country-region>is known for its longhistory of border ballads, such as «The Ballad of Chevy Chase» anddances, including social ones like the Elsdon Reeland others, like rapper dancing and Northumbrian clog dancing, more typicallyseen in concert halls.


Northumbrianfolk is most characterized by the use of Northumbrian smallpipesas well as a strong Scottish and Celtic influence. Northumbrian pipes are smalland elbow-driven and the music is traditionally very swift and rhythmic.Another distinct form of Northumbrian pipe is called the «half-long»or «border» pipe. Perhaps the most important of the old masters ofthe pipes is Billy Pigg. Drawing on these pioneers, popularizers like Louis Killen, The High Level Ranters and Bob Davenport brought Northumbrian folk tointernational audiences, while Jack the Lad, Hedgehog Pie and <st1:place w:st=«on»>Lindisfarne</st1:place> used regional sources forfolk-rock fusions.

Northumbrianpipe music has seen a recent revival due to the touring of artists like KathrynTickell.

West Country

The WestCountry is most noted for its Scrumpy and Westernmusic, much of it fusing comical folk-style songs with affectionate parodies ofmore mainstream musical genres, delivered in the local West Country dialects.

Sea shanties

Sea shantiesare a form of work song traditionally sung by sailors working on the rigging ofships. There are several types, divided based on the type of work they set therhythmic base for. For example:

  * short haul shanties: for quicks pulls over a short time

  * capstan shanties: for repetitive, longertasks that require a sustained rhythm

  *halyard shanties: for heavier work that require more time between pulls to setup


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History of British Rock Music

Chuck Berryinvented rock and roll in 1955. <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Berry</st1:place></st1:State>was a black man playing black music. But times had changed: white kids werelistening to rhythm and blues throughout the Northeast, and white musicianswere playing rhythm and blues side to side with country music. The musicindustry soon understood that there was a white market for black music andsocial prejudice, racial barriers, could nothing against the forces ofcapitalism. Rock and roll was an overnight success. The music industry promotedwhite idols such as Elvis Presley, but the real heroes were the likes of ChuckBerry, who better symbolize the synergy between the performer and the audience.The black rockers, and a few white rockers, epitomized the youth's rebelliousmood, their need for a soundtrack to their dreams of anticonformism.Their impact was long lasting, but their careers were short lived. For onereason or another, they all stopped recording after a brief time. Rock and rollwas inherited by white singers, such as Presley, who often performed songscomposed by obscure black musicians. White rockers became gentler and gentler,thereby drowning rock and roll's very reason to exist. Buddy Holly was theforemost white rocker of the late Fifties, while cross-pollination with countrymusic led to the vocal harmonies of the EverlyBrothers and to the instrumental rock of Duan Eddy.

The kids'malaise returned, with a much taller wave, when folksingers started singingabout the problems of the system. Kids who had not identified with WoodyGuthrie's stories of poor people, identified immediately with folksingerssinging about the Vietnam war and civil rights. Bob Dylan was arguably the mostinfluential musician of the era. He led the charge against the Establishmentwith simple songs and poetic lyrics. A generation believed in him and followedhis dreams. Music became the expression of youth's ambitions.

At the sametime, the story of commercial rock music took a bizarre turn when it hit thecoast of <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>California</st1:place></st1:State>:the Beach Boys invented surf music. Surf music was just rock and roll music,but with a spin: very sophisticated vocal harmonies. <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>California</st1:place></st1:State> had its own ideas about what rockand roll should be: a music for having fun at the beaches and at the parties.The Beach Boys' vocal harmonies, a natural bridge between rockers and doo-wop,turned out to be a fantastic delivery vehicle for the melodic aspect of rockand roll, that black musicians usually buried in their emphatic shouting.

The times wereripe for change, but a catalyst was still needed.

«Mersey-beat»changed the story of rock music forever. Mersey-beat came out of nowhere, butit came with the power of history. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region> had had a lousy music scenethroughout the early Sixties. Mainly, British rockers were mimicking Presley.Mainstream <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>did not identify with rock and roll, was not amused by their «rebel»attitudes, did not enjoy their frenzy rhythm. To a large extent, though, theseeds had already been planted. <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>had an underground before <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>America</st1:place></st1:country-region>did: the blues clubs. Throughout the Fifties, blues clubs flourished all over <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>. <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City> was the epicenter,but every major British city had its own doses of weekly blues. Unlike theirrock counterparts, who were mere imitators, the British blues musicians weretrue innovators: in their hands, blues became something else. They subjectedblues to a metamorphosis that turned it into a «white» music: theyemphasized the epic refrains of the call and response, they sped up <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Chicago</st1:place></st1:City>'s rhythm guitars,they smoothed down the vocal delivery to make it sound more operatic, theyflexed the choruses, enhanced the organ arrangements, added vocal harmony. In afew years, British blues musicians were playing something that was as deeplyfelt as the American blues, but had a driving power that no other music onEarth had.

In the earlySixties veterans of that scene, or disciples of that scene, led to theformation of bands such as the Rolling Stones, the Yardbirdsand the Animals. The Rolling Stones became «the» sensation in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>London</st1:place></st1:City> and went on torecord the most successful singles of the era. The Yardbirdswere the most experimental of them all, and became the training ground for threeof the greatest guitarists ever: Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck and Jimi Page. From their ashes two blues bands were born, theCream and the Led Zeppelin, that in a few years will revolutionize rock musicagain.

<st1:place w:st=«on»>Liverpool</st1:place>did not have a great underground scene but had a morecommercial brand of rock bands. The producer George Martin was instrumental increating the whole phenomenon, with both Gerry And The Pacemakers and theBeatles, the band that went on to achieve world-wide success. The smiling facesof the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Liverpool</st1:place> kids were in stark contrastwith the underground club's angry blues animals. But the two complemented eachother. "Beatlemania" stole the momentumfrom the blues scene and understood how to turn that music into a mass-mediaattraction. Rock music as a major business was born.

The mostinfluential bands of the second generation were the Kinks and the Who. Bothwent on to record concept albums and «rock operas» that paraphrasedthe British operetta at the sound of rock music. While Kinks were stillproponents of melodic rock, the Who's manically amplified guitars were alreadypointing towards a noisier and less gentle future. The Rolling Stones, theKinks and the Who represent the triad of British rock bands of the mid 1960sthat would influence entire generations of rock bands for decades. The Who werecomposing autobiographical songs of the angry and frustrated urban youth. TheRolling Stones were composing autobiographical songs of the decadent punks ofthe working class. The Kinks were composing realistic vignettes of ordinarylife in bourgeois <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>.The three together provide a complete picture of the time.

Cream and LedZeppelin upped the ante when they started playing very loud blues. Cream'slengthy solos and Led Zeppelin's fast riffs created the epitome of «hardrock».

The impact ofBritish electricity on the American scene was equivalent to an earthquake. Kidsembraced electric guitars in every garage of the <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>United States</st1:place></st1:country-region> and started playingblues music with a vengeance.

On the East Coastit was Dylan again who led the charge. His first electric performances were metwith disappointment by his fans, but soon «folk-rock» boomed with thehits of the Byrds and Simon And Garfunkel.

Thepsychedelic movement that had been growing across the country somehow mergedwith the wave of electric rockers and the protest movement. They became oneboth in <st1:State w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>New York</st1:place></st1:State>and in <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>San Francisco</st1:place></st1:City>.The Velvet Underground and the Fugs turned rock androll into an intellectual operation.

          In <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>,rock music took more of a European feel with the underground movement that wasborn out of psychedelic clubs. <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Canterbury</st1:place></st1:City>became the center of the most experimental school of rock music. The SoftMachine were the most important band of the period, lending rock music a jazzflavor that would inspire «progressive-rock». Among the eccentric andcreative musicians that grew up in the Soft Machine were Robert Wyatt, David Aellen, and Kevin Ayers. Their legacy can be seen in later <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Canterbury</st1:place></st1:City> bands such asHenry Cow, no less creative and improvisational.

Progressive-rocktook away rock's energy and replaced it with a brain. Traffic, Jethro Tull, Family and later Roxy Music developed a brand of soul-rock that had littlein common with soul or rock and roll: long, convoluted jams, jazz accents, andbaroque arrangements derailed the song format. King Crimson, Colosseum, Van Der Graaf Generator, early Genesis, Yes and started playingever more complex, theatrical and hermetic pieces. Arrangements became more andmore complex, insturmentalists become more and moreskilled. Electronic instruments were employed frequently. BonzoDog Doo Dah Band, Third EarBand and Hawkwind created genres that at the time hadno name (decadent cabaret, world-music and psychedelic hard rock).

The paradigmsoon spilled into continental <st1:place w:st=«on»>Europe</st1:place>, thatgave its first major rock acts: Magma, Art Zoyd, Univers Zero.

Even <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>'sfolksingers sounded more like French intellectuals than oldfashionedstorytellers. The folk revival of the Sixties was mainly the creation of afistful of three collectives: the Pentangle, the Fairport Convention and theIncredible String Band. But around them singer songwriters like Donovan, CatStevens, Nick Drake, John Martyn, Syd Barrett and Van Morrison established new standards formusical expression of intimate themes.

The 1960s werethe «classic» age of rock music. The main sub-genres were defined inthe 1960s. The paradigm of rock music as the «alternative» tocommercial pop music was established in the 1960s. Wild experimentation alloweds rock musicians to explore a range of musicalstyles that few musicians had attempted before 1966. Captain Beefheart and the Velvet Underground also created adifferent kind of rock music within rock music, a different paradigm within thenew paradigm, one that will influence alternative musicians for decades. Morethan musical giants like Bob Dylan and Jimi Hendrix,humble musicians like Captain Beefheart, the VelvetUnderground and the Red Crayola may be the trueheroes of the 1960s.

          In <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>,the early Seventies saw the proliferation of hard rock and progressive-rock andtheir branching into several sub-genres. British musicians gave rock and rollan «intellectual» quality that made it the cultural peer of Europeancinema and literature. British rock was dragged down by the same stagnationthat afflicted American rock. The momentum for innovation was rapidly lost andthe new genres created by British musicians either languished or mutated intocommercial phenomena. Musical decadence led to decadence-rock, personified bydandies David Bowie and Marc Bolan. Eccentricremnants of progressive-rock such as Robert Fripp andPeter Gabriel started avantgarde careers that were tolead to an expanded notion of rock music. New musicians such as Kate Bush andMike Oldfield helped liberate rock music from theclassification in genres and opened the road to more abstract music. But thesingle most influential musician was Brian Eno, whofirst led Roxy Music to innovate progressive-rock andthen invented ambient music.

          Later in Britain first came industrial music, invented byThrobbing Gristle as a hybrid of avantgarde and rockmusic, and then dark-punk, whose main proponents were Joy Division, Siouxsie Sioux, Public Image Ltd, the Cure, the KillingJoke, the Sisters Of Mercy.

          In early 80s <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region> chose a different course,almost in the opposite direction, towards simpler and more commercial music. Itall started with the modernist sounds of Ultravox,Wire and XTC, and their vaguely robotic melodies. Then <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Japan</st1:place></st1:country-region> andSimple Minds turned that sound into pompous pop songs. And finally Orchestral Manouvres in the Dark and others created synth-pop, that typically was pop played on electronicinstruments and sung by a female or gay singer (with a few notable exceptions).The Depeche Mode and the Pet Shop Boys were probablythe most artistically successful of the many that climbed the charts. The IrishU2 and the Smiths turned sharply towards melody.

          In 90s <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>was the place for psychedelic music. It started with the Liverpool revival ofEcho And The Bunnymen and Julian Cope, then it pickedup speed with dream-pop (Cocteau Twins, the Australian Dead Can Dance, theNorwegian Bel Canto, and later the formidable triadof Slowdive, Bark Psychosis and Tindersticks)and with the Scottish noise-pop bands (Jesus And Mary Chain and Primal Scream )and finally reached a climax with the shoegazers (MyBloody Valentine, Spacemen 3, Loop, Spiritualized, Catherine Wheel), beforefolding into a new form of ambient music.

By the end ofthe decade, <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>was awash in Brit-pop, a media-induced trance of super-melodic pop that spawnedcountless «next big things», from Verve to Oasis to Blur to Suede to Radiohead, the band that finally disposed of it. But thebest in the melodic genre came from humbler groups, led by girls, likePrimitives and Heavenly.

The 1990s werealso the decade of heavy metal, that peaked in Los Angeles with Metallica, Jane's Addiction, Guns And Roses, and that soonsplit into a myriad subgenres (doom metal, grind-core, death metal, etc) andfunk-metal (Red Hot Chili Peppers and Rage Against The Machine in Los Angeles,Primus and Faith No More in San Francisco). Marilyn Manson was the latephenomenon that recharged the genre.

The Ninetieswere the age of electronic music, whether in dance, ambient or noise format.Electronic musicians and ensembles spread to <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Belgium</st1:place></st1:country-region> (VidnaObmana), France (Air, <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Deep</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Forest</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>,Lightwave), <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Germany</st1:place></st1:country-region> (<st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:City w:st=«on»>Sven Vath</st1:City>, <st1:State w:st=«on»>Mo</st1:State></st1:place>Boma, Oval, Mouse On Mars, Air Liquide),<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Canada</st1:place></st1:country-region>(Skinny Puppy, Front Line Assembly, Delerium, VampireRodents, Trance Mission), <st1:place w:st=«on»>Scandinavia</st1:place>, andespecially Japan (Zeni Geva,Boredoms, Merzbow, the triad of noise). <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>'srevitalized ambient scene yielded Orb, <st1:place w:st=«on»>Main</st1:place>, Rapoon, Autechre.

Britain'sdance music was far more successful (creatively speaking) than its rock bands: Madchester (Stone Roses), rave (Saint Etienne), transglobal dance (Banco De Gaia,Loop Guru, Transglobal Underground, TUU) ambienthouse (Orbital, Future Sound Of London, Aphex Twins, Mu-ziq), jungle (Goldie, Squarepusher,Propellerheads), trip-hop (Portishead,Tricky), and plain techno (Meat Beat Manifesto, Prodigy, Chemical Brothers)artists redefined compositional processes and cross-bred countless genres.

Industrialmusic and grindcore somehow merged and spawnedterrifying sounds in the albums of Techno Animal and Godflesh.

The IrishCranberries and the Scottish Belle And Sebastian are among the revelations ofthe end of the decade.

          Of course, it is impossible to mention all the bands andbranches of rock, but we tried to mention the brightest ones. Rock musiccontinues its developing and nowadays almost every band merges rock with someother genres and classification is getting impossible and now based onsimilarity between band’s style and existing branch of rock. In this work wetried to avoid mentioning such brunches as “hardcore”, “hardcore metal”, “deathmetal” etc. because links between above mentioned branches and its parentbranch is very transparent.

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Irwin, Colin. "<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>'s Changing Roots". <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«2000. In» w:st=«on»>2000. In</st1:metricconverter> Broughton, Simonand Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie, James andDuane, Orla (Ed.), World Music, Vol. 1: <st1:place w:st=«on»>Africa</st1:place>, <st1:place w:st=«on»>Europe</st1:place> and the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Middle East</st1:place>, pp 64-82. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books.

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Mathieson, Kenny. "<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Wales</st1:place></st1:country-region>, <st1:place w:st=«on»>Isle of Man</st1:place> and <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Britain</st1:place></st1:country-region>". <st1:metricconverter ProductID=«2001. In» w:st=«on»>2001. In</st1:metricconverter> Mathieson, Kenny (Ed.), Celtic music, pp. 88-95. BackbeatBooks.

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