Реферат: History of 'The Beatles' and biographies of members in english

The Beatles


So much has been said and written about theBeatles — and their story is so mythic in its sweep — that it's difficult tosummarize their career without restating cliches that have already beendigested by tens of millions of rock fans. To start with the obvious, they werethe greatest and most influential act of the rock era, and introduced moreinnovations into popular music than any other rock band of the 20th century.Moreover, they were among the few artists of any discipline that weresimultaneously the best at what they did, and the most popular at what theydid. Relentlessly imaginative and experimental, the Beatles grabbed ahold ofthe international mass consciousness in 1964 and never let go for the next sixyears, always staying ahead of the pack in terms of creativity, but neverlosing their ability to communicate their increasingly sophisticated ideas to amass audience. Their supremacy as rock icons remains unchallenged to this day,decades after their breakup in 1970.<img src="/cache/referats/21013/image001.jpg" align=«right» v:shapes="_x0000_s1026">

            Even when couching praise inspecific terms, it's hard to convey the scope of the Beatles' achievements in amere paragraph or two. They synthesized all that was good about early rock& roll, and changed it into something original and even more exciting. Theyestablished the prototype for the self-contained rock group that wrote andperformed their own material. As composers, their craft and melodicinventiveness were second to none, and key to the evolution of rock from itsblues/R&B-based forms into a style that was far more eclectic, but equallyvisceral. As singers, both John Lennon and Paul McCartney were among the bestand most expressive vocalists in rock; the group's harmonies were intricate andexhilarating. As performers, they were (at least until touring had ground themdown) exciting and photogenic; when they retreated into the studio, they wereinstrumental in pioneering advanced techniques and multi-layered arrangements.They were also the first British rock group to achieve worldwide prominence,launching a British Invasion that made rock truly an international phenomenon.

More than any other top group, the Beatles'success was very much a case of the sum being greater than the parts. Their phenomenalcohesion was due in large degree to most of the group having known each otherand played together in Liverpool for about five years before they began to havehit records.

Organization of ‘The Beatles’

Guitarist and teenage rebel John Lennon gothooked on rock 'n' roll in the mid-1950s, and formed a band, the Quarrymen, athis high school. Around mid-1957, the Quarrymen were joined by anotherguitarist, Paul McCartney, nearly two years Lennon's junior. A bit later theywere joined by another guitarist, George Harrison, a friend of McCartney's. TheQuarrymen would change lineups constantly in the late '50s, eventually reducingto the core trio of guitarists, who'd proven themselves to be the bestmusicians and most personally compatible individuals within the band.

The Quarrymen changed their name to the SilverBeatles in 1960, quickly dropping the «Silver» to become just theBeatles. Lennon's art college friend Stuart Sutcliffe joined on bass, butfinding a permanent drummer was a vexing problem until Pete Best joined in thesummer of 1960. He successfully auditioned for the combo just before they leftfor a several-month stint in Hamburg, Germany.

Hamburg was the Beatles' baptism by fire.Playing grueling sessions for hours on end in one of the most notoriousred-light districts in the world, the group were forced to expand theirrepertoire, tighten up their chops, and invest their show with enough manicenergy to keep the rowdy crowds satisfied. When they returned to Liverpool atthe end of 1960, the band — formerly also-rans on the exploding Liverpudlian«beat» scene — were suddenly the most exciting act on the localcircuit. They consolidated their following in 1961 with constant gigging in theMerseyside area, most often at the legendary Cavern Club, the incubator of theMerseybeat sound.

They also returned for engagements in Hamburgduring 1961, although Sutcliffe dropped out of the band that year toconcentrate on his art school studies there. McCartney took over on bass,Harrison settled in as lead guitarist, and Lennon had rhythm guitar; everyonesang. In mid-1961 the Beatles (minus Sutcliffe) made their first recordings inGermany, as a backup group to a British rock guitarist-singer based in Hamburg,Tony Sheridan. The Beatles hadn't fully developed at this point, and theserecordings — many of which (including a couple of Sheridan-less tracks) wereissued only after the band's rise to fame — found their talents in a mostembryonic state. The Hamburg stint was also notable for gaining the Beatlessophisticated, artistic fans such as Sutcliffe's girlfriend, Astrid Kirchherr,who influenced all of them (except Best) to restyle their quiffs in the moptopsthat gave the musicians their most distinctive visual trademark. (Sutcliffe,tragically, would die of a brain hemorrhage in April 1962).

Near the end of 1961, the Beatles' explodinglocal popularity caught the attention of local record store manager BrianEpstein, who was soon managing the band as well. He used his contacts toswiftly acquire a January 1, 1962 audition at Decca Records that has beenheavily bootlegged (some tracks were officially released in 1995). After weeksof deliberation, Decca turned them down, as did several other British labels.Epstein's perseverance was finally rewarded with an audition for producerGeorge Martin at Parlophone, an EMI subsidiary; Martin signed the Beatles inmid-1962. By this time Epstein was assiduously grooming his charges fornational success by influencing them to smarten up their appearance, dispensingwith their leather jackets and trousers in favor of tailored suits and ties.

One more major change was in the offing beforethe Beatles made their Parlophone debut. In August 1962, drummer Pete Best waskicked out of the group, a controversial decision that has been the cause ofmuch speculation since. There is still no solid consensus as to whether it wasbecause of his solitary, moody nature, the other Beatles' jealousy of hispopularity with the fans, his musical shortcomings (George Martin had alreadytold Epstein that Best wasn't good enough to drum on recordings), or hisrefusal to wear his hair in bangs. What seems most likely was that the Beatlessimply found his personality incompatible, preferring to enlist Ringo Starr(born Richard Starkey), drummer with another popular Merseyside outfit, RoryStorm and the Hurricanes. Starr had been in the Beatles for a few weeks whenthey recorded their first single, «Love Me Do»/«P.S. I LoveYou,» in September 1962. Both sides of the 45 were Lennon-McCartneyoriginals, and the songwriting team would be credited with most of the group'smaterial throughout the Beatles' career.

With Ringo Starr’s joining was formed finalstaff of the group.

Biographies of the members


            John Lennon was born on October 9,1940 in Liverpool, England, to Alfred Lennonand Julia Stanley Lennon. His fullname was John Winston Ono Lennon. Early in his life he suffered the loss ofboth his parents, when his father left the family to become a seaman, and hismother, unable to care for a child on her own, decided to leave him in thehands of his aunt, Mimi. This early feeling of abandonment was to mark John forthe rest of his life, and his fear of rejection can be heard in his lyrics,from his early work with The Beatles, all the way up to his pleading 1970'strack «Mother. (John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band).

           With his aunt, Lennon experienceda quiet and undisturbed working class upbringing, that left him with many happymemories. Some of thesewould later result in some of his best work .(Strawberryfields forever, the masterpiece single released before Sgt. Pepper was basedupon his childhood recollections of happiness). Ever since his early childhoodhis artistic side found a way up to the surface of his personality and younglennon began to express himself through sketches and artwork.   A few  of his teachers were impressed with his work, and suggested TheLiverpool art school for the boy.  Although John Lennon was (even by hisown admission) a „child genious“, he decided for this option, over aregular academic schedule.   During this period, at fifteen years of age,John met Paul Mc Cartney, at a Wooton Parish Garden Fete.The result of theirconjoined musical talents was a band called „The Quarrymen“, namedafter Quarry Banks, the school that they attended. Years later this band wouldbecome the greatest musical influence of recent recording history, and woulddefine an entire generation. This would be under another name, though:: TheBeatles.

  <img src=»/cache/referats/21013/image002.jpg" align=«right» v:shapes="_x0000_s1027">         At age 18, John's lifeunderwent a drastic change, when, shortly after having reunited with his son,Julia Stanley Lennon, died. She was  hit by a bus driven by an off -dutypoliceman in Liverpool. Lennon never fully recovered from the loss of hismother, and he continued to seek for her love in most of the women he met,finally finding comfort in the person of Yoko Ono, many years later. In themeantime, he met a fellow student, Cynthia Powell, and in spite of their manydifferences, they soon became romantically involved. In 1959, he left his natalLiverpool for Hamburg, Germany, along with Paul Mc Cartney, guitarist GeorgeHarrison, longtime friend Stuart Stucliffe and drummer Pete Best. Theirobjective was to have a shot at fame and fortune in Hamburg's music scene. Itwas during this trip that he and his fellow bandmates met Astrid Kilcher andKlaus Voorman; she, a visionary photographer who would document The Beatles'transition from Liverpool lads to full grown muscicians, and would suggest thenow legendary «moptop» image. The later, was to become John's closefriend, and later play bass on many of his solo projects. Their trip ended whenGeorge was deported back to England for being a minor, by which time they hadalready achived a certain amount of popularity. Lennon also lost Stucliffe, hisbest friend. At the time, Stuart had become a celebrated artist who died inHamburg, after a short marriage to Astrid Kilcher.

            Back in Liverpool, The Beatles werehired to play the «lunch shift» on a little club, «TheCavern». Brian Epstein, a local record store owner and business man,decided to heard them, after their  records were requested several times.It didn't take him much to realize the potential of the group. For the rest ofhis life he would make it his mission to see the boys succeed, and his firststep was to get them a recording contract with EMI records. In 1962, TheBeatles released «Love me Do» Their first single, and started on theroad of musical history.

              In August 23, 1962, Shortlyafter the Beatles' Big break,  John married longtime girlfriend CynthiaPowell, and she soon gave birth to their son Julian.(April 8th, 1963): Becauseof the group's increasing popularity in both Britain and the U.S, his marriagewas kept secret for a relatively long time. It was Brian Epstein's (the Beatlesmanager) idea that a married «moptop» would surely be less appealingto their targeted audience: mostly screaming teenage girls. John would lateradmit to being a failure both as a husband to Powell and as a father to Julian,mostly due to the war that he was still waging with his inner demons, whichcontinue to haunt him, in spite of his success.

            John Lennon and Paul Mc Cartney closesongwriting collaboration was clearly always the driving force of the Beatles'success. They also had very definite roles within the group. John always wrotesongs or contributed with lyrics that highlighed his strong rock and roll rootsand surfaced his feelings and raw emotions. He was the strong minded andoutspoken genious. Paul was the directing part of the duo. He orchestrated thesignature catchy tunes that placed the band in the charts. Although theydiffered vastly in their points of view, their songwriting efforts producedmore hit singles (59) and innumerable masterpieces than any other musicalpartnership in recording history, left as an enduring legacy of their work.

           For the next seven years, John gotcaught up on a ongoing cycle of bliss, fame, controversy, drugs and rock androll that ultimately led him nowhere. In 1964 the Beatles were awarded the MBE(members of the British Empire) title by Queen Elizabeth, honor whichinfuriated some, but mostly amused both their fans and the group itself. Yearslater Lennon would return his MBE, citing Britain's involvement in the Vietnamwar as reason. Unfortunatly, he also mentioned his first solo single «coldturkey» falling off from the charts, a comment that widely cheapened thegesture.

            John's dissappointment with the music businesscan be witnessed by listening to some of the songs he contributed to theBeatles's albums released in the period. After a the first fecund years ofboundary-pushing lyrics and melodies he stopped challenging his own songwritingcapabilities and simply gave up. Shortly after Sgt. Pepper, his songs clearlyreflect how much of his early enthusiam was gone, specially his contributionsto the Yellow Submarine soundtrack and The White album, although it containssome of his best compositions ever.

            In the mist of the sixties' phychdelia,and after a great desilusion with the spiritual world, John met the woman whowas to become his life partner: Yoko Ono. She was an avant garde,japanese-american artist, six years his senior. Soon after they met, and inspite of public outrage they were inseparable. John decided to leave his wifeand marry Yoko, who was being dubbed by the press as «the dragonlady», the woman who had cast a spell on «prince charming». Theydidn't seem to care.  

           John married Yoko in March 20th1969., in Gibraltar. In the years to come, she would be accused of creatingtension between the Beatles, and ultimately forcing John away from the group,thus inciting to their 1970 break up. They became close collaborators, not onlyartistically or music, but also as peace promotors. They staged«bed-ins» during their honeymoon in Amsterdam; elaborate pressconferences conducted from their honeymoon suite, that centered on their peaceefforts. Their marked eccentricities quickly alienated them with the britishpublic opinion, and in the end they were force to seek refuge in America. Andthey fled for New York City.

           John and Yoko settled in New YorkCity, and he remained there for the rest of his life. There were clearly agreat number of qualities in NYC that reminded John of his native Liverpool. Hewas also very attracted to the city's communication capabilities. In hisopinion, New York was capital of the world. He even went as far as saying«If I'd lived in Roman times, I'd have lived in Rome. Where else? Today,America is the Roman Empire, and New York is Rome itself».

           But as fond as John and Yoko wereof New York City, not all New Yorkers were particulary fond of the Lennons.Politicians and government organizations, specially, thought that they couldonly mean trouble. An exhaustive undercover prosecution campaign against Johnwould later unveil the tight scrutiny they were under. The FBI went as far astapping their telephone conversations, and having agents pose as groupies orfans, all in an effort to deport them. Between December 1971 and August 1972,John and Yoko collaborated with numerous protests and spoke out whenever theyfelt worthy a cause. Good examples of this are Benefit at Apollo, where theyperfomed «Attica State», protesting in favor of the infamous upraisingin the prision and the Geraldo Rivera One to one concert.

<img src="/cache/referats/21013/image004.jpg" align=«right» v:shapes="_x0000_s1029">            Thepressures of their hectic lifestyles, combined with the ones of the outisideworld, finally affected the couple. After only three years of marriage, Johnand Yoko decided to take a brake from each other. That two year period wouldlater be known as John's infamous «lost weekend». John took off MayPang, his assistant andwith some of his old friends, feeling carefree for thefirst time since he was 20. He reunited with Ringo, and helped him work on hisalbum, and also played with the likes of David Bowie and Elton John. He was abachelor once again, but only enjoyed it for a short period, before he startedto long for home.

           Yoko Ono developed into her ownperson, after being criticized for so long, and being in the shadow of thegenious of John. She became very active in the Avant-garde New York scene,regaining her place as an accomplished artist. She would often check in withMay Pang, to catch up with his life without him finding out.

John's workduring this 18 month period clearly reflect the pain that being away from hisbeloved Yoko caused him. «What you got» «Nobody loves you whenyou're down and out» and «Sweet bird of paradox» share the sametheme: Fear of abandonment and isolation. Even «whatever gets you throughthe night, the peppy single that propelled him back to the top of the charts,was based on the assumption that getting by alone is not easy. Soon it becameclear to everyone who knew him that Yoko was not only the woman under John'sshadow; she was also indispensable to him.

              John and Yoko finally got backtogether in 1974, after being set up at an Elton John concert, where John wasmaking a guest appearance. They would remain together for the rest of his life.In 1975, John retired from public life, after releasing his last album of newmaterial. On October 9 of that same year, Yoko gave birth to Sean Lennon, afterseveral miscarriages. John was delighted with his life as a „househusband“ and decided to stay home, to take care of Sean, while Yoko tookcare of business. He felt no urge to record or release any music during thenext five years, although he continued to write songs as always. From time tonew he would release statements, or give interviews, but amazingly he managedto regain his private person status and his inner peace. Sean had given him asecond chance at parenting just as Yoko had given him a second shot at love. Hekept away from the same music business he had pursuit with so much enthusiambefore.

<img src=»/cache/referats/21013/image006.jpg" align=«right» v:shapes="_x0000_s1030">              Withthe release of 1980's «Double Fantasy» John came back to the publiceye. In this album, at the age of 40 he targeted audience had changed fromscreaming teenage girls to an entire generation: His generation, his age group.«How did things turn out for you» he seemed to asked the same personshe had moved to believe that «all you need is love» and to Imagine.The album was an inmediate success, mainly because of the honesty of the songsit contained. The plans of a follow up album were cut drastically short, as sowas his life. In December 8, 1980, in front of his NYC home, he was shot downby Mark David Chapman and died instantly. The unfinished «Milk andHoney» was released in 1984 by Yoko Ono.

             John Lennon's legend lives onand will remain alive as long as his vision of peace and love keep inspiringnew generations of dreamers — To Love and Imagine.


            Paul McCarney was born in 1942 inWalton Hospital, which on the Rice Lane. His parents was Jim and MaryMcCartney. 7 january 1944 was born his brother, called Piter Michael McCartney.Together they recorded some good songs.

            In 1957 Paul joined Quarrymen, in1960 re-named in Beatles. There he was since 1970 with John Lennon, GergeHarrison and Ringo Starr.

            Out of all the former Beatles, Paul McCartney by far had the most successfulsolo career, maintaining a constant presence in the British and American chartsduring the '70s and '80s. In America alone, he had nine number one singles andseven number one albums during the first 12 years of his solo career. Althoughhe sold records, McCartney never attained much critical respect, especiallywhen compared to his former partner John Lennon.

            Following his first marriage toLinda Eastman on March 12, 1969, Paul McCartney began working at his homestudio on his first solo album. He released the record, «McCartney»,in April 1970, two weeks before the Beatles' «Let It Be» was scheduled to hitthe stores. Prior to the album's release, he announced that the Beatleswere breaking-up, which was against the wishesof the other members. As a result, the tensions between him and the other threemembers, particularly George Harrison and John Lennon, increased and he earnedthe ill-will of many critics. Nevertheless, «McCartney» became a hit,spending three weeks at the top of the American charts. Early in 1971, hereturned with «Another Day», which became his first hit single as asolo artist. It was followed several months later by «Ram», anotherhome-made collection, this time featuring the contributions of his wife Linda.

            He wanted to be in a rock band.Within a year after the Beatles' break-up, McCartney had formed Wings. InDecember 1971, Wings released their first album, «Wings Wild Life.»However, the album was greeted with poor reviews and was a relative flop. Afterthey released three singles: «Give Ireland Back To The Irish,»«Mary Had A Little Lamb» and «Hi, Hi, Hi» in 1972, PaulMcCartney & Wings released «Red Rose Speedway» in 1973.Regardless of weak reviews, the album became McCartney's second American numberone album, and generated his number one hit single «My Love.» Thatsame year they scored another Top 10 hit with «Live And Let Die,» thetheme to the James Bond movie. In December 1973, Paul McCartney & Wingsreleased their best-reviewed album «Band On The Run.» The albumbecame a number one hit in the US and UK, eventually going triple platinum.

            Following the success of «BandOn The Run,» Wings released «Venus And Mars» in May 1975. Thealbum also hit number one in the US and UK. As for 1976's «Wings At TheSpeed Of Sound,» the album became a number one hit in the US, and producedtwo Top 10 hits: «Silly Love Song» and «Let 'Em In.»Following the release of those two albums, Wings embarked on their firstinternational tour which broke many attendence records; their first US tour wascaptured on the 1976 live triple-album «Wings Over America.» The livealbum also became a Top 10 hit in the US and UK, regardless of the livetriple-album.

            After the world tour completed, PaulMcCartney released «Thrillington,» an instrumental version of«Ram,» under the pseudonym of Percy «Thrills» Thrillingtonin 1977. Later that year, Wings released «Mull Of Kintyre,» which becamethe biggest-selling British single of all time, selling over two millioncopies. It was followed several months later by the 1978 album «LondonTown,» which became a Top 10 hit in the US and UK. Later that year, Wingsreleased their first Greatest Hits album «Wings Greatest.» After itsrelase, Wings released «Back To The Egg» in 1979. But the album was arelative flop, though it became a Top 10 hit in the US and UK. Later in 1979,Wings embarked on their British tour; Early in 1980, Wings intended to embarkon their first Japanese tour; but McCartney was arrested for marijunapossession at Narita Airport; he was imprisoned for 10 days and then released,without any charges being pressed; but their first Japanese tour was cancelled.

            In May 1980, Paul McCartney released«McCartney II,» which was a one-man band effort like his solo debut.It was more successful than Wings' «Back To The Egg.» Later thatyear, however, McCartney was thunderstruck at the news of John Lennon'sassassination. The following year, he effectively broke up Wings. McCartneyentered the studio with Beatles producer George Martin to make his solo album«Tug Of War.» In April 1982, he released «Tug Of War.» Thealbum received the best reviews of any McCartney record since «Band On TheRun,» which became a number one hit in the US and UK. It also produced thenumber one single «Ebony And Ivory,» a duet with Stevie Wonder thatbecame McCartney's biggest American hit. Later that year, «The Girl IsMine,» a duet with Michael Jackson, was released as the first single fromMichael Jackson's blockbuster album «Thriller»; the single became aTop 10 hit in the US and UK. In 1983, Paul released «Pipes Of Peace.»Though the album was a relative flop, it spawned the number one single«Say Say Say,» a duet with Michael Jackson that is currently the lastnumber one single of his career in the US; it also generated another number onesmash, «Pipes Of Peace,» which is currently the last number onesingle of his career in the UK.

            In 1984, McCartney released thesoundtrack, «Give My Regards To Broad Street,» which featured newsongs and re-recorded Beatles tunes. Though McCartney's first feature film wasa flop, the soundtrack became his British number one album, generating a Top            10 hit single «No More LonelyNights.» Later that year, Paul had another British Top 10 hit single«We All Stand Together,» the theme to the video «Rupert And TheFrog Song,» under the name of Paul McCartney And The Frog Chorus. Thefollowing year, McCartney scored a Top 10 hit with «Spies Like Us,»the theme to the film «Spies Like Us,» which is currently his lastAmerican Top 10 single. With the release of «Press To Play» in 1986,his commercial fortunes started to slip somewhat; in fact, the album was aflop. In 1987, Paul released his second Greatest Hits album «All TheBest!.» It spawned the Top 10 single «Once Upon A Long Ago,»which is currently his last British Top 10 single. In 1988, McCartney recordeda collection of rock & roll oldies called «CHOBA B CCCP» forrelease in the USSR; it was given official release internationally in 1991.After he co-wrote several songs with Elvis Costello, Paul released«Flowers In The Dirt» in 1989. The album received the strongestreviews of any McCartney release since «Tug Of War,» which became theBritish number one album. Later in 1989, Paul McCartney embarked on anextensive international tour, which was a considerable success. The «GetBack Tour» was captured on the 1990 live double-album «Tripping TheLive Fantastic.»

            In 1991, McCartney released anotherlive album in the form of «Unplugged,» which was taken from hisappearance on MTV's acoustic concert programme of the same name; it was thefirst «Unplugged» album to be released. Later that year, he unveiledhis first classical work, «Liverpool Oratorio.» Early in 1993,McCartney released «Off The Ground.» Though the album was mauled bythe critics and was a flop, he supported the album with his successful«New World Tour.» Later that year, he released another live album«Paul Is Live»; he also released an ambient techno album,«strawberries oceans ships forest», under the pseudonym of thefireman. On March 23rd 1995, Paul premiered his classical piece for solo piano,«A Leaf,» at St. James's Palace. In April 1995, he released the piecefor solo piano in the UK. However, his primary activity in 1994, as well as1995, was the Beatles' Anthology. After«Anthology» was completed, Paul McCartney released «FlamingPie» in 1997. «Flaming Pie» received the strongest reviews ofany McCartney release since «Flowers in the Dirt» and hit number twoin the US and UK. It was nominated for a Grammyas «Album of the Year».Later that year, Paul McCartney unveiled his second large-scale classical work,the symphonic poem «Standing Stone» and became a number one hitclassical work in the US and UK.

In April1998 Paul McCartney was bereaved of his beloved wife Linda McCartney by reasonof her disease: breast cancer. Later that year, however, McCartney unveiled hissecond ambient dance album, "Rushes," under the pseudonym of theFireman. On the solo album from Linda McCartney, titled «WidePrairie,» he sings backing vocals and plays a variety of instruments; Paulproduced the album as the definitive collection of all the songs recorded byLinda over the past 25 years. Beyond a total heartbreak, Paul McCartney is gettingback to where he should belong.

            Paul McCartney was honoured on March15, 1999 with an induction into the Rock andRoll Hall of Fame.In celebration, Capitol Records released the 25th Anniversary remastered,limited edition reissue of Paul McCartney & Wings' chart-topping, Grammyaward-winning, all time best-selling album «Band On The Run» in theUS on March 9 1999.

            Paul McCartney had done his firstexhibit: the Painting ofPaul McCartneyinSiegen, Germany from 1st May until 25th July 1999.

In October,1999, "Run Devil Run," Paul's first album since Linda's deathin April 1998, was released worldwide. Recorded in two quick-burst sessions atStudio 2, Abbey Road, from 1 March to 5 May, 1999, the 15-track album includeshis interpretations of 12 songs chosen not for musical merit but for reasons ofpure nostalgia that were his favorite '50s rock'n'roll as a teenager, as wellas three new songs Paul wrote in a '50s style. The hand-picked band was theclassic rock'n'roll line-up of bass, guitar and drums. McCartney (bass, guitar,vocals) — accompanied by Pink Floyd's David Gilmour (guitar), Mick Green(guitar), Deep Purple's Ian Paice (drums), Pete Wingfield (keyboards), DaveMattacks (drums), Geraint Watkins (keyboard) and Chris Hall (Accordion) — recreated that golden age of rock'n'roll. Although recent Beatle myth hasenshrined John Lennon as the Beatles' rocker and Paul McCartney as the Beatles'balladeer, "Run Devil Run" must remind you of Paul as the rocker.(You know Paul composed not only the best-known ballade such as«Yesterday» and «Let It Be» but punchy hard rock such as«I'm Down» and «Helter Skelter».)

On theother hand, Paul McCartney unveiled his third classical album, titled«Working Classical,» in the UK on October 18, 1999. That's just twoweeks after the release of "Run Devil Run." The album features McCartney's firstforay into chamber music, including two pieces for small orchestra: «ALeaf» and «Spiral.» The classical album became No.1 on theBillboard classical charts.

            On Tuesday, December 14th, 1999, SirPaul McCartney rocked the Cavern — the Liverpool club where he and the Beatlesfound stardom — for the first time in 36years. The show — Paul's first at the Cavern Club since The Beatleslast played there on August 3rd, 1963 — washis 281st show at The Cavern. His historic concert was a «one-off, end ofthe millennium tribute to rock and roll». Due to the expected demand fortickets, and in an attempt to be fair for all, however, tickets for «Paul AtThe Cavern» were available through a national (UK) raffle. Therefore, only150 fans picked from an international ballot could pack the Cavern. But theconcert was carried live in cyberspace too. As at least three million peopleacross the globe watched his performance through a live webcast at one time, itset a new world record as the biggest musical gig in the history of theInternet. A further 15,000 fans gathered in wintry conditions in Liverpool'sChavasse Park, where a huge video screen showed the concert live. Thus, Pauland his band (Dave Gilmour and Mick Green on guitars, Ian Paice on drums, PeteWingfield on keyboards and Chris Hall on Accordion) rocked out the end of thecentury. They «rocked Liverpool and the world bopped too.» His13-song performance lasted a little over 40 minutes and included «I SawHer Standing There,» a Beatles song from the Cavern years. But other songswere the classic rock and roll mostly from his album "Run Devil Run".

            In February, 2000, «a Garlandfor Linda» was released; it features new choral works by the ninecontemporary British composers: John Tavener, Michael Berkeley, Sir RichardRodney Bennett, Giles Swayne, John Rutter, Roxanna Panufnik, David Matthews,Judith Bingham and Sir Paul McCartney and «Silence and Music»originally composed by Ralph Vaughan Williams for «A Garland for theQueen,» in which ten leading British composers contributed new works for amusical celebration of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in 1953. Theinspiration for «a Garland for Linda» was certainly «A Garlandfor the Queen»; the raison d'etre for the disc is to commemorate the lifeof Linda McCartney and to promote The Garland Appeal to raise money fornon-animal-tested cancer research and British music. Incidentally, Sir PaulMcCartney's own piece for «a Garland for Linda» is entitled«Nova.»

            On August 21, 2000, «LiverpoolSound Collage» was released in the UK. McCartney created the piece at therequest of Peter Blake, the artist who helped designed the Beatles' memorable cover for «Sgt. Pepper'sLonely Heart's Club Band,» as the soundtrack for his show «AboutCollage,» at Liverpool's Tate Gallery. Along with Super Furry Animals,producer/musician Youth also collaborated with McCartney on the project. Butwhat's most likely to get people's attention was actually the inclusion ofstudio outtake clips from recordings McCartney made with The Beatlesbetween 1965 and 1969. «Liverpool SoundCollage» was nominated for a Grammyas «Best Alternative MusicAlbum.»

            On 19 March, 2001, Paul McCartneypublished a book of poetry, called "Blackbird Singing: Poems and Lyrics1965-1999." Itis McCartney's first anthology of poetry and lyrics. The book contains morethan 100 poems written between 1965 and 1999 as well as some of his best-knownsong lyrics. "Blackbird Singing: Poems and Lyrics1965-1999" hassold more than 55,000 copies in the UK and USA.

In May2001, Paul McCartney released «WINGSPAN — Hits and History -,» the40-song collection from Paul McCartney and Wings. «Wingspan» is thesoundtrack of a two-hour film of the same title that is a televisiondocumentary about the formation and history of the band Wings. The double-albumnot only made its debut at No.2 on the Billboard album charts as of May 26,2001, but marked the fastest-selling release of the McCartney post-Beatles era;it went Gold, Platinum and double Platinum, earning Paul his 21st gold record.Later that year, he released "Driving Rain," the first studio album of new songsfrom Paul McCartney since 1997's «Flaming Pie.» Though the albumpeaked at No.26 on the Billboard album charts, "Driving Rain" was certified gold on 29 April, 2002.

            On April 1st, 2002, Paul McCartneykicked off DRIVING USA, a two-month concert tour of America and his first inalmost 10 years. Following his second marriage to Heather Mills on June 11th,2002, Paul McCartney returned to North America for further 23 concerts on theBack In The U.S. tour in late September and October. Following the second legof the U.S. tour, Paul McCartney performed in November in Mexico City, Tokyoand, for the first time in Paul's career, Osaka. The «DRIVING USA»tour was captured on the 2002 live double-album "Back In The U.S. — Live 2002." The live double-album madeits debut at No.8 on the Billboard album charts, eventually going platinum inthe US. According to concert trade publication Pollstar, by the way, Paul McCartney is the runawaywinner for biggest tour of the year. As Paul's tour grossed $103.3 million in2002, Paul's tour now ranks as the all-time fourth biggest earner in the US andCanada, behind the Rolling Stones, U2 and Pink Floyd.

            On March 25th, 2003, Paul McCartneykicked off the «Back In The World» tour, a three-month UK andEuropean tour and his first in 10 years since his New World Tour of 1993. Itcoincided with the release on March 17th of the live double-album «Back InThe World — Live» as a proper souvenir of the European tour. After touringthrough Europe, including Russia, Paul McCartney capped the tour with ahometown concert at Liverpool on June 1st, 2003.

            On May 25th, 2004, Paul McCartneykicked off the all-stadium «04 Summer Tour.» It was highlighted with7 first-time performance visits as well as 5 concerts in cities that haven'trocked with him since 1989's «Get Back World Tour» or 1993's«New World Tour». After touring throughout Europe, including aspecial performance in St. Petersburg's Palace Square, Paul McCartney concludedthe tour with a special appearance at The Glastonbury Festival on June 26th,2004. That same year he released a selection of his Animated Films called«Paul McCartney: The Music And Animation Collection.» On September20, 2004, he released his first single for children in 20 years, «TropicIsland Hum,» the title track of a new children's animation film featuredon the collection. Later that year, he published a new book called «EACHONE BELIEVING: ON STAGE, OFF STAGE AND BACKSTAGE», an account of life onthe road with Paul McCartney during his recent Word Tour during which he playedto over two million people — his most successful tour since The Beatles.

            Anyway, I recommend «All TheBest» or «WINGSPAN — Hits and History -» as a good introductionto Paul McCartney. Check it out!


            The youngest of four children,George was born February 25, 1943 at 12:10 a.m. to Harold and Louise. Georgehas a sister, Louise, and two brothers, Harold and Peter. The Harrisons livedat 12 Arnold Grove, Wavertree, Liverpool 15 until 1949 when the family moved to25 Upton Green, Speke, Liverpool.

            George began his education atDovedale Primary. In September 1954, George began attending the LiverpoolInstitute where Paul McCartney was already a student. They often met on the busgoing home and soon became friends.

            Influenced by Carl Perkins, LonnieDonegan and others, by age 13 George had developed a strong interest in music.His wonderfully supportive mother bought George a used guitar and encouragedhim when he became frustrated learning to play the more difficult chords. Longbefore Paul met John Lennon, George and Paul spent many an afternoon goingthrough George's chord manual together. In 1956, George, his brother andfriends performed once as the Rebels. After that, George sat in on gigs withother groups, and worked Saturday mornings in a butcher shop. One of thebutcher's assistants was in a group with whom George also played. Through thisgroup, George met Pete Best, future drummer for the Beatles.

            At this point, history gets a littleshaky with contradictory accounts. Possibly upon Paul's suggestion, George sawthe Quarrymen perform, and met John backstage. With the hope of joining theQuarrymen, George impressed John and Paul, who by now was also a member of thegroup, with his rendition of «Raunchy.» John was unsure at first,George being three years younger than him. But George's ever-growing knowledgeof chords inspired John and Paul's songwriting. By early 1958, in part possiblyto irritate his Aunt Mimi who saw George as a bad influence, John relented andGeorge became lead guitarist for the Quarrymen.

            By August 1962, Pete Best was out,Ringo Starr was in, and the Beatles were born.

On February7, 1964, the Beatles — John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and RingoStarr — arrived in America. Their music exhilarated while their wit charmed.George's often unsmiling, brooding demeanor earned him the nickname The QuietOne.

            On March 2, 1964, on the set of«A Hard Day's Night,» George met 19-year-old model, Patricia AnneBoyd. Though she initially rejected him, eventually they start dating. Justbefore Christmas of 1965, Patti accepted George's proposal of marriage, andthey married on January 21, 1966.

            It was Patti who opened George'sheart and mind to «all things Indian» an ongoing passion that has not diminished for more than 30 years.

In summer1966, George met classical sitarist Ravi Shankar. In September, George visitedIndia to study sitar and Eastern philosophy with Ravi. To this day, George isthe only Beatle who has studied music formally and can read music (Indiannotation). While many believe Paul reads western musical notation, Paul himselfhas denied this many times in many interviews over the years, and most recentlyand clearly in the CD booklet accompanying his 1997 symphonic poem 'PaulMcCartney's Standing Stone.'

            The next year, at Patti'ssuggestion, the Beatles went to London to attend a lecture on TranscendentalMeditation given by the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. The Beatles were so intrigued,the next day they left for Bangor, Wales to continue studying with theMaharishi. Their stay in Bangor was cut short by manager Brian Epstein's suddendeath. In February 1968, the Beatles and their entourage spent several weeks atRishikesh, India to begin a teacher's training course at the Maharishi'sashram. George continues to support the Maharishi, now 81 years old, and hisNatural Law Party.

            Late 1968 saw the release of thesoundtrack to the film «Wonderwall,» composed and produced by George.It was the first solo album by a Beatle, and the first album issued on theBeatles' Apple label. (While Paul helped write the soundtrack to the film«The Family Way» the year before, George Martin wrote the score. Paulwasn't as extensively involved in «The Family Way» as George Harrisonwas with «Wonderwall.» However, the point is arguable :-))

Starting in1968, George performed and recorded with friends he'd made while a Beatle.After years of being eclipsed by the brilliant genius of John and Paul, ofhaving to fight for every song he wrote that was included on an album,superstars such as Eric Clapton and Bob Dylan treated George as an equal. Nolonger second fiddle, George was recognized as a great musician in his ownright.

            In 1970, George bought the gothicand ornate Friar Park, complete with a 120-room mansion, fantastical caverns(including a skeleton cave!), underground lakes, stone-carved gnomes andgargoyles, acres of meticulously cared-for gardens... and some say even theghost of Friar Park's designer, Sir Frankie Crisp.

            At Friar Park, George discoveredanother passion: gardening. It's not unusual for George to be hip-deep infertilizer tending to his beloved gardens.

How farGeorge had come! The gawky 15-year-old who tagged along at the heels of hisidol, John, was now master of Friar Park estate and a world-renowned rock star.

Long incoming, by April 1970 it was no longer a secret that the Beatles had broken up.Though legal entanglements would maintain the Beatles' existence on paper, theyno longer functioned as a musically productive entity.

            On July 7, 1970, George's motherdied from brain cancer. A warm, loving, jovial woman, Louise Harrison enjoyedhearing from George's fans, corresponding with them and sometimes inviting theminto her home. So dearly loved was George's mother, after her death a group ofGeorge's American fans started the Louise F. Harrison Memorial Cancer Fund.

1971 wasGeorge's year to shine! That year he was unquestionably the most successfulBeatle. On August 1, The Concert For Bangla Desh, organized by George andfeaturing an array of megastars, was held at Madison Square Garden in New YorkCity. Perhaps spurred by his accomplishments and blooming self-confidence,George's creativity exploded like a supernova with the release of his firstpost-Beatles record. The triple-album set, «All Things Must Pass,»flew to the Number One spot on American and European charts, and was hailed asa masterpiece.

            In 1974, George went on a NorthAmerican concert tour — the first Beatle to have done so. On a personal level,his marriage to Patti was at an all-time low. Years earlier, Eric Clapton haddeclared his love for Patti. At first Patti put him off, but in time came toreturn his love. On the plus side, George met his wife-to-be, Olivia TrinidadArias, an employee at A&M Records, the distributor for George's Dark HorseRecords.

With the1976 release of «Thirty-three & 1/3,» things started looking up.That is, until George lost his copyright infringement case over «My SweetLord.» Its melody and chord structure were similar to the 1963 song«He's So Fine.» George was found guilty of «subconsciousplagiarism.»

On June 9,1977, George and Patti's divorce came through. Two years later, Patti marriedEric Clapton. George, Paul and Ringo were among the guests/performers at thewedding celebration for George's ex-wife and his dearest friend.

            In May 1978, George's father diedfrom emphysema. As did his wife, Mr. Harrison enjoyed chatting with George'sfans, and by all accounts was a delightful gentleman.

            On August 1, 1978, George andOlivia's son, Dhani (pronounced «DAH-nee») was born. On September 2,George and Olivia were married.

            George's new career as a filmproducer came about as the result of generosity and friendship. In 1978, afterthe original backers backed out, HandMade Films was formed to fund MontyPython's movie «The Life Of Brian.» HandMade Films made possiblefascinating films that in time became cult classics, as well as popular filmswhich, if not for George's farsightedness, might never have seen the light ofday. Among them are «Time Bandits,» «Nuns On The Run,» and«Shanghai Surprise» starring then-husband and wife Madonna and SeanPenn. Altogether, HandMade Films produced about 26 movies. George made cameoappearances in and wrote the soundtracks or songs for a few. In the late 1980s,HandMade Films had a run of bad luck, and was acquired by Paragon EntertainmentCorp. in May 1994. Eight months later, George sued his former business partner,Denis O'Brien, for $20 million for breach of contract and fiduciary duties, anddisposition of assets. George was awarded $10.9 million by the court, but hasyet to collect this money.

            George's autobiography, «I MeMine,» was published on August 22, 1979, first as a leather-boundcollector's edition, and later as a mass market hardcover. George dedicated it«to gardeners everywhere.» Though not especially informative,George's conversational manner and Derek Taylor's side notes make «I MeMine» a delightful read. George's commentaries on every song he composedup through 1978 make it «must reading» for all George fans.

On December9, 1980, George was awakened by Olivia. John Lennon had been shot and killed.«All Those Years Ago» was George's musical tribute to John. (Johndied just after 11 p.m. on December 8 in New York City, which made it December9 in Europe.)

In 1988,George formed the Traveling Wilburys. The other Wilburys were Tom Petty, BobDylan, Jeff Lynne and Roy Orbison. Both albums were highly successful.«The Traveling Wilburys, Vol. 1» went multi-platinum and won a GrammyAward for Best Rock Performance.

In 1990,Olivia founded the Romanian Angel Appeal to aid Romanian orphans. George andOlivia gave much of their time and money to this most worthy cause.

In late1991, George and Eric Clapton embarked on a tour of Japan. In 1992, a recordingof some performances, «Live In Japan» was released.

            Because he released no solo albumsduring the 90s, fans have the false impression that, except for the Beatles'«Anthology,» George was not active professionally. Not true! As hehad since the Beatles were still together, George continued to work with manyartists. All in all, George has produced and performed on more non-solo albumsthan any other Beatle. Between 1990 and 1999, George was involved with over twodozen albums and singles.
[Please click herefor the Discography of George'swork with other artists]

Georgesurvived a knife attack and three occurrences of cancer. In 2001, he and Oliviabought a villa near the ocean in the south of Switzerland.

George wasin the final stages of recording a new solo album, as well as a box set ofdemos, outtakes and other unreleased material. Wait, there's more! Ownership ofhis solo Dark Horse 1976-92 catalogue and the two Traveling Wilburys albumswere to have reverted back to George, and he had been consideringre-circulating these currently out-of-print CDs with possible bonus tracks. Allof this is now in Olivia's (and maybe Dhani's) more than capable hands.

            On a U.S. morning news show airedJune 12, 1997, George said, «For every human is a quest to find the answerto, Why are we here? Who am I? Where did I come from? Where am I going? That tome became the only important thing in my life. Everything else issecondary.»

On November29, 2001, after a long battle with cancer, surrounded by those he loved, Georgeleaves his body and moves on to wherever his spiritual journal will lead him.

Gardener,musician, composer, film producer, record producer, philanthropist, car racingenthusiast, spiritual seeker and slide guitarist extraordinaire, themulti-faceted George Harrison continues to enrich our lives. His inner lightwill shine forever.


            Richard Starkey Jr.was born in thefront room of 9 Madryn Street in Liverpool's Dingle area on July 7, 1940. Hisparents were Elise and Richard Starkey Sr. Elise and Richard would soon divorcein 1943 and she and her son moved to 10 Admiral Grove. Richard attended St.Silas Infants' School where he began to suffer the first of many illnesseswhich seriously affected his education.

            At the age of six he was taken tothe Royal Children's Infirmary suffering from acute abdominal pains. A rupturedappendix was diagnosed and this led to an inflamed peritoneum and the first ofseveral operations for the young Richard. He went into a coma for two monthsduring which several more operations were made. Richard was known to beaccident prone. After he woke up from the coma he tried to hand a toy bus tothe boy in the next bed. Richard fell over head first onto the floor resultingin a concussion. He remained in the hospital for several more months.

            When he finally returned to school,he found himself far behind in his school work which gave him an undeservedreputation of being stupid. In 1953, at the age of thirteen, Richard caught acold which turned into chronic pleurisy necessitating another stay at MyrtleStreet Hospital. The illness caused some lung complications which resulted inthe youth being sent to Heswall Children's Hospital where he remained until1955.

By thistime Elise had married Harry Graves, whom Richard referred to as his «stepladder». For a short time he had a job as delivery boy for British Rail.He next took on a job as barman on a ferry to New Brighton before becoming atrainee joiner at Henry Hunt and Sons. Richard's stepfather, Harry, bought hima secondhand drum kit and Richard showed promise of becoming a great musician.

            Richard bounced around from band toband but he finally found a home with «Rory Storm & theHurricanes». Rory Storm was a showman and he insisted that Richard addsome flare to his act by renaming him Ringo Starr. To which he eventuallylegally change his name. The Hurricanes became one of the most popular groupsin Liverpool and they topped the bill at Hamburg's Kaiserkeller club, above TheBeatles. Pete Best was not always the most reliable drummer so Ringo wouldoccasionally fill in for Pete if he didn't show up.

TheHurricanes were by now being out shown by The Beatles and Gerry & thePacemakers. Ringo had thought about leaving The Hurricanes and joining anothergroup called «The Seniors». After a brief lull period, Ringo decidedto fill the spot of drummer for The Hurricanes once again. Ringo, feeling likehe was going nowhere thought about taking up his apprenticeship at Hunt'sagain, when fate stepped in.'

            The Beatles were now the top band inLiverpool and throughout most of England. The Beatles had just signed withParlophone and George Martin didn't like Pete as their drummer describing himbluntly as «not good». The new task was to find a replacementdrummer. Many considered Johnny Hutchinson of «The Big Three» to bethe best drummer in Liverpool but then the idea was put around to ask Ringo ifhe would like to fill the position.

When Ringowent to record with The Beatles for the first time George Martin had alreadyhired a session drummer, Andy White. Ringo was devastated and the fact that atfirst the fans didn't take kindly to him didn't help matters either. When Ringofirst appeared with The Beatles at The Cavern Club, the fans still upset overPete getting fired, started shouting «Pete forever, Ringo never!»

            As it turned out, Ringo was perfectfor The Beatles and at one time was the most popular member of the group withAmerican fans. He also proved to be more of a natural actor than any othermembers of the group and received favorable reviews for his performance in«A Hard Day's Night». Because of this, Ringo was placed in the centerof the spotlight in The Beatles second film «HELP!».

            Ringo married his long-timegirlfriend Maureen Cox on February 11, 1965 and the couple were to have threechildren: Zak, Jason, and Lee. The couple would eventually divorce in July 1975and Ringo was to marry Barbara Bach. Ringo at first had the same problem asGeorge did which was getting his songs noticed. Mainly John and Paul wouldwrite a song or two for him to sing on a particular album. Such songs were:"Boys" on Please Please Me, "I Wanna Be Your Man" on With The Beatles, "Honey Don't" on Beatles For Sale, "Act Naturally" on HELP!, "What Goes On" which was co-written by Starr on RubberSoul, "Yellow Submarine" on Revolver and YellowSubmarine, and "A Little Help From My Friends" on Sgt. Pepper's.

While withThe Beatles, Ringo had two songs that were «original Starrcompositions». They were "Don't Pass Me By" on The White Album andprobably his most famous one "Octopus's Garden" on Abbey Road. Following TheBeatles break up, Ringo had a very successful solo career which consisted ofeight albums and thirteen singles. Ringo also appeared in various TV shows,including his own special, «Ringo», and a TV mini-series «PrincessDaisy», with his wife Barbara.

            After many years out of thelimelight, during which he did voice-overs for the children's TV series«Thomas The Tank Engine» and experienced drinking problems, whichresulted in himself and Barbara attending a drying out clinic. He reappeared onthe scene sober with an All-Starr Band to tour America and Japan.

            This proved to be so successful thathe formed another All-Starr Band in 1992, which began an American and Europeantour in June 1992. Members comprised his son Zak, guitarists Dave Edmunds, NilsLofgren, Todd Rundgren and Joe Walsh, saxophonist Tim Cappello, bassist TimothyB. Schmit and keyboards player Burton Cummings.

The furthest career

The first single «Love MeDo»/«P.S. I Love You», a promising but fairly rudimentary effort,hovered around the lower reaches of the British Top 20. The Beatles phenomenondidn't truly kick in until «Please Please Me,» which topped theBritish charts in early 1963. This was the prototype British Invasion single —an infectious melody, charging guitars, and positively exuberant harmonies. Thesame traits were eviden

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