Реферат: The online advertising and its use in the World Wide Web



In linguistics of the end of XX – the beginningof XXI centuries there is the special interest to the advertising as thediscourse type. The creative potentiality of advertising as a discourse typehas been pointed out recently by a lot of authors. Unfortunately you can notfind a lot of papers devoted to the on-line advertising. The main explanationof this, in my estimation, is that on-line advertising is quit new type ofpromotion, but it gained tremendous success in last years.

Onlineadvertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Webfor the expressed purpose of delivering marketing messages to attractcustomers. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads on searchengine results pages, banner ads, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising,online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing,including e-mail spam.

The topicalityof the paper is determined by necessity of the detailed analysis of the methods andtypes of the on-line advertising, their linguistic peculiarities and thecreation of the web-site with the specific features of these advertisements andbanners.

Theresearch object is the on-line advertising and its use in the World Wide Web.

Theresearch subject is the analysis of the lexically-semantic features of the advertising inthe World Wide Web.

Theaim ofthe paper isto find and describe the verbal and nonverbal methods that are used inadvertising.

Amongthe objectives of this work are:

1) todescribe persuasion methods, types and techniques of the on-line advertising;

2) toanalyze different forms of advertising and point out why on-line advertisementshas become so popular in last decades;

3) tooutline the main types of banners;

4) tocreate a Web site with additional information about advertising and theexamples of different banners.

Theresearch is carried out with the help of the following methods of investigation:

· Thedescriptive method is used for full and precise description of thepeculiarities of the on-line advertising.

· Due tothe component analysis of the structural method I managed to describe thestructure of banners and their location in web pages.

Labours ofsome philosophers, sociologists, psychologists, historians and linguists aredevoted to the study of advertising (Semino, Cook, Campos Pardillos). At the same time on-lineadvertising (especially, banners) remains not fully investigated fromlinguistic positions. So, this is thenovelty of the paper.

Practicalvalue ofdiploma consists in possibilities of using its results in estimating what typesof the advertisements will be the most useful. Positions of work can findpractical application among managers and persons who promote differentproducts.

Thematerial,which is used while studying the theme, includes:

· booksand researches on discourse and advertising;

· journalsand papers related to the theme;

· internetsources;

· banners.

Web-sitewas created with Dremweaver software. Being new to web site building I hadfixed upon this program because Dreamweaver is the best tool for both thebeginning and advanced web page creator to create slightly complex website,with simple but animated toolbars, little animations, sound clips and so forth.

I. Linguisticpeculiarities of the web-advertising


1.Main approaches of the persuasion


1.1Discourse studies in modern linguistics

Discourse (L. discursus,«running to and from») means either «written or spokencommunication or debate» or «a formal discussion or debate».The term is often used in semantics and discourse analysis.

Insemantics, discourses are linguistic units composed of several sentences; inother words, conversations, arguments, or speeches. In discourse analysis,which came to prominence in the late 1960s, the word «discourse» isshorthand for «discursive formation», which is what Michel Foucaultcalled communication that involves specialized knowledge of various kinds. Itis in this sense that the word is most often used in academic studies. [9,p.11]

Studiesof discourse have been carried out within a variety of traditions thatinvestigate the relations between language and structure including feministstudies, anthropology, ethnography, cultural studies, literary theory and thehistory of ideas. Within these fields, the notion of discourse is itselfsubject to discourse, that is, debated on the basis of specialized knowledge.Discourse can be observed in the use of spoken, written and signed language andmultimodal/multimedia forms of communication, and is not found only in'non-fictional' or verbal materials. [29 p.54]

1.2The use of implication in the discourse of commercial English advertising

The thesis focuses on the problem of implication in thediscourse of commercial English advertising. In this study under implication isunderstood a special way of expressing information that does not receive directverbalization and is indicated by explicit verbal and nonverbal elements –markers. The explication of implicit information is achieved through additionalmental operations. Evaluations and associations in the advertising discoursefall under the category of implicit information. The investigation has provedthat implication is a distinguishing feature of the advertising discourse,tracked on the discourse, lexical, grammatical and nonverbal levels. Thepresence of implication is conditioned by the type of discourse, itsparameters, aims and tasks of its sender. The status of implication in theadvertising discourse is explained by its contradictory nature. On the onehand, implication complicates and hinders the processing and decoding ofinformation, requires additional mental efforts of addressee, and, on the otherhand, encourages addressee to take a more active part in the communication.Among the factors which stipulate implication in the advertising discourse arethe principle of language economy, originality and expressiveness of languageforms, tendency towards colloquialization of the advertising language,strengthening of illocutionary force. It has been shown that explicitpresentation of information tends to be obtrusive whereas implicit way foreseesdrawing the addressee into more intensive decoding of information, increasesattractiveness of advertising and its effects on the addressee. The structureof the cognitive model of the advertising discourse consists of motives andinducements and can be explicit or implicit. The implication of the inducementhelps sender to avoid being categorical. The discourse of advertising ischaracterized by complex intentions. The indication of implication is realizedby different types of discourse, lexical, grammatical and nonverbal markers.The decisive role in explication of implicit information belongs to thecognitive meaning of the advertising discourse. The implicit information, whichis marked by explicit verbal and nonverbal means is part of the cognitivemodel, evaluation component, pragmatic meaning of text and word. Therepresentation of the cognitive model can be complete or partial, which dependson the explicit or implicit rendering of its parts. The investigation hasproved that it is partial representation of the cognitive model that dominatesin the discourse of commercial English advertising.[5, p.234]

The category of evaluation, obligatory in the advertising discourse, isreflected in lexis, being part of the connotative component. The evaluation,which is present in the motive of the cognitive model, implies inducement,confirming its status of the regulator of the addressee’sbehaviour. The evaluation in the discourse of commercial advertising ispolyreferential. Among lexical markers of implicit information are place names,particles such as only, even, finally, at last, dates,the definite article, foreign words, quotations, comparative constructions.Imperative illocutionary force in the discourse of commercial advertising isrealized by various grammatical markers, which mitigate the categoricalmodality of the text, create an impression of the sender’snon-engagement. Among grammatical markers stands out a group of questions,which within the advertising discourse loses its primary function, acquiringthe meaning of inducement. Text of advertising is a bilingual unit, in whichlanguage and paralanguage fulfill one communicative task. Implicit informationis marked by nonverbal means, namely illustrations, pictorial tropes, colour,underlining, kinds and size of type. Besides its attractiveness andpsychological effect, colour is a marker of implicit information, whichcommunicates to the addressee information about products and their highquality. Among paragraphic markers of implicit information underlining isapplied to the most important elements of the text. Different styles of typeswere registered as nonverbal markers if implicit information about productsadvertised in the text. [11, p.58-60]

1.3 Typesof persuasion in the everyday life

Persuasionis a form of social influence. It is the process of guiding people and oneselftoward the adoption of an idea, attitude, or action by rational and symbolic(though not always logical) means. It is a strategy of problem-solving relyingon «appeals» rather than coercion. According to Aristotle,«Rhetoric is the art of discovering, in a particular case, the availablemeans of persuasion.»

Everyday weare confronted by persuasion. Food makers want us to buy their newestproducts, while movie studios want us to go see the latest blockbusters.Because persuasion is such a pervasive component of our lives, it is easy tooverlook how we are influenced by outside sources. [27]

1.3.1 PersuasionTechniques

Due to theusefulness of influence, persuasion techniques have been studied and observedsince ancient times, but social psychologists began formally studying thesetechniques early in the 20th-century. The goal of persuasion is to convince thetarget to internalize the persuasive argument and adopt this new attitude as apart of their core belief system.

These are justa few of highly effective techniques of persuasion. Other methods include theuse of rewards, punishments, positive or negative expertise, moral appeal, andmany others.

1. Create a Need

One method ofpersuasion involves creating a need or an appealing a previously exiting need.This type of persuasion appeals to a person’s fundamental needs for shelter,love, self-esteem, and self-actualization.

2. Appeal to Social Needs

Another veryeffective persuasive method appeals to the need to be popular, prestigious, orsimilar to others. Television commercials provide many example of this type ofpersuasion, where viewers are encouraged to purchase items so they can be likeeveryone else or be like a well-known or well-respected person. Television advertisementsare a huge source of exposure to persuasion considering that some estimatesclaim that the average American watches between 1,500 to 2,000 hours oftelevision every year.

3. Use Loaded Words and Images

Persuasionalso often makes use of loaded words and images. Advertisers are well aware ofthe power of positive words, which is why so many advertisers utilize phrasessuch as «New and Improved» or «All Natural.

The examplesabove are just a few of the many persuasion techniques described by socialpsychologists. Look for examples of persuasion in your daily experience. Aninteresting experiment is to view a half-hour of a random television programand note every instance of persuasive advertising. The amount of persuasivetechniques used in such a brief period of time can be astonishing. [30,p.10-12]

1.3.2Methods of persuasion

Persuasionmethods are also sometimes referred to as persuasion tactics or persuasionstrategies.According to Robert Cialdini in his book on persuasion, he definedsix „weapons of influence“:

Reciprocity — People tend to return afavor. Thus, the pervasiveness of free samples in marketing and advertising. Inhis conferences, he often uses the example of Ethiopia providing thousands ofdollars in humanitarian aid to Mexico just after the 1985 earthquake, despiteEthiopia suffering from a crippling famine and civil war at the time. Ethiopiahad been reciprocating for the diplomatic support Mexico provided when Italyinvaded Ethiopia in 1937.

Commitmentand Consistency — Once people commit to what they think is right, orally or in writing,they are more likely to honor that commitment, even if the original incentiveor motivation is subsequently removed. For example, in car sales, suddenlyraising the price at the last moment works because the buyer has alreadydecided to buy. See cognitive dissonance.

SocialProof — People will do things that they see other people are doing. For example, in oneexperiment, one or more confederates would look up into the sky; bystanderswould then look up into the sky to see what they were seeing. At one point thisexperiment aborted, as so many people were looking up that they stoppedtraffic. See confirmity, and the Asch conformity experiments.

Authority — People will tend toobey authority figures, even if they are asked to perform objectionable acts.Cialdini cites incidents, such as the Milgram experiments in the early 1960s.

Liking — People are easilypersuaded by other people whom they like. Cialdini cites the marketing ofTupperware in what might now be called viral marketing. People were more likelyto buy if they liked the person selling it to them. Some of the many biasesfavoring more attractive people are discussed, but generally more aestheticallypleasing people tend to use this influence excellently over others.

Scarcity — Perceived scarcity willgenerate demand. For example, saying offers are available for a „limitedtime only“ encourages sales. Propaganda is also closely related toPersuasion. It's a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinionsor behavior of large numbers of people. Instead of impartially providinginformation, propaganda in its most basic sense presents information in orderto influence its audience. The most effective propaganda is often completelytruthful, but some propaganda presents facts selectively to encourage aparticular synthesis, or gives loaded messages in order to produce an emotionalrather than rational response to the information presented. The desired resultis a change of the cognitive narrative of the subject in the target audience.The term 'propaganda' first appeared in 1622 when Pope Gregory XV establishedthe Sacred Congregation for Propagating the Faith. Propaganda was then as nowabout convincing large numbers of people about the veracity of a given set ofideas. Propaganda is as old as people, politics and religion. [27]

advertisement verbal banner website

2.The characteristic features of the advertising


Advertising is a form ofcommunication used to help sell products and services. Typically itcommunicates a message including the name of the product or service and howthat product or service could potentially benefit the consumer. However,advertising does typically attempt to persuade potential customers to purchaseor to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. Modernadvertising developed with the rise of mass production in the late 19th andearly 20th centuries. [15, p.100]

Manyadvertisements are designed to generate increased consumption of those productsand services through the creation and reinvention of the „brandimage“. For these purposes, advertisements sometimes embed theirpersuasive message with factual information. There are many media used todeliver these messages, including traditional media such as television, radio,cinema, magazines, newspapers, video games, the carrier bags, billboards, mailor post and Internet marketing. Today, new media such as digital signage isgrowing as a major new mass media. Advertising is often placed by anadvertising agency on behalf of a company or other organization.

Organizationsthat frequently spend large sums of money on advertising that sells what isnot, strictly speaking, a product or service include political parties,interest groups, religious organizations, and military recruiters. Non-profitorganizations are not typical advertising clients, and may rely on free modesof persuasion, such as public service announcements.

Moneyspent on advertising has increased dramatically in recent years. In 2008,spending on advertising has been estimated at over $150 billion in the UnitedStates and $385 billion worldwide, and the latter to exceed $450 billion by2010.

Whileadvertising can be seen as necessary for economic growth, it is not withoutsocial costs. Unsolicited Commercial Email and other forms of spam have becomeso prevalent as to have become a major nuisance to users of these services, aswell as being a financial burden on internet service providers. Advertising isincreasingly invading public spaces, such as schools, which some critics argueis a form of child exploitation. In addition, advertising frequently usespsychological pressure (for example, appealing to feelings of inadequacy) onthe intended consumer, which may be harmful. [21, p. 355-356]

2.1The influence of advertising

After watchinga part of the movie thank you for smoking, it seemed like all that the producercares about is that his product is sold no matter how unhealthy the product is.I think that advertising influences a lot of people. In fact, advertising doesmore than influence people’s taste, it controls our desires. People that watcha commercial, for example, want to look like that person in the advertisement;here is where advertising starts to influence people in a negative way. Weusually see very thin models, for example, in most of the ads and commercials.This basically says that skinny is beautiful, or at least that is the messagethat it is sending to young girls, which is why we see so many girls witheating disorders today. It was all over the tabloids when Tyra Banks and BritneySpears didn’t look as thin as they were before. Basically those tabloids weresaying that they are now ugly because they are not thin which makes young girlswant to be thin. People, especially the young ones, are under a lot ofpressure. They want to look „cool“ and beautiful and I think thatwhat they see in advertisement is what they sometimes want to become which iswhy they go out and buy that product. There is a proactive commercial whereJessica Simpson’s skin looks absolutely flawless. Girls that see thatcommercial want her skin so they go and buy proactive. I actually asked mycousin, she is a dermatologist and she said that it doesn’t work all the time,some people really like it some people hate it. Sometimes advertisers makefalse statements and hope that the people would not know better or wouldn’twant to find out and just go and buy the product. For example, the foodpictures that we saw in class. In the ad they look very good but in realitythey are not half as good. However, advertising could also have a positiveinfluence on people. A commercial that talks about how bad smoking is for you,could influence people to stop smoking. Sometimes, even if people know what isgood and bad for them, they don’t realize it until someone tells them what isgood and what is bad. Whether you like it or not, at some point advertisementswill influence you in a good or bad way, it is up to you to decide. [28,p.40-42]

2.2Forms of advertising

Advertisingcan take a number of forms, including advocacy, comparative, cooperative,direct-mail, informational, institutional, outdoor, persuasive, product,reminder, point-of-purchase, and specialty advertising.

AdvocacyAdvertising Advocacy advertising is normally thought of as any advertisement,message, or public communication regarding economic, political, or socialissues. The advertising campaign is designed to persuade public opinionregarding a specific issue important in the public arena. The ultimate goal ofadvocacy advertising usually relates to the passage of pending state or federallegislation. Almost all nonprofit groups use some form of advocacy advertisingto influence the public's attitude toward a particular issue.

ComparativeAdvertising Comparative advertising compares one brand directly or indirectly withone or more competing brands. This advertising technique is very common and isused by nearly every major industry, including airlines and automobilemanufacturers. One drawback of comparative advertising is that customers havebecome more skeptical about claims made by a company about its competitorsbecause accurate information has not always been provided, thus making theeffectiveness of comparison advertising questionable.

CooperativeAdvertising Cooperative advertising is a system that allows two parties to shareadvertising costs. Manufacturers and distributors, because of their sharedinterest in selling the product, usually use this cooperative advertisingtechnique. An example might be when a soft-drink manufacturer and a local grocerystore split the cost of advertising the manufacturer's soft drinks; both themanufacturer and the store benefit from increased store traffic and itsassociated sales. Cooperative advertising is especially appealing to smallstoreowners who, on their own, could not afford to advertise the productadequately.

Direct-MailAdvertising Catalogues, flyers, letters, and postcards are just a few of thedirect-mail advertising options. Direct-mail advertising has severaladvantages, including detail of information, personalization, selectivity, andspeed.

InformationalAdvertising In informational advertising, which is used when a new product is firstbeing introduced, the emphasis is on promoting the product name, benefits, andpossible uses

InstitutionalAdvertising Institutional advertising takes a much broader approach, concentratingon the benefits, concept, idea, or philosophy of a particular industry.Companies often use it to promote image-building activities, such anenvironmentally friendly business practices or new community-based programsthat it sponsors. Institutional advertising is closely related to publicrelations, since both are interested in promoting a positive image of thecompany to the public.

OutdoorAdvertising Billboards and messages painted on the side of buildings are commonforms of outdoor advertising, which is often used when quick, simple ideas arebeing promoted. Since repetition is the key to successful promotion, outdooradvertising is most effective when located along heavily traveled city streetsand when the product being promoted can be purchased locally. Only about 1percent of advertising is conducted in this manner.

PersuasiveAdvertising Persuasive advertising is used after a product has been introduced tocustomers. The primary goal is for a company to build selective demand for itsproduct. For example, automobile manufacturers often produce specialadvertisements promoting the safety features of their vehicles.

ProductAdvertising Product advertising pertains to nonpersonal selling of a specificproduct.

ReminderAdvertising Reminder advertising is used for products that have entered the maturestage of the product life cycle. The advertisements are simply designed toremind customers about the product and to maintain awareness.

Point-of-PurchaseAdvertising Point-of-purchase advertising uses displays or other promotional itemsnear the product that is being sold. The primary motivation is to attractcustomers to the display so that they will purchase the product.

SpecialtyAdvertising Specialty advertising is a form of sales promotion designed to increasepublic recognition of a company's name. A company can have its name put on avariety of items, such as caps, glassware, gym bags, jackets, key chains, andpens. The value of specialty advertising varies depending on how long the itemsused in the effort last. Most companies are successful in achieving their goalsfor increasing public recognition and sales through these efforts. [18]

2.3Objectives of the advertising

Advertisingobjectives are the communication tasks to be accomplished with specific customersthat a company is trying to reach during a particular time frame. A companythat advertises usually strives to achieve one of four advertising objectives:trial, continuity, brand switching, and switchback. Which of the fouradvertising objectives is selected usually depends on where the product is inits life cycle.

Trial The purpose of the trialobjective is to encourage customers to make an initial purchase of a newproduct. Companies will typically employ creative advertising strategies inorder to cut through other competing advertisements. The reason is simple:Without that first trial of a product by customers, there will not be any repeat purchases.

Continuity Continuity advertising isa strategy to keep current customers using a particular product. Existingcustomers are targeted and are usually provided new and different informationabout a product that is designed to build consumer loyalty.

BrandSwitchingCompanies adopt brand switching as an objective when they want customers toswitch from competitors' brands to their brands. A common strategy is for acompany to compare product price or quality in order to convince customers toswitch to its product brand.

Switchback Companies subscribe tothis advertising objective when they want to get back former users of theirproduct brand. A company might highlight new product features, pricereductions, or other important product information in order to get formercustomers of its product to switchback. [18]

2.4 Selecting the Right Advertising Approach

Oncea company decides what type of specific advertising campaign it wants to use,it must decide what approach should carry the message. A company is interestedin a number of areas regarding advertising, such as frequency, media impact,media timing, and reach.

Frequency. Frequency refers to theaverage number of times that an average consumer is exposed to the advertisingcampaign. A company usually establishes frequency goals, which can vary foreach advertising campaign. For example, a company might want to have theaverage consumer exposed to the message at least six times during theadvertising campaign. This number might seem high, but in a crowded andcompetitive market repetition is one of the best methods to increase theproduct's visibility and to increase company sales. The more exposure a companydesires for its product, the more expensive the advertising campaign. Thus,often only large companies can afford to have high-frequency advertisementsduring a campaign.

MediaImpact.Media impact generally refers to how effective advertising will be through thevarious media outlets (e.g., television, Internet, print). A company mustdecide, based on its product, the best method to maximize consumer interest andawareness. For example, a company promoting a new laundry detergent might farebetter with television commercials rather than simple print ads because moreconsumers are likely to see the television commercial. Similarly, a companysuch as Mercedes-Benz, which markets expensive products, might advertise inspecialty car magazines to reach a high percentage of its potential customers.Before any money is spent on any advertising media, a thorough analysis is doneof each one's strengths and weaknesses in comparison to the cost. Once theanalysis is done, the company will make the best decision possible and embarkon its advertising campaign.

MediaTiming.Another major consideration for any company engaging in an advertising campaignis when to run the advertisements. For example, some companies run ads duringthe holidays to promote season-specific products. The other major considerationfor a company is whether it wants to employ a continuous or pulsing pattern ofadvertisements. Continuous refers to advertisements that are run on a scheduledbasis for a given time period. The advantage of this tactic is that anadvertising campaign can run longer and might provide more exposure over time.For example, a company could run an advertising campaign for a particularproduct that lasts years with the hope of keeping the product in the minds ofcustomers. Pulsing indicates that advertisements will be scheduled in adisproportionate manner within a given time frame. Thus, a company could runthirty-two television commercials over a three-or six-month period to promotethe specific product is wants to sell. The advantage with the pulsing strategyis twofold. The company could spend less money on advertising over a shortertime period but still gain the same recognition because the advertisingcampaign is more intense.

Reach. Reach refers to thepercentage of customers in the target market who are exposed to the advertisingcampaign for a given time period. A company might have a goal of reaching atleast 80 percent of its target audience during a given time frame. The goal isto be as close to 100 percent as possible, because the more the target audienceis exposed to the message, the higher the chance of future sales. [6, p.38-40]

3.Web advertising


Ithas been suggested that online advertising is currently based on a print mediamodel that is likely to develop into an interactive television model in yearsto come. Like print media, Web pages are largely text-based and must generallybe read. Television, on the other hand, reflects a lower, more passive level ofinvolvement. However, the interactive capabilities of the Internet certainlydistinguish it from other media.

Drèzeand Zufryden once suggested that the Internet offers unique but largelyunexplored opportunities for advertising research that exist in spite of itspopularity as a medium for marketing and promoting products and services. Threeyears is a long time on the Web, with great strides made in online advertisingresearch during that time. Nevertheless, there is still widespread debate overthe effectiveness of various Web advertising formats. Amid frequent claims that»the banner is dead", it is interesting to note that banneradvertising revenue and the number of sites using banner ads have continued toincrease. [12, p.80]

Theemphasis of this study is on the application of copy testing methods to banneradvertisements appearing on the World Wide Web. It is specifically concernedwith the effect on consumer behavior generated by banner ads containing pull-downmenus. These are menus accessed by clicking the computer's mouse pointer on anarrow appearing in the advertisement, thereby opening a menu containing furtherinformation or links to a specific Web page. Although banner ads are themselvesinteractive in nature and therefore somewhat unique, the use of pull-down menusadds a further layer of interactivity. Viewers may click on these to obtainmore information before being transferred to the advertiser's Web site.

Inthis paper, a paired comparison approach is used to examine whether banner adscontaining pull-down menus are more effective than conventional banner ads interms of several widely employed advertising copy testing measures. Testablehypotheses are proposed that will provide an insight into the nature of banneradvertising that will benefit both online advertisers and advertisingresearchers alike. [12, p.82]

3.1Banner Advertising.

Themost popular form of advertising on the Internet's World Wide Web is currentlybanner advertising. A banner (graphic image) and link are displayed on a hightraffic web site, in which the people visiting that site (the audience) seewhen the page loads. This banner commonly advertises a product, service, orjust another web site. It can also be used to show someone's point of view on acertain topic (for example, a presidential election).

A webbanner or banner ad is a form of advertising on the World Wide Web. This formof online advertising entails embedding an advertisement into a web page. It isintended to attract traffic to a website by linking to the website of theadvertiser. The advertisement is constructed from an image (GIF, JPEG, PNG),JavaScript program or multimedia object employing technologies such as Java,Shockwave or Flash, often employing animation, sound, or video to maximizepresence. Images are usually in a high-aspect ratio shape (i.e. either wide andshort, or tall and narrow) hence the reference to banners. These images areusually placed on web pages that have interesting content, such as a newspaperarticle or an opinion piece.

Typical webbanner, sized 468×60 pixels.

Theweb banner is displayed when a web page that references the banner is loadedinto a web browser. This event is known as an «impression». When theviewer clicks on the banner, the viewer is directed to the website advertisedin the banner. This event is known as a «click through». In manycases, banners are delivered by a central ad server.

Whenthe advertiser scans their logfiles and detects that a web user has visited theadvertiser's site from the content site by clicking on the banner ad, theadvertiser sends the content provider some small amount of money (usuallyaround five to ten US cents). This payback system is often how the contentprovider is able to pay for the Internet access to supply the content in thefirst place.

Webbanners function the same way as traditional advertisements are intended tofunction: notifying consumers of the product or service and presenting reasonswhy the consumer should choose the product in question, although web bannersdiffer in that the results for advertisement campaigns may be monitoredreal-time and may be targeted to the viewer's interests.

Manyweb surfers regard these advertisements as highly annoying because they distractfrom a web page's actual content or waste bandwidth. (Of course, the purpose ofthe banner ad is to attract attention and many advertisers try to get attentionto the advert by making them annoying. Without attracting attention it wouldprovide no revenue for the advertiser or for the content provider.) Newer webbrowsers often include options to disable pop-ups or block images from selectedwebsites. Another way of avoiding banners is to use a proxy server that blocksthem, such as Privoxy. [10, p.40-42]

3.1.1History of banners.

Thefirst clickable web ad (which later came to be known by the term «bannerad») was sold by Global Network Navigator (GNN) in 1993 to Heller, Ehrman,White and McAuliffe, a now defunct law firm with a Silicon Valley office. GNNwas the first commercially supported web publication and one of the very firstweb sites ever.

HotWiredwas the first web site to sell banner ads in large quantities to a wide rangeof major corporate advertisers. Andrew Anker was HotWired's first CEO. RickBoyce, a former media buyer with San Francisco advertising agency Hal Riney& Partners, spearheaded the sales effort for the company. HotWired coinedthe term «banner ad» and was the first company to provide clickthrough rate reports to its customers. The first web banner sold by HotWiredwas paid for by AT&T, and was put online on October25, 1994. Another source also credits Hotwired and October 1994, but hasCoors' «Zima» campaign as the first web banner.

InMay 1994, Ken McCarthy, an early Internet commercialization pioneer, whomentored Boyce in his transition from traditional to online advertising, firstintroduced the concept of a clickable/trackable ad. He stated that he believedthat only a direct response model—in which the return on investment ofindividual ads was measured—would prove sustainable over the long run foronline advertising.

Inspite of this prediction, banner ads were valued and sold based on the numberof impressions they generated. This approach to banner ad sales proved successfuland provided the economic foundation for the web industry from the period of1994 to 2000 until the market for banner ads «crashed» and there wasa radical revaluation of their value.

Thenew online advertising model that emerged in the early years of the 21stcentury, introduced by GoTo.com (later Overture, then Yahoo and mass marketedby Google's AdWords program), closely resembled the pioneer's 1994 projection.[17, p.12-14]

3.1.2Types of banner advertisings

Though,as seen above, the large majority of online advertising has a cost that isbrought about by usage or interaction of an ad, there are a few other methodsof advertising online that only require a one time payment. The Million DollarHomepage is a very successful example of this. Visitors were able to pay $1 perpixel of advertising space and their advert would remain on the homepage for aslong as the website exists with no extra costs.

· Floatingad: An ad which moves across the user's screen or floats above the content.

· Expandingad: An ad which changes size and which may alter the contents of the webpage.

· Politead: A method by which a large ad will be downloaded in smaller pieces tominimize the disruption of the content being viewed

· Wallpaperad: An ad which changes the background of the page being viewed.

· Trickbanner: A banner ad that looks like a dialog box with buttons. It simulates anerror message or an alert.

· Pop-up:A new window which opens in front of the current one, displaying anadvertisement, or entire webpage.

· Pop-under:Similar to a Pop-Up except that the window is loaded or sent behind the currentwindow so that the user does not see it until they close one or more activewindows.

· Videoad: similar to a banner ad, except that instead of a static or animated image,actual moving video clips are displayed. This is the kind of advertising mostprominent in television, and many advertisers will use the same clips for bothtelevision and online advertising.

· Mapad: text or graphics linked from, and appearing in or over, a location on anelectronic map such as on Google Maps.

· Mobilead: an SMS text or multi-media message sent to a cell phone.

Inaddition, ads containing streaming video or streaming audio are becoming verypopular with advertisers.

— CommonBanner Ads — Currently the most common type of banner advertising is by showingthe banner near the top of the web page. If this is a paid banner it is usuallythe only banner ad that appears on the page. This type of banner space isusually sold by impressions, or banner views, although it is sometimes sold by click-thru,when the user clicks on the banner for more information.

— Medallion Ads- This type of advertising is newer and not widespread. A column of multiplesmaller banners are shown on the side of the web page. Because so many adsappear on a single page, it is usually sold by click-thru only. This type ofadvertising gives the page designer less room for content, so is usually onlyused on pages with written articles, such as webzines.

Thereare two major types of banners, static banners and dynamically-rotated banners.Static Banners do not change, they stay the same to every user, every pageload. Dynamically-Rotated Banners can change for each user.

Adynamically-rotated banner is usually a more effective way of advertising, butit requires a program to work, most commonly a .cgi script. Withdynamic-rotation, you are able to advertise a different banner to each viewer,therefore you are able to have multiple advertisers, or, mulitiple banners forone advertiser, or any combination. With a static banner, you can only have asingle banner, and only a single advertiser for that page. [24, p.36-38]

3.1.3 Uses for Web Banner Advertising

Thisprobably the mostly likely thing that you will use banner advertising for.

· Tosell more of your product(s) or service(s).

· To beable to notify buyers of your new product or service, or offer them a specialdeal/discount.

· ToSpread your ideas about a certain topic.

· To getpeople to remember your company's name! (Incase they wish to have your productsor services in the future!)Advertising on the Web with banners means more salesand/or more influence!

Advantagesof advertising independently.

Freedom: If you get to choose yourown rates, standards, etc you will have better control over the layout of yoursite. If you are independent you make your own rules.

More Reliable: You ads don't go downunless your site goes down. You won't have to wind up finding a new advertisingbroker if you current one declares bankruptcy.

MoreProfitable/Less Expensive: By running your own ads, you will be able to ask more fromthe person wanting to advertise, yet your asking price will be able to be lowerthan what your broker/rotator would charge. So you earn more, and the peoplewho wish to advertise will pay less. Everyone is happier./>

Disadvantagesof independent Advertising.

More Work foryou: Gettingyour own advertisers and maybe customizing the rotator and/or rewriting one canbe a real challenge. If you want to be independent, expect to spend much moretime working, and maybe even being a little more stressful. (If you saw howmuch larger your paychecks would be you wouldn't mind that much...)

More Costly toRun: Having aserver that is able to handle your rotation scripts may be more expensive thenwhat you currently pay. It is most unlikely to find an free provider that willallow you to run these simple (yet complex) scripts. [28, p.39-41]

/>/>/>3.2 Copy Testing Banner Advertisements

Copytesting is widely used in the advertising industry to assess the effectivenessof a particular advertisement or campaign. Traditional copy testing researchmethods generally involve exposing consumers to an advertisement and thensoliciting responses afterward. Early copy testing methods predominantly usedrecall as the most important measure of advertising effectiveness. However,multiple measures have been used in more recent years, including recall,recognition, personality, brand image, purchase intent, persuasion, liking,main point communication/playback, and awareness. These measures are based uponmodels of consumer behavior (such as the AIDA — attention, interest, desire,action — framework) that suggest consumers may pass through cognitive,affective, and behavioral stages in response to a stimulus.

Todetermine banner ad effectiveness, four copy-testing measures will be employedin this research: 1) attention, 2) novelty, 3) liking, and 4) persuasion. Ithas been argued that the constructs of attention and novelty are importantfactors in creating effective advertisements. Researchers have also claimedthat measures of likability and persuasion represent a successful combinationof copy testing measures that can be used for predicting the likely success ofan advertisement.

3.2.1 Novelty

Oneof the more common means of attracting and holding a consumer's attention is bycreating a novel structural execution for the advertisement. In other words,the creative copy should use distinctive, unusual, or unpredictable devices. Inthis way, it is possible to draw consumers' attention not only to theadvertisement, but also to key visual and verbal information. The relativeabsence of banner ads on the Web that use pull-down menus implies a degree ofnovelty in itself. Consumers may attend to and click on these ads because oftheir unusual structure, newness, or novelty value. It is thereforehypothesized that. Banner advertisements that contain pull-down menus willresult in significantly higher novelty responses than banner ads containing nopull-down menus.

3.2.2 Effect on Click-Through

Giventhe expectation that banner ads containing pull-down menus will result inhigher attention, novelty, liking, and persuasion scores, it is reasonable toexpect that they would be more likely to initiate consumer action in the formof clicking on the banner than static banner ads. Hence. Banner advertisementsthat contain pull-down menus will result in significantly higher click-throughrates than banner ads containing no pull-down menus./>

3.2.3 Sampling and Data Collection

Thesample for this research was comprised of undergraduate and postgraduatestudents of an east coast Australian university who had completed or werecurrently enrolled in an Internet Marketing course at the university in 1999.The logic underlying the choice of sample was that this group would be mostlikely to respond to an e-mailed invitation to participate in the research.Because the stimulus was a banner ad, it was also essential to use participantswho had Internet access for the study. Participants were informed in the classthat they would be receiving an e-mailed request to participate in the researchwithin the next week. Additionally, it was reasonable to assume that they wouldbe more comfortable with World Wide Web technology and research than non-Webusers.

Threehundred and fifty-six e-mail messages were sent to prospective respondents,requesting them to visit a specified Web address and read the informationprovided there. Following the reading of this information, respondents wereasked to complete an online questionnaire. One hundred and ninety-six peopleresponded to the e-mail requests giving a response rate of 55.1%.

/>/>3.2.4 Discussion

Thisstudy was developed as a means of copy testing banner advertisements in termsof their attention, novelty, likability, and persuasion effects. Evidence hasalready suggested that banner ads contribute to brand awareness and brand strength.This may be due, in part, to the sheer publicity effect of advertising.However, copy testing different banner ad formats may offer a uniqueopportunity to determine their advertising effectiveness or lack thereof. Thelimited presence of banner ads using pull-down menus on the Web may beconstrued in one of two ways: 1) they are simply less effective thanconventional banner ads and this is reflected in their minority use, or 2) theyare slow to be recognized as advertisements that are more effective. Overall,the results of this study provide considerable support for the latter, with theoutcome suggesting that banner ads with pull-down menus result in significantlyhigher scores on the copy testing variables utilized.

Asexpected, banner ads with pull-down menus are viewed as more novel and tend toattract more attention than static banners. This is not surprising given thecomparatively unique structural format of ads containing pull-downs menus.Results from Hypothesis 3 suggest that banner ads containing pull-down menusare more liked than those without them are. One explanation for this may bethat the increased informational content of the advertisement is preferred byconsumers. This is consistent with other research by Greene and Biel and Bridgewaterwhich produced similar conclusions, albeit in different media. Further researchis needed to replicate the findings; however, the likability of pull-downbanner ads is strongly supported by the data.

Click-throughrate is an important factor in online advertising with many firms' billing nowbased on clicks generated rather than the conventional cost-per-thousandexposures (CPM) model. The data suggest that banner ads that use pull-downmenus are more likely to be clicked on than static banner ads; hence,advertisers would be advised to use this format more frequently. It is evidentthat the click-through rates of both groups of respondents are very high whencompared with commercial advertising click-through rates. These fluctuatedepending upon Web site and page placement with the norm around 2%. They arerarely higher than 10% and the inflated result of this study may be aconsequence of respondents' awareness that this was a research project. Theymay thus have directed more attention to the advertisement than would otherwisehave been the case. However, the difference in click-through between the twogroups was still statistically significant, and suggests that the pull-downformat is more effective than using conventional, static banner ads.

/>3.2.5Practical Implication

Theresults obtained from this study lend weight to the argument that banner adswith pull-down menus provide a better alternative to conventional, staticbanner advertising. They offer consumers the means of gaining more productinformation without having to leave a Web site and are clicked on more thanconventional banners, thereby focusing greater attention on these ads. Althoughthey are still relatively simplistic, like much current Web advertising, thesetypes of banner ad may mark the first steps in a new online advertisingparadigm that is based on providing detailed, personalized information to theconsumer.

Asa communication tool, advertisers, agencies, and researchers should considerthe benefits of using pull-down menus in more banner ads. Future developmentsshould bear in mind the informational aspect of banner ads and their potentialfor providing important and more detailed information before taking consumersaway from their current Web site. In addition, it is clear that the noveltyimpact of these types of banner advertisements can strongly influenceclick-through rate and this benefit is probably being under-exploited in theonline advertising industry. The banner ad may be much maligned as a form ofcreative advertising, but it is likely to be with us for some time yet asbandwidth limitations are still impeding the delivery of high quality movingimages and sound similar to television. Advertisers should capitalize on themost effective means of utilizing this communication vehicle, which may wellinvolve the use of pull-down menus as a prominent promotional tool. [10,p.40-48]

4. The useof metaphor in on-line advertising


This study of metaphor in on-line advertising examined commercial web sitesthat promote goods or services on the Internet’s World Wide Web. Fourteen suchweb sites were observed and content analyzed according to the coding manualdeveloped through literature reviews and web site observations. These web siteswere sampled for their high consumer traffic and popularity.

The purpose of this chapter is to provide advertisers and marketersuseful information when developing an Internet presence. By exploring thecurrent uses of metaphor in on-line advertising, advertisers can gain a greaterunderstanding of their competitor’s efforts and thus produce more effective webpresentations for their own corporation. After introducing terminology relatedto metaphors on the Internet’s World Wide Web, the research study investigatesthe way advertisers use metaphors to actively involve consumers in on-linemessages. Based on the findings, implications for further study of on-lineadvertising are also examined. [22]


4.1 The Study of Metaphor in Advertising

Metaphor has been used in artistic and literary expression for centuriesand continues to be a form of expression used in popular culture at the end ofthe twentieth century. Advertising, a form of corporate expression, is notexempt from metaphorical usage since it so intertwines artistic images andliterary phrases. As the age of information and electronic media is upon us,advertising has penetrated these realms as well, taking with it creative waysto give meaning and message to products and services. Metaphor is just one ofthe ways of expressing concepts that companies are utilizing in their web siteson the Internet’s World Wide Web. The current study seeks to identify anddescribe the common types of metaphors used by corporations in their commercialweb sites. [7, p.25]

4.1.1 What is metaphor in the on-line world

Since the current study deals with metaphors of the on-line world, adefinition of metaphor from the Internet can help define the topic of study.According to The Metaphor Home Page, metaphor can be defined as «anystructured juxtaposition of two conceptual domains. Metaphor thus encompasseslanguage, cinema, theatre, music, and even dance, etc., in fact any domain thatone can sensibly describe in a structured semantic form». To interpretthis definition for purposes of the paper, a metaphor is an unusual pairing oftwo elements that creates a new meaning that neither element had alone, thuscreating a whole new conceptual expression.

For example, in the verbal metaphor illustratively used by Max Black, MANIS WOLF, the reader is asked to think of the man in terms of the barbaric andbeastly nature of a wolf. Man can be seen as possessing some of the qualitiesof a wolf, but not all of them. The transference of properties is relative tothe context and one cannot assume that man is exactly the same as a wolf, butsomehow similar. The context should make apparent which qualities the sender ofthe metaphor wishes the audience to transfer to the primary subject, man. Ifframed in a business context, perhaps the man could be viewed as cunning,whereas in a dating situation, MAN IS WOLF could evoke images of a wolfscouting for prey.

Whatever the metaphor, two elements, or subjects, are unusually paired sothat one subject is conceived in terms of the second. The metaphor may bepresented in images, or may even require the addition of words to convey itsmeaning. Regardless, some properties or characteristics of the secondarysubject are transferred to the first and a whole new concept formed. The slighttension of the pairing will increase the viewer/reader’s need to reconcile thejuxtaposition and result in the comprehension of the metaphor. Theviewer/reader will understand the pairing of the two subjects in a new andcompletely different light than if the two subjects were presentedindependently. The need to reconcile this tension may require more activeinvolvement from the viewer/reader.

Thus, metaphor has implications for advertising, as active audiences arehighly desirable and interpret the advertising message in a more meaningful andpersonal way. When more time is spent reading, viewing, and interpreting amessage, the meaning is more internalized. Therefore, advertising seeks toinvolve the consumer so that he or she will internalize the message thatproduct X is the best for cleaning carpets, etc. Web advertising also attemptsto draw in the viewer/reader to spend more time with the message. The inherentfast-paced nature of Internet surfing can leave a consumer’s mind clutteredwith many messages and products vying for attention. If a consumer couldinteract with the advertising message, such as clicking the mouse button on anadvertisement’s words or images, the message has a higher likelihood of beingmore internally processed. The more time the consumer spends with theadvertisement, the better for the advertiser.

The on-line metaphors under examination for the purposes of this studywill primarily be concerned with language (written text), visual images(photos, hand or computer drawn images, video, or digital animation), and thecombination of the two.

Thus an advertisement containing words, visual images, or both will beconsidered in exploring metaphor. With this in mind, metaphors have beenclassified to distinguish differences in the usage of metaphor in advertising(Forceville). In this study of metaphor usage in on-line advertising, threetypes of metaphor, drawn from Forceville’s work, have been defined as follows.Verbal metaphors are textual written language used to convey meaning of thefirst subject. Pictorial metaphors use images for the first element, withoutwords or any text accompanying the visual image. A combination of images andwords as the primary subject will result in a verbo-pictorial metaphor beingobserved. Some verbopictorial metaphors may require both the image and the textto support each other for clear understanding while others may not need theassistance of the other to be understood, but both may still be presented forgreater clarity. Regardless, if the first subject contains both words andimages, it shall be considered a verbo-pictorial metaphor.

For example, you can find a pictorial metaphor that uses only visualimages to convey the meaning of the primary subject. The musical notes with thesound waves radiating from the stems implies someone is hearing or listening tomusic. There is found beside certain musical compact discs for sale at theMusic Boulevard web site. This pictorial metaphor indicates that, when clickedwith the mouse, music will play. This image is only located beside those CD’sthat have audio available for listening on-line.

An example of a verbal metaphor can be found athttp://www.marthastewart.com. The words, «Guest Book Sign-In,» arecompletely textual and have no accompanying images of any kind. This phrase, asthe primary subject, leads the web surfer to actually sign-in and make commentsas one would do in the real world. This virtual guest book is a prime exampleof a verbal metaphor on-line.

Lastly, verbo-pictorial metaphors combine both text and images in theprimarysubject that work collectively to aid the viewer. The Virtual Vineyardsweb site, locatedat www.virtualvin.com, displays an example of this typeof metaphor. The Wine Shop is just one of the many departments in the on-linestore of Virtual Vineyards, presented by a bottle and glass of wine paired withthe words, «Shop for Wine.» The web surfer uses the mouse to clickupon this primary subject and is swept away to the wine shop. The combinationof the verbal and visual elements clarifies the meaning of this virtualshopping experience. [8, p.20-27]

4.1.2 Objectives of the use of metaphors in advertising

There are four primary objectives of this research.

First, the study seeks to develop a coding method for metaphor to be usedin a content analysis of corporate web sites. Classifications of metaphor willbe set forth in a hierarchical fashion that will help the researcher to clearlyidentify a metaphor and to distinguish one type of metaphor from another. Theseclassifications will be developed from both literature and observation.

Secondly, the study will collect data from the observation of commercialweb sites, as defined earlier. Metaphors from these web sites will bethoroughly explored and examined.

Third, the observed metaphors will be coded and counted according to thecodebook developed through achievement of the first objective of the study. Thesample will provide information on the frequency of certain types of metaphorsand help to identify the most commonly used types of metaphor. Metaphors usedin shopping and non-shopping sites will be compared and contrasted to examinedifferences and influences on group membership. Coding and analyzing thecollected data will be done through the computer program SPSS, StatisticalProgram for Social Sciences.

Lastly, with the knowledge from the research results, any significantfindings will be presented and differences among the two groups, shopping andnon-shopping web sites, will be discussed. The conclusions will makesuggestions for the application of metaphor in online advertising and itsfurther uses. The results should answer the following questions:

1). What is the most common type of metaphor used in on-line advertisingin 1998?

2). Is there a difference between metaphor usage in shopping versusnon-shopping web sites?

3). What are the influencing factors that account for these differences?[23]

4.2 Metaphor in on-line advertising

In observing metaphors in on-line advertising, key terminology must bedefined to clearly identify metaphors within a limited framework. The currentstudy’s framework is metaphors in on-line advertising. Advertising on the WorldWide Web can take several forms, from commercial web sites designedspecifically for promotional purposes to banner ads, small banner-shaped areasused for ad space as in traditional media. However, this study is focusing oncommercial web sites that advertise, promote, and market goods and services.The Internet’s World Wide Web was used to view these commercial web sites,which are web presentations that contain several pages usually arranged in ahierarchy. The starting page is commonly referred to as the home page,containing many hyperlinks. These links, when text, are usually blue in colorand underlined as well. When a mouse is used to click on these hyperlinks, theweb surfer loads another web page, either contained within the same webpresentation or another page from a separate web presentation.

Commercial web sites will be defined as web presentations that market,promote, and/or sell goods or services for a sponsoring corporation. The webaddress of the home page will usually end in ".com," meaningcommercial. Most web addresses, or also contain the corporation’s name, as inhttp://www.gap.com/, an example of the web address for the clothing company,The Gap. Two types of commercial web sites will be examined, shopping andnon-shopping sites. The web sites that actually sell products or services viathe Internet will be classified as shopping sites. Other web sites that simplypromote goods and services not for sale on-line but for sale only in traditionretail outlets will be classified as non-shopping sites. [31, p.38-40]

4.2.1 Visual metaphors in advertising

Visual metaphor scholars, often unhappy with the literary perspective,have begun to develop theories of their own. As discussed earlier, Indurkhya’sstudies attempt to «develop unifying accounts of metaphor that can applyto verbal and nonverbal contexts». Indurkhya’s semantic transference usesnew terminology that could apply to both verbal and nonverbal metaphors, bothin description and explanation of the function of metaphors. Van Noppensummarizes Indurkhya’s theory: «Metaphor is the description of a targetdomain in terms of a source domain; a transfer from one domain to another,characterized by different functions which condition the interpretation ofmetaphoric utterances». He is considered one of the few authors developinga new context that is not strictly literary, but one that iscross-categorizeable to verbal and nonverbal metaphor analysis. Also, some ofBlack’s basic tenants are still at work, especially those of transference ormapping features of one ‘subject’ onto the other. The interaction of the twoelements or ‘domains’ is still the key to understanding how metaphor works.

Even literary theorists recognize that metaphors do not require languageto transfer meaning from one subject to another. Kittay writes, " Inexploring metaphor as a phenomenon of language, I do not mean to claim thatmetaphor is found only in language nor that metaphor is merely linguistic. Wecan have metaphor in dance, in painting, in music, in film, or in any otherexpressive medium".

Rudolf Arnheim, in his studies of visual perception, finds metaphor inthe expressive medium of visual art. In his discussion of symbolism in art, herecognizes that metaphor unites «practically disparate objects» and «derivesfrom and relies on the universal and spontaneous way of approaching the worldof experience».

The metaphorical communication has become a part of how meaning isconveyed in our messages to one another. Metaphor, even in art, has passed downmeaning from generation to generation and thus developed a socially acceptednorm of metaphorical expression.

Leiss, Kline, and Jhally have used metaphor to study social communicationin advertising. They suggest that metaphors in advertisements have become apowerful and commonly used strategy. «Metaphor is the very heart of thebasic communication form used in advertising». Many other researchersshare this view as they seek to explain the effects of metaphor use inadvertising.

The study of metaphor in advertising has been used to gain insight aboutconsumer behavior. Zaltman’s Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) was aresearch tool developed to define and describe the metaphors that driveconsumer behavior with implications for copy testing. Metaphors are relevant tothe study of advertising because metaphors are «laden with symbols andimagery that might be used creatively in implementing decisions that willanimate or bring appropriate reasoning processes and mental models to life.

Stern also is an advocate of studying symbolism along with metaphor inadvertising. Stern believes that advertising is a metaphorical art, much likepoetry. She is more interested in verbo-pictorial metaphors (in Forceville’sterms) than strictly verbal metaphors since „words alone cannot convey theburden of meaning“. Print, television, and even the Internet’s World WideWeb may be more appropriate media as they are not limited to verbalcommunication. Stern’s work, although concerned with visual metaphors, stillconcerns the integration of verbal elements.

Charles Forceville tries to look at previous metaphor literature in hopesof developing a theory of pictorial metaphor in advertising, but notes thatmost of the literature on metaphor is primarily on verbal metaphors(Forceville, 4). Forceville uses the cognitive perspective from Black’s interactiontheory and extends that to what he calls a pictorial theory of metaphor inadvertising. „Metaphor occurs first of all on the level of cognition, andcan manifest itself on the pictorial as well as the verbal level – and possiblyin yet other ways“. Forceville has done content analyses of advertisementsto locate four distinct types of pictorial metaphors in advertising: (1)Pictorial metaphors with one pictorially present term, (2) Pictorial metaphorswith two pictorially present terms, (3) Pictorial similes, and (4)Verbo-pictorial metaphors.

Homer and Kahle propose a social adaptation explanation of visualmetaphors, where „problems are solved by rearranging what we have alwaysknown….combined in such a way as to evoke something else“. Socially acceptednorms are rearranged by juxtaposing two elements that interact and createtension. Homer & Kahle specifically studied surrealistic images, but theirdefinition of surrealistic content is related to metaphor and can be discussedalong with metaphor studies. Similar to metaphor, they describe the effects ofsurrealism: „By juxtaposing unrelated objects, they revealed unexpectedaffinities between different objects“. They investigated the effects ofmetaphor use on persuasion, finding that ads incorporating surrealistic contentproduced greater recall and purchase intent than other more traditionaladvertisements.

Similarly, Fazio, Zanna, and Cooper have found that direct experience mayaffect attitude formation by altering the way in which the available informationis processed (Fazio et al, 51). Since metaphors in consumer advertising requirethe consumer to become more actively involved and experience one thing in termsof another, advertising using metaphors may affect attitude formation towards aproduct or brand. At the very least, the active involvement stimulated bymetaphors will alter the way in which the information is processed. [14]

4.2.2 Virtual metaphors of the Web

Metaphors are one way to promote interactivity. Computer design of agraphical user interface was first to utilize metaphors to encourageinteractivity of the computer user. With a Macintosh windows operating systemand a mouse, early computer users pointed and clicked to interacted with theirvirtual world. Tim Rohrer speaks of ‘virtual’ metaphors in computer interfacedesign, such as the virtual desktop of the Apple Macintosh OS. „In theDESKTOP metaphor, the computer screen is a virtual ‘desktop’ with electronic‘folders,’ ‘documents,’ ‘disk icons’ and a ‘trash can’ which are patternedafter the physical objects in the physical office“.

In the late twentieth century, metaphors in the on-line world arecombining ideas from literary and pictorial metaphors, as well as those fromearly computer interface design, into virtual metaphors. Many graphic icons usesymbolism, pictographs, and other elements from semiotics along with linguisticmetaphor in hopes of catching the eye of a Web surfer. On-line metaphors areoften images, while others are text, and still others combine both text andimages. These computerized metaphors present the viewer with a semblance of theactual physical world on their computer screen. For example, Security FirstNetwork Bank, the first financial services institution to offer full-servicebanking on the Internet, uses on-line metaphors. „The company uses thegraphic metaphor of a conventional bank to communicate and interact withpotential and existing customers, including an electronic inquiries desk,electronic brochures for general information, and electronic tellers to dealwith routine transactions“.

On-line metaphors should entice the computer user to interact with theicons or images in a way that is intuitive. These images should representclosely their real-world counterparts and if performing a function, they shouldbe clear as to what function it is they perform. Rohrer agrees with thisassumption, first presented by Collins, when he states that „metaphors aremost intuitive to users when they are fairly literal“. As a marketer, thegoal is to have consumers become more interactive with your message and yourproducts. Thus leading to purchases and eventually repeat purchases. The moreintuitive this process is, the more likely the advertiser can convert thecasual web surfer to a loyal customer. To accomplish this goal on-line, the website should hold the visitor’s attention, be readable, and be visuallyappealing as well as inform.

On-line users, especially on-line shoppers, actively seek interactionwith this virtual world to perform functions such as browsing a catalogue orordering merchandise much like they would in the real world. Metaphors providea quick, easy way to present information to on-line consumers that also allowinteraction. On screen images and words entice web surfers to click and interactwith these metaphors in ways similar to their real world interactions, such astraditional advertising and in-store displays. [14]

4.3 Methodology of the metaphor usage

The purpose of this chapter is to operationalize several key terms notyet clearly defined and to present the methodology of the research study athand. Determination of the sample and sample size will also be explained.Methods examined will be those for coding, collection, and analysis of the datautilized throughout the research study.

4.3.1 Metaphor key terms definitions

Definitions of metaphor and the various types studied through thisresearch are summarized below.

— Metaphor: an unusual pairing of two elements that creates tension whenone element transfers meaning to another, thus creating a new concept differentfrom what one element would have without the other;

— Pictorial metaphor: a metaphor as defined above where the firstelement, or subject, is an image rather than words;

— Verbal metaphor: a metaphor as defined above where the primary subjectis presented in language rather than images;

— Verbo-Pictorial metaphor: a metaphor as defined above where the firstelement is presented in language and images; the text and images neednot be dependent upon the other for understanding, but they may be supportiveof one another.

4.3.2 Data Collection Methods

To compare commercial web sites on the Internet, high volume sites wereneeded. Therefore, a judgmental sample was utilized in order to study thehighest-traffic commercial sites on the Internet’s World Wide Web. PC Magazineon-line has identified the top 100 web sites by traffic in five categories:Commerce, Computing, Entertainment, News & Views, and Reference. Thecommerce category was employed in this study since this collection of web sitescontains corporations selling a good or service via their on-line presence,usually with their web address ending in ».com," meaning commercial.The Top 26 commercial web sites, as identified by PC Magazine on-line’sSeptember 2008 edition, were viewed and sampled for metaphors. Web sites thatoperated on individual persons placing classified ads to sell products orauction products were omitted from the sample since they did not meet therequirement of being a corporation promoting or selling a good or service. Websites were first divided into either «shopping» or «non-shopping»categories. The shopping sites were defined as corporate web sites that notonly promoted goods and services on-line, but also offered viewers theopportunity to purchase their products. Non-shopping sites often promoted andmarketed the corporation’s products, but there was no on-line selling of items,leaving the consumer to make their purchases in traditional retail outlets orelsewhere. With fewer non-shopping sites, it was necessary to identify the topnon-shopping sites first and to select the same number of shopping sites forcomparison. September’s top commerce sites contained seven nonshopping sitesand therefore the top seven shopping sites were also chosen for comparison. Thetop fourteen of these commercial sites, with the exclusion of the classifiedand auction sites, were selected as the two independent samples. Sites wereexamined thoroughly, starting with the home page, and all potential metaphorsexplored. All images were viewed and all text read to look for potentialpairings of subjects that created tension. All links were followed to the bestof the ability of the researcher, leading to numerous sub-pages of the website. [25]

4.3.3 Data Coding Examples.

The coding method of the five-level hierarchy described above was used toproperly identify and classify the multiple metaphors found in these fourteenweb sites.

The fourteen web sites used in the coding process are as follows in orderof observation and case number (1-14): www.amazon.com, www.bigstar.com,www.comparenet.com, www.etrade.com, www.marthastewart.com, www.aa.com,carpoint.msn.com, expedia.msn.com, homeadvisor.msn.com,investor.msn.com, www.musicblvd.com, www.necx.com, www.quicken.com, andwww.stockmaster.com. These fourteen cases were input into the StatisticalPackage for Social Sciences (SPSS) and first coded by type, where Type 1 is ashopping site and Type 2 a non-shopping site. Next, metaphors on each corporateweb site were counted as they fit into the categories defined above. The totalnumber of metaphors fitting each subclassification was input into the computerprogram.

Pictorial metaphors found were counted as the second variable input intoSPSS. An example of a pictorial metaphor can be found at www.amazon.com. Thepictorial icon image,, presents a shopping cart, but no accompanying words forthe viewer to read. Thus, the web viewer must look at this virtual shoppingcart and pair this image with their mental idea of a real-world shopping cart.The image is clickable and leads the web surfer to the contents of the virtualshopping basket in this on-line store. Therefore, the image is coded as apictorial, clickable, working, virtual metaphor because the graphic image, whenclicked, leads the viewer to the second subject of the metaphor, the contentsof the shopping cart of the on-line consumer.

Verbal metaphors were also found in the web sites. To use a similarexample, www.bigstar.com also allows viewers to purchase items on-line and putitems in a shopping basket. However, no image is used to denote such ametaphor. Only words convey this virtual shopping basket, as shown on the website by this clickable phrase, Shopping Basket. The text-only shoppingbasket was coded as a verbal metaphor that is clickable, working, and virtualsince the act of clicking on the phrase leads the consumer to view the contentsof the on-line shopping basket.

In the same vein of shopping, a verbo-pictorial example was found atwww.marthastewart.com, depicting the verbo-pictorial metaphor. The image of abasket paired with the words, «view basket,» aids the web surfer tocomprehend the metaphor. When clicked, this green rectangle allows the websurfer to view the contents of their shopping basket in the Martha Stewarton-line store. This verbo-pictorial metaphor was thus coded as clickable,working, and virtual as well.

Non-clickable metaphors were found where the first subject of themetaphor was not linked to another web page and thus was not a clickable imageor phrase. When the mouse was pointed at the object or phrase, the pointer didnot become the «hand» icon that denotes a hyperlink in the body ofthe web page. Therefore, when the image or phrase was clicked upon, nothinghappened. An example of this is found at www.bigstar.com, where the pictorialmetaphor,, is non-clickable, but still denotes the «BigStar’s Big 10»movie choices.

Non-working metaphors were also identified where, when clicked upon, didnot lead the web surfer to the second subject of the metaphor. On occasion,clicking on the first subject of the metaphor did load another web page, butproduced a confusing and unrelated web page that did not provide the viewerwith the second subject of the metaphor. For example, the verbo-pictorialmetaphor, symbolic for e-mail, used at www.amazon.com, is shown as. Clickingon this combination of words and images does not lead the viewer to read orcheck his mail or e-mail, but only to fill out a form to request book reviewsvia e-mail from the Amazon book company. The clickable image does not presentthe web surfer with the second subject of the metaphor, and is thus codednon-working.

Classifications or groupings of online metaphors that arose such asentryways, directional, and searching were also observed. A searching examplewas located at investor.msn.com. When clicking on the hyperlink text, Finder,the web surfer loaded a page that would allow them to search a database of over16,000 stocks and funds. This metaphor’s first subject was clickable text,which was coded as a verbal metaphor. However, when the second subject appearson the linked web page, a graphic image is paired with the word «Finder»:. This image of binoculars represents the web surfer looking for information ordetails about the stocks and funds available at investor.msn.com. However, it is still a verbal metaphor since the primary subject was only textand no image accompanied it. This metaphor was classified as a searching typeof verbal, clickable, working metaphor. [26]


II.Presentation of the sport discourse and football commentaries in the Englishand Ukrainian languages on a Web-site


1.General organization of a web-site


The web isbecoming an integral part of our working world. You cannot spit anymore thesedays without hitting a URL. In a very short time span, the web hasrevolutionized the way we access information, education, business,entertainment. It has created industries where there were none before.

Being able todevelop information on the web might be a job skill, a class requirement, abusiness necessity, or a personal interest. Unlike any other previous medium,the ability to «write» HTML allows you to potentially connect withmillions of other people, as your own self-publisher.

Thewebsite (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages,images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Webserver(s), usually accessible via the Internet (cell phone or a LAN also).A Webpage is a document, typically written in HTML, that is almost always accessiblevia HTTP, a protocol that transfers information from the Web server to displayin the user’s Web browser. All publicly accessible websites are seencollectively as constituting the «World Wide Web» (www).

Thepages of websites can usually be accessed from a common root URL called thehomepage, and usually reside on the same physical server. The URLs of the pagesorganize them into a hierarchy, although the hyperlinks between them controlhow the reader perceives the overall structure and how the traffic flowsbetween the different parts of the sites.

Somewebsites require a subscription to access some or all of their content.Examples of subscription sites include many business sites, parts of many newssites, academic journal sites, gaming sites, message boards, Web-based e-mail,services, social networking website, and sites providing real-time stock marketdata Organized by function a website may be: a personal, commercial,government, non-profit organization website.

Itcould be the work of an individual, a business or other organization and istypically dedicated to some particular topic or purpose. Any website cancontain a hyperlink to any other website, so the distinction between individualsites, as perceived by the user, may sometimes be blurred [2].

Awebsite is hosted on a computer system known as a web server, also called anHTTP server, and these terms can also refer to the software that runs on thesesystem and that retrieves and delivers the Web pages in response to requestsfrom the website users. Apache is the most commonly used Web server software(according to Netcraft statistics) and Microsoft's Internet Information Server(IIS) is also commonly used.

Websitesare written in, or dynamically converted to, HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language)and are accessed using a software program called a Web browser, also known as aHTTP client. Web pages can be viewed or otherwise accessed from a range ofcomputer-based and Internet-enabled devices of various sizes, including desktopcomputers, laptop computers, PDAs and cell phones. [1]

2. Introductionto HTML


HTML, an initialism of HyperTextMarkup Language, is the predominant markup language for Web pages. Itprovides a means to describe the structure of text-based information in adocument — by denoting certain text as links, headings, paragraphs, lists, andso on — and to supplement that text with interactive forms, embedded images,and other objects. HTML is written in the form of tags, surrounded by anglebrackets. HTML can also describe, to some degree, the appearance and semanticsof a document, and can include embedded scripting language code (such asJavaScript) which can affect the behavior of Web browsers and other HTMLprocessors.

In1980, physicist Tim Berners-Lee, who was an independent contractor at CERN,proposed and prototyped ENQUIRE, a system for CERN researchers to use and sharedocuments. In 1989, Berners-Lee and CERN data systems engineer Robert Cailliaueach submitted separate proposals for an Internet-based hypertext systemproviding similar functionality. The following year, they collaborated on ajoint proposal, the WorldWideWeb (W3) project, which was accepted by CERN.

Thefirst publicly available description of HTML was a document called HTML Tags,first mentioned on the Internet by Berners-Lee in late 1991. It describes 22elements comprising the initial, relatively simple design of HTML. Thirteen ofthese elements still exist in HTML 4.

Berners-Leeconsidered HTML to be, at the time, an application of SGML, but it was notformally defined as such until the mid-1993 publication, by the IETF, of thefirst proposal for an HTML specification: Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly's«Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)» Internet-Draft, which included anSGML Document Type Definition to define the grammar. The draft expired aftersix months, but was notable for its acknowledgment of the NCSA Mosaic browser'scustom tag for embedding in-line images, reflecting the IETF's philosophy ofbasing standards on successful prototypes. Similarly, Dave Raggett's competingInternet-Draft, «HTML+ (Hypertext Markup Format)», from late 1993,suggested standardizing already-implemented features like tables and fill-outforms.

Afterthe HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTMLWorking Group, which in 1995 completed «HTML 2.0», the first HTMLspecification intended to be treated as a standard against which futureimplementations should be based. Published as Request for Comments 1866, HTML2.0 included ideas from the HTML and HTML+ drafts. There was no «HTML1.0»; the 2.0 designation was intended to distinguish the new edition fromprevious drafts.

Furtherdevelopment under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests.Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input fromcommercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). However,in 2000, HTML also became an international standard (ISO/IEC 15445:2000). Thelast HTML specification published by the W3C is the HTML 4.01 Recommendation,published in late 1999. Its issues and errors were last acknowledged by erratapublished in 2001. [3]

3. Basic HTMLelements


Incomputing, an HTML element indicates structure in an HTML document and away of hierarchically arranging content. More specifically, an HTML element isan SGML element that meets the requirements of one or more of the HTML DocumentType Definitions (DTDs). These elements have properties: both attributes and content,as specified (both allowable and required) according to the appropriate HTMLDTD (for example, the HTML 4.01 strict DTD). Elements may represent headings,paragraphs, hypertext links, lists, embedded media, and a variety of otherstructures.


SyntacticallyHTML elements are constructed with:

· a starttag marking the beginning of an element

· anynumber of attributes (and their associated values)

· someamount of content (characters and other elements)

· an endtag

ManyHTML elements include attributes in their start tags, defining desired behavioror indicating additional element properties. The end tag is optional for manyelements; in a minimal case, an empty element has no content and requires noend tag. There are a few elements that are not part of any official DTDs, yetare supported by some browsers and used by some web pages. Such elements may beignored or displayed improperly on browsers not supporting them.

Informally,HTML elements are sometimes referred to as «tags» (an example ofsynecdoche), though many prefer the term tag strictly in reference to thesemantic structures delimiting the start and end of an element.

Head elements


Define adocument title. This element is required in every HTML and XHTML document.Different user agents may make use of the title in different ways. For example:

· Webbrowsers usually display it in a window's title bar when the window is open,and in the task bar when the window is minimized.

· It maybecome the default filename when saving the page.

· Searchengines' Web crawlers may pay particular attention to the words used in thetitle.

The titleelement must not contain any nested tags (that is, it cannot contain any otherelements). Only one titleelement is permitted in a document.


Specifies abase URL for all relative hrefand other links in the document. Must appear before any element that refers toan external resource. HTML permits only one base element for eachdocument. The baseelement has attributes, but no contents.


Specifieslinks to other documents, such as «previous» and «next»links, or alternate versions.


Used to addJavaScript or other scripts to the document. The script code may be typedliterally between the scripttags or may be given in a separate resource whose URL is specified with the scriptelement's optional srcattribute.


Specifies astyle for the document, usually in the form <styletype=«text/css»>…</style>


Used forincluding generic objects within the document header. Though rarely used withina headelement, it could potentially be used to extract foreign data and associate itwith the current document.


Can be used tospecify additional metadata about a document, such as its author, publicationdate, expiration date, page description, keywords, or other information notprovided through the other header elements and attributes. Because of theirgeneric nature, metaelements specify associative key-value pairs.

In the generalform, a metaelement specifies nameand associated contentattributes describing aspects of the HTML page. To prevent possible ambiguity,an optional third attribute, scheme, may be supplied to specify asemantic framework that defines the meaning of the key and its value: forexample, <metaname=«foo» content=«bar» scheme=«DC»>

/>Inline elements

Inlineelements cannot be placed directly inside the body element; theymust be wholly nested within block-level elements (see Block elements, below).

/> General phrase elements



Emphasis (conventionally displayed in italics)



strongemphasis (conventionally displayed bold). An oral user agent may use differentvoices for emphasis.



A quotationcontaining only inline elements (for quotations containing block level elementssee blockquotebelow).



A citation.Reference for a quote or statement in the document.



Defining firstinstance of a term



Contains anabbreviation, like abbr.



Similar to theabbrelement, but contains an acronym, like HTML.

/>Computercode phrase elements

Theseelements are useful primarily for documenting computer code development anduser interaction through differentiation of source code (<code>), sourcecode variables (<var>), user input (<kbd>), and terminal output(<samp>).


A codesnippet. Conventionally rendered in a monospace font: Code snippet.



Sample output(from a program or script)



Keyboard — text to be entered by the user




/>Specialinline elements


Deleted text.Typically rendered as a strikethrough:



Inserted text.

/> Links and anchors


Creates anelement that becomes a hyperlink with the href (hypertext reference)attribute set to a URL; additionally the attribute titlemay be set to a hover box text, some informative text about the link:

<ahref=«URL»title=«additionalinformation»>link text</a>

/>Imagesand objects


Includes animage with the srcattribute. The required attribute provides alternative text in case the imagecannot be displayed. Altis intended as alternative text, although Microsoft Internet Explorer rendersit as a tooltip if no titleis given; the titleattribute is the tooltip text. It was proposed by Marc Andreessen.


<br> or <br/>

Specifies aline-break.



Specifies aclient-side image map.



Specifies anarea in the map.



Includes anobject in the page of the type specified by the type attribute. Thismay be in any MIME-type the Web browser understands, such as an embedded page,code to be handled by a plug-in such as Flash, a Java applet, a sound file,etc.

/> Span element


Creates aninline logical division.

/>Block elements

ManyHTML elements are designed for altering the semantic structure or meaning of adocument. Some are block-level, but most are inline and can be included in thenormal flow of text.

/>Generalblock elements <p>…</p>

Creates aparagraph, perhaps the most common block level element. The closing tag is notrequired in HTML, however is required for XHTML.



Containsquoted material when the quotation itself includes block level elements (forinstance, quoting several paragraphs).



Inserts ahorizontal rule.



<h1></h1> <h2></h2><h3></h3><h4></h4><h5></h5><h6></h6>

Sectionheadings at different levels. Use <h1> for thehighest-level heading (the major sections), <h2> for thenext level down (sub-section), <h3> for a level below that, andso on. The lowest level heading is <h6>.

/> Lists


Creates a definitionlist (consisting of definition terms paired with definitions).



Creates adefinition term.



Creates adefinition.

<ol></ol> and <ul></ul>

Creates anordered (enumerated) or unordered (bulleted) list.



Creates a listitem in ordered and unordered lists.

/> Tables


Creates atable



Creates a rowin the table.



Creates atable header cell within a row or a column; contents are conventionallydisplayed bold and centered.



Creates atable data cell within a row.



Specifies acolumn group in a table.



Specifiesattributes for an entire column in a table.



Specifies acaption for the entire table.



Specifies theheader part of a table.



Specifies themain part of a table.



Specifies thefooter part of a table.


Theseelements can be combined into a form or used separately as user-interfacecontrols. Combined with a first-class javascript engine, these controls providesupport for rich user interfaces. HTML specifies the elements that make up aform, and the method by which it will be submitted. However, some form ofscript either server-side or client side must be used to process the user'sinput once it is submitted.



Creates aform.



Create aselection list, from which the user can select a single option. May be renderedas a dropdown list.



Creates anitem in a selectlist.



Creates acheckbox. Can be checked or unchecked.



Creates aradio button.


Creates ageneral-purpose button.



Creates asubmit button.



Creates abutton using an image.



Creates areset button for resetting the form to default values.



Creates a fileselect



Is not visiblein the rendered page, but allows a designer to maintain a copy of somethingthat needs to be submitted to the server as part of the form.



Creates alabel for a form input (e.g. radio button).


Create amultiple-line text area, the size of which is specified by colsand rowsattributes. Text in between the tags appears in the text area when the page isloaded.

/> Other containers


Creates ablock logical division.



Createspre-formatted text.



Used to markup contact information like address for the document or a section of it.



Includesanother HTML document in the page.

The<iframe> tag must be closed by </iframe>. Otherwise the contentafter the <iframe> tag will be taken as alternative text to be displayedwhen the browser has no iframe support.


AnHTML document may contain a header and a body or a header and a frameset, butnot both. For frames the Frames DTD must be used.


Delimit theframeset. The frames layout is given by comma separated lists in the rowsand colsattributes.



Delimit asingle frame, or region, within the frameset. A different document linked withthe srcattribute appears inside.



Contains anormal <body>element with child elements that will appear in web browsers that don't supportframes.

/>/>Official presentationalmarkup



Use boldfacetype. Equivalent CSS: {font-weight:bold}



Use italictype. Equivalent CSS: {font-style:italic}



Creates biggertext. Equivalent CSS: {font-size:larger}.



Createssmaller text. Equivalent CSS: {font-size: smaller}



Use a typewriter-like,also known as teletype font. Equivalent CSS: {font-family: monospace}[1, p. 46-55]

4. Maintypes of HTML editors


AnHTML editor is a software application for creating web pages. Althoughthe HTML markup of a web page can be written with any text editor, specializedHTML editors can offer convenience and added functionality. For example, manyHTML editors work not only with HTML, but also with related technologies suchas CSS, XML and JavaScript or ECMAScript. In some cases they also managecommunication with remote web servers via FTP and WebDAV, and versionmanagement systems such as CVS or Subversion.

Text editors

Plaintext editors may be used to produce webpages.

Thefollowing are some commonly used text editors:

EditPlus Emacs gedit jEdit Kate nano Notepad TextEdit UltraEdit Crimson Editor vi (Sun Microsystems) Vim Notepad++ TextMate /> Text-based HTML editors

Text-basedHTML editors evolved from basic text editors, but include additional toolsspecifically geared toward handling code.

Adobe Dreamweaver Adobe HomeSite Alleycode HTML Editor Aptana Arachnophilia BBEdit BestAddress HTML Editor BlueFish CoffeeCup HTML Editor Eclipse with the Web Tools Platform EditPlus EmEditor Evrsoft 1st Page HTML-Kit Microsoft Expression Web Microsoft Visual Web Developer Notepad++ NoteTab PSPad Quanta Plus SCREEM Siteaid Smultron skEdit TextMate TextPad TextWrangler TopStyle /> Word processors

Whileword processors are not ostensibly HTML editors, many of the major products arecapable of exporting document layouts in HTML format. This offers the ease ofuse of a word processor, similar to a WYSIWYG product (see below), but has someof the same end product limitations.

· AbiWord

· AppleWorks

· MicrosoftWord

· OpenOffice.orgWriter

· WordPerfect

/>WYSIWYG editors

WYSIWYG(What You See Is What You Get) code generators offer speed and ease of use.

Manyof these editors do not require any knowledge of the programming languagesgenerated by the software.

Someof these editors store pages in a proprietary format and then export them asHTML (possibly along with other formats); the user would continue to maintainthe website by working with the files in the proprietary format andre-exporting them. Other, generally simpler WYSIWYG editors are designed towork directly with HTML files.

Althoughthe term WYSIWYG is often used for these editors, they are generally not trulyWYSIWYG (see Difficulties in achieving WYSIWYG).

Adobe Contribute «Dreamweaver Lite» Dreamweaver Altova StyleVision Amaya Aptana Bluevoda Create Evrsoft 1st Page Freeway iWeb KompoZer Media Lab SiteGrinder Microsoft Expression Web Visual Studio / ASP.NET Web Matrix NetObjects Fusion Opera Dragonfly Quanta Plus RapidWeaver Sandvox SeaMonker Composer WorldWideWeb Yahoo SiteBuilder[1] /> WYSIWYM editors

WYSIWYM(what you see is what you mean) is an alternative paradigm to WYSIWYG, in whichthe focus is on the semantic structure of the document rather than on thepresentation. These editors produce more logically structured markup than istypical of WYSIWYG editors, while retaining the advantage in ease of use overhand-coding using a text editor.

· WYMeditor


Editorsthat have been discontinued, but may be in common use

· AdobeGoLive — Now discontinued. Replaced by Adobe Dreamweaver.

· AOLpress- Now discontinued.

· AdobePageMill — Now discontinued. Replaced by Adobe GoLive.

· MicrosoftFrontPage — Now discontinued. Replaced by Microsoft Expression Web

· NetscapeComposer; Mozilla Composer — Not updated or supported. Replaced by Nvu thenKompoZer, or SeaMonkey Composer

· Nvu;Developer Daniel Glazman is working on replacement, tentatively called MozillaComposer; a community-driven WYSIWYG HTML editor fork, KompoZer, maintains Nvucodebase and fixes bugs until a successor to Nvu is released.

· HotDog- essentially discontinued with no updates since 2003

· HoTMetaL- Replaced by XMeTaL, a commercial XML editor. [2, p.12-13]

5.Dreamweaver as an expert tool in website creation


In my diplomapaper I used such HTML editor as Dreamweaver. Adobe Dreamweaver is a webdevelopment application originally created by Allaire Systems, which wasacquired in, approximately, 1998 by Macromedia and is now owned by AdobeSystems, which acquired Macromedia in 2005.

Dreamweaver isavailable for both Mac and Windows operating systems. Recent versions haveincorporated support for web technologies such as CSS, JavaScript, and variousserver-side scripting languages and frameworks including ASP.NET, ColdFusion,JavaServer Pages, and PHP.

As a WYSIWYGPresto-based editor, Dreamweaver can hide the HTML code details of pages fromthe user, making it possible for non-coders to create web pages and sites. Onecriticism of this approach is that it can produce HTML pages whose file sizeand amount of HTML code is larger than an optimally hand-coded page would be,which can cause web browsers to perform poorly. This can be particularly truebecause the application makes it very easy to create table-based layouts. Inaddition, some web site developers have criticized. Dreamweaver in the past forproducing code that often does not comply with W3C standards, though recentversions have been more compliant. However, Adobe has increased the support forCSS and other ways to lay out a page without tables in later versions of theapplication, with the ability to convert tables to layers and vice versa.

Dreamweaverallows users to preview websites in many browsers, provided that they areinstalled on their computer. It also has some site management tools, such asthe ability to find and replace lines of text or code by whatever parametersspecified across the entire site, and a templatisation feature for creatingmultiple pages with similar structures.

Dreamweavercan use «Extensions» – small programs, which any web developer canwrite (usually in HTML and JavaScript). Extensions provide added functionalityto the software for whoever wants to download and install them. Dreamweaver issupported by a large community of extension developers who make extensionsavailable (both commercial and free) for most web development tasks from simplerollover effects to full-featured shopping carts.

Like otherHTML editors, Dreamweaver edits files locally, then uploads all edited files tothe remote web server using FTP or SFTP.

Dreamweavercan display a document in three ways: in Design view, in Code view, and in asplit view that shows both the design and code. By default, Dreamweaverdisplays the Document window in Design view.

In addition, Ican work with the Dreamweaver Design view in two different ways—in Layout viewand Standard view. In Layout view I can design a page layout, insert graphics,text, and other media; in Standard view, in addition to inserting graphics textand media, I can also insert layers, create frame documents, create tables, andapply other changes to your page—options that aren’t available in Layout view.

Thereare different versions of this program: Dreamweaver 1.0, Dreamweaver 1.2,Dreamweaver 2.0, Dreamweaver 3.0, Dreamweaver UltraDev 1.0, Dreamweaver 4.0,Dreamweaver UltraDev 4.0, Dreamweaver MX [Internal version number: 6.0],Dreamweaver MX 2004, Dreamweaver 8, Dreamweaver CS3, Dreamweaver CS4.


Inthis paper was applied the version of Dreamweaver, CS3. From start to finishwith Adobe Dreamweaver CS3 software you can make, develop and maintaindesign of websites and web applications quickly and easily. Built for bothdesigners and developers, Dreamweaver CS3 offers the choice of working in anintuitive visual layout interface or a streamlined coding environment.Intelligent integration with Adobe Photoshop CS3, Adobe Illustrator CS3, AdobeFireworks CS3, Adobe Flash CS3 Professional, and Adobe Contribute CS3 softwareensures efficient workflow across your favourite tools [36].

Dreamweaveroperates based upon the concept of a web site. When the program was opened forthe first time, Dreamweaver makes me define a site. This helps to keep allfiles organized. With a simple web site, we will just need to keep a few fileswithin a file folder. However, it is best to plan this out before we start,since folder maintenance will help greatly as our site grows and we startlinking to other web pages and adding graphics.

So,let us dwell carefully upon the instructions of this project development:

· Clickthe item on the menu ‘Manage Sites’;

· Openthe ‘Site Files’ window;

· In thewindow that opens, choose ‘Define Sites as shown below’;

· Choose‘New’ in the window that pops up;

· Selectthe Advanced tab in the Site Definition window;

· Put adesirable title ‘Typology of discourse’ under request ‘What would you like, toname your site?’ (Figure 1.);

· Thetitle changes rapidly into ‘Site Definition for Typology of discourse’;

· Clickthe bottom ‘Next’ on the window of dialog;

· Choose’No, I do not want to use a server technology’ to the question ‘Do you want towork with a server technology such as ColdFusion, ASP.NET, ASP, JSP, or PHP?’> ‘Next’ >;

· To thequestion ‘How do you want to work with your files during development?’ choosebutton ‘Edit local copies on my machine, then upload to server when ready(recommended)’;

· Dreamweaverwill now ask for name of the site and where it is on your hard drive. For now,just enter the Local Info. Enter the relevant information. Make sure we enterthe location of the Tutorial folder on our computer and not what is shown below> ‘Next’ >;

· Pick‘None’ in the list that is given after the request ‘How do you connect to yourremote server?’ > ‘Next’>;

· Nowthere is a summary about site in a window ‘Site Definition for Typology ofdiscourse’ there > ‘Done’>;

· Whenthe window ‘Site Definition for Typology of discourse’ is closed return to theone, which is called ‘Manage Sites...’, where the title (‘Magic of the names’)of the website appeared;

· Choose‘Done’ and this way all windows will be closed

/>Dreamweaver does not include any fontor size attributes from the text editor. That is why Word HTML was importedinto Dreamweaver:

· Choose‘File’ > ‘Import’ > ‘Import Word HTML’ (we can import other file formatshere as well);

· Openthe ‘blurb.html’ included with the tutorial file. This HTML file was savedusing Word’s Save as HTML feature;

· Leavethe default selections as they are and click ‘OK’ in the window that opens;

· A newWeb page window opens with the description text which retains the font and sizeattributes;

· Highlightthe text and copy it. Your Web page window is now hidden behind this new one;

· Closethe new Web window without saving;

· Highlightthe text that we pasted before, and choose Edit > Paste;

· CleanUp Word HTML.

Whena document is saved using MS Word’s Save as HTML feature (Figure 2.), Wordimbeds many tags into the document that some programs will not use. To removethese tags, choose Commands > Clean up Word HTML.

Nowwe have a basic Web page. To preview your Web page in a browser, choose File> Preview in Browser > [Browser]. It is best to preview page in severalbrowsers (for example, Netscape and Internet Explorer). It may look differentwith differentbrowsers.

Dreamweaveroffers complete control over HTML code colouring and formatting. For example,under ‘Edit’ > ‘Preferences’ > ‘Code Colors’, we can specify the coloursto use when displaying HTML code. We may specify separate colours for text,comments, tags, reserved JavaScript keywords, JavaScript function names, andJavaScript string literals. We have infinite control over the colour applied toeach tag and its attributes. For example, we can use one colour for <img>tags, another colour for <img> attributes, and a third colour for<a> tags

Furthermore,we can control HTML formatting under ‘Edit’ > ‘Preferences’ > ‘CodeFormat’. These preferences allow precise control over indentation (using eithertabs or spaces), line wrapping, and line breaks [34].

/>Discovering visual CSS tools itbecame obvious that these tools make it easy to view, edit, and move styleswithin and between files, as well as see how our changes will affect the design


Advertisingin Web resources has been observed in the given research. First of all thespecific features of the main approaches of the persuasion have been described.There has been investigated that different techniques and methods of persuasionare an inalienable and main part of advertising. Besides in practical part Ihave made the Web-site containing not only information about persuasion, banners,metaphors and other crucial parts of advertisements but also some interestingfacts that have not been included in the diploma paper. This research has beenbased upon the books and works of famous researchers, journals and papersrelated to the theme, internet sources, examples of widely-known banner makers.

Firstly,the theoretical linguistic background on the theme has been provided in thefirst part of the paper. Discourse studies, the use of the implication in thediscourse of commercial English advertising and different types of thepersuasion have been described.

Secondly,the characteristic features of the advertising have been investigated. I haveunderlined that the main aim of the advertising is to serve one or another necessities:income of the corporations, collaboration with other companies, personalnecessities, maintenance of relationships with other firms, persuasion other tooperate in some way, realization of lordship over other people, display ofcreative nature and imagination.

Thirdly,the similar and distinctive features of the banners and copy testing bannersadvrtisements have been analyzed. I have investigated that both types of theadvertisings can be very useful in achieving their aim. A good banner must havesomething that makes it memorable enough to stay in public consciousness foryears afterwards.

Inthe fourth part I have investigated the use of metaphors in advertising. Thestudy of metaphors in advertising, different types of on-line metaphoradvertisements, methodology of the metaphor usage have been overviewed in thischapter of the paper..

This researchhas disclosed plenty of interesting and useful information about advertisingand peculiarities of its usage.For examples, I have observed that in themajority sites the virtual metaphors are more useful than visual, but in some sitesvirtual metaphors can’t be well recognized.

Thus the mostsignificant conclusion can be done that on-line advertisements is becoming moreand more popular in the media. Right now web advertisiments are the second inthe world type of advertising according to their influence on people’sdecision.

The second main part of this paper has been the website development.Dreamweaver is the tool, which was chosen for its realization. Comprehensivein-product tutorials, reference content and instructional templates made iteasy to expand one’s skill set and adopt the latest technologies, Dreamweaverhelped to realize our second part of the work.

This tool has helped me to facilitate my desire to introduce the web-sitewhere it will be possible to find all needed information about advertising andits use in the Web.

Being Adobe’s software, Dreamweaver has features for both the beginningand advanced web page creator. Dreamweaver integrated many aspects of Webdevelopment, including page creation, site management, and web server tools,giving the user a good perspective of an entire web site. That is why I havegot a website of comprehensive structure and beautiful interface.

In the practical part the Web-site has been supplied with maintheoretical items of my diploma paper, with links where it is possible to watchfootball and with main information about commentators and their commentaries.

So, I would like to conclude that on-line advertisements has become aninevitable part of everyday life.


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