Реферат: Efficiency of development of advertising
Table of contents
1. Theoretical aspects of efficiency of development ofadvertising activity
1.1 The place and the role of advertising activity inmarketing system
1.2 Development of advertising activity and its value formanufacturers and consumers
1.3 The economic indicators characterizing importance ofadvertising activity
2. Research of the advertising campaign of the new goods inopen company nataly
2.1 The program of investment maintenance of theadvertising campaign
2.2 The estimation and theanalysis of indicators of efficiency of the advertising campaign
3. Ways of increase of efficiency of advertising activityto open company nataly
3.1 Methods of rational use of possibilities of advertisingagencies
3.2 Methods of increase of efficiency of advertisingactivity
3.3 Use of methods of optimizationin advertising activity
The bibliographic list
Now the economyof Russia is in a transition state from planned system to the market. And ifearlier the enterprises had not to reflect especially on production sale, thestate now in the conditions of the market each enterprise at own riskindependently solves was engaged in it what exactly it will make and how tomarket, what will be thus used means. As in present conditions any businessmancan make that considers it necessary also possible the number of manufacturersof similar production becomes very big. And everyone them them to aspire to winthe market. It also induces the organisations to undertake the various actionspromoting realisation of production. To these actions carry improvement ofquality of production and efficiency of advertising activity. Advertising is asignificant part of marketing communications and serves as the tool of creationof external competitive advantage. It is impossible to present work of themodern enterprise without advertising activity. The company should declare theexistence in the market, about the goods, involve the potential buyer andcreate an image of the reliable partner. The control system base the modernenterprise is the marketing transforming the purposes of firm in strategy ofits behaviour in the market. A visual embodiment in direct continuation ofmarketing strategy? It also is advertising activity of the enterprise which isturned directly on the consumer and is a basis of a complex of marketingcommunications. Thus advertising activity, as well as any another, shoulddevelop continuously within the limits of strategic planning of the enterprise.As practice shows, frequently planning of advertising activity of theenterprise is conducted without marketing strategy, in a separation frommarketing activity of the enterprise. It leads to that publicity expensesincrease, and its efficiency decreases. Considering all aforesaid, it isobvious, what a diploma theme? Efficiency of development of advertising activity?It is rather actual. Besides, in the course of performance of degree workrecommendations which allow to raise essentially efficiency of advertisingactivity in modern conditions of managing have been developed. As a whole theadvertising efficiency estimation allows to receive the information onexpediency of advertising and productivity of its separate means, to defineconditions of optimum influence of advertising on potential buyers, to make thedecision on change of advertising strategy, flexibly to react to actions ofcompetitors. Especially sharply there is an advertising question at release ofthe new goods. After all there is a danger that the product will not beaccepted by the market. Therefore it is very important in advance even prior tothe beginning of manufacture process to find out, whether the market requires asimilar product. And later, during an advertising campaign to stimulate sale ofproduction by influence on potential buyers, showing utility of the goods, itsbest characteristics. In the given work the advertising campaign on advancementof the new goods which is for today is developed faster the goods of industrialappointment, than consumer goods. Owing to what, the emphasis at advertising ofthese goods is made on the businessmen who are engaged in business (mainlyheads). It causes the advertising campaign maintenance (from the channel ofplacing to the maintenance of the advertising message). Object of researches isthe industrial enterprise of Open Company Nataly, engaged in manufacturing ofan aluminium profile and products. A subject of researches? Advertisingactivity of the enterprise. The purpose of degree work is research of anadvertising campaign of the new goods in Open Company Nataly and definition ofways of increase of efficiency of advertising activity for the enterprise as awhole. The primary goals of degree work are:
1) research oftheoretical aspects of efficiency of development of advertising activity; orderingof a theoretical material according to efficiency of the advertising activity,available in the scientific literature;
2) asubstantiation of an advertising campaign of the new goods in Open Company Nataly,including: planning, investment maintenance and an estimation quantitative andquality indicators of efficiency of an advertising campaign;
3) definitionof ways of increase of efficiency of advertising activity in Open Company Nataly.
Structurallywork is presented by three heads. In chapter 1 of degree work the theoreticalmaterial on research of efficiency of development of advertising activity ispresented and systematised. Here the place and a role of advertising activityin marketing system, development of advertising activity and its value formanufacturers and consumers are considered. And also the economic indicators,characterising the important advertising activity are resulted. In the secondchapter of work research of an advertising campaign of the new goods is carriedout Open Company Nataly in which its planning and a substantiation ofinvestment maintenance is carried out. Here the estimation quantitative andquality indicators of efficiency of an advertising campaign is made. In thefinal, third chapter of work ways of increase of efficiency of advertisingactivity to Open Company are defined Nataly.
In particularmethods of rational use of possibilities of advertising agencies, methods ofincrease of efficiency of advertising activity are considered, and alsooptimisation methods in advertising activity are considered.
1. Theoretical aspects ofefficiency of development of advertising activity1.1 The place and the role ofadvertising activity in marketing system
Last years theattention has increased in Russia to advertising. This results from the factthat economic conditions have changed, and absence of accurate planning hasforced the enterprises to depart from habitual stereotypes in businessrelations and to search for new nonconventional ways of attraction of attentionto itself, the activity from outside consumers. Skilfully made advertisingallows to overcome faster barriers between the manufacturer and the consumer. Themanufacturer is the advertiser. And the consumer? This on whom the advertisingmessage on purpose is directed to induce it to make certain action in which theadvertiser is interested. The product does not become the goods while it willnot sell. That it has occurred, the consumer is necessary for interesting andpreparing for purchase fulfilment, to give it the sufficient information whichwould induce it to action. This role is carried out by advertising. Besides, inthe conditions of saturation of the market by the goods advertising acts asstruggle means between competitors for the share of the market, as a way offormation of demand, its developments, deduction or expansion of a share of themarket, maintenance of effective work of the enterprise [3, с.142]. There aremany definitions of the advertising which essence depends on the approach tothe given concept. Advertising? The paid form of representation and advancementof the goods and services with accurately specified source of financing [3, с.142].Advertising? The impersonal forms of communications which are carried out bymeans of paid means of distribution of the information, with accuratelyspecified source of financing [13, с.473]. Advertising? Attention attraction tothe goods, service of the concrete manufacturer, the dealer, the intermediaryand the distributor at their expense and under their mark of offers, appeals,councils, recommendations to buy these goods or services [30, with.331]. In theFederal law «About advertising» following definition of advertisingactivity is made. Advertising? Specific area of a mass communication in theconditions of a market competition between advertisers and various audiencesfor the purpose of active influence on these audiences which should promote thedecision of certain marketing problems of the advertiser. It is a component ofmarketing communications [17, с.22]. Hence, an advertising subject? It that isadvertised, and a vehicle for advertising — a channel of information on whichthe advertising message reaches consumers. Thus the system of marketingcommunications is the uniform complex uniting participants of advertising,channels and the communications receptions, directed on an establishment andmaintenance of the mutual relations planned by the given organisation withaddressees within the limits of achievement of the marketing purposes (fig.1.1see) [22, s.11-12]. Advertising is only a part of advancement of the goods atwhich the firm can carry out contacts to the consumer through the tradingpersonnel (direct sales), popularisation or public relations, and also to usevarious receptions of stimulation of sale. Advertising as a communicationmedium allows to transfer the message to potential buyers direct contact withwhich is not established. Therefore advertising is the cash form ofcommunications. But there is also a direct marketing which includes a directmail advertising (direct a mail), telemarketing, advertising of the directresponse (direct response) on TV, radio, in other mass-media. This kind ofmarketing communications apply, when the advertising message is aimed atgeneration of reciprocal action. Direct marketing has two basic advantages,distinguishing it from usual mass advertising:
1) possibilityof the individual reference to the concrete consumer with offer speciallyprepared for it;
2) directregistration of its answer.
The role ofadvertising activity reveals in its functions [18, с.33]:
1. Economicfunction. Advertising stimulates sale of the goods and promotes growth ofprofit of the enterprise.
2. Informationfunction. Advertising forms an information field about the goods, services,their basic characteristics and features. About the new goods consumers learnmainly from advertising messages.
3.communicativefunction. Advertising creates image of commodity producers, forming activity ofconsumers to the certain goods (services).
4. Supervisingfunction. Advertising supervises processes of creation of preferences of groupsof consumers to the goods of regular assortment.
5. Correctingfunction. Advertising changes stereotypes of perception of these or those goods.
6. Demandmanagement function. The volume of the advertising information and a drawing ofits giving can change demand in the necessary direction. The essence ofadvertising consists in the following its basic functions and properties: theimpersonal form of communications; It is characterised by uncertainty of targetaudience; creates an information field about the goods and services andpromotes observance of interests of the advertiser. Advertising acts as one oflevers in a complex of marketing communications (fig.1.2) [18, с.44].
Advertising isa specific kind of communications. It is possible to allocate three its basicdistinctive features:
1) advertisingalways has a unilateral orientation: from the seller to the buyer;
2) the resultof advertising is not defined, as the feedback from buyers practically isabsent;
3) the resultof advertising communications comes not at once, and after certain time.
Thus,advertising has public character, promotes distribution of the information onthe goods and services, is depersonalized and экспрессивна. It not only thetool, but also considerable sector of economy. Economic function is reducedbasically to informing of the consumer on the goods or services, theirpopularisation, demand and goods turnover increase. Advertising itself isbusiness sphere where are occupied hundred thousand professional experts, andbrings in the big incomes to the manufacturers. Advertising? A source ofeconomic well-being of commercial mass media. It provides with it financialsupport and mutually advantageous communications with trade and economic andother spheres of a public life. Advertising develops economy, influences increaseof a standard of living of people and promotes effectiveness of a marketmechanism.1.2 Development of advertisingactivity and its value for manufacturers and consumers
The commoditymarket formed in Russia and services all demands attraction and advertising usemore persistently. Its roots leave in deep olden time and are connected by thatmanufacturers always needed to inform people on the goods sold by them, aboutspent fairs [25, с.4].
Exceptinformative function, advertising acts and as the communications form betweensphere of the reference and manufacture sphere as formation of new requirementsof the buyers, stimulated advertising, gives a new impulse to manufacture,defines directions and rates of its development. That is, advertising willorganise dialogue between manufacture and consumption. It finds the expressionin orientation of manufacture to the market [25, с.11].
For 550 yearsadvertising has passed a way of development from the labour-consuming printadvertising (publishing) limited to region, before interactive globaladvertising. The first handbill has appeared in 1472, printed by WilliamKokstonom and containing the information on prayer book sale. The first weeklynewspaper has started to be published in Strasbourg in 1609. In 1920 the firstcommercial radio station KDKA in Pittsburgh, the State of Pennsylvania startsto work. Now advertising is applied not only in trade, but also such spheres ofa public life, as: the finance (for advertising of services), a policy (persons,parties, the unions), religion (spiritual culture), ecology (at occurrence ofany natural and social situations), culture (persons, events), a science (workingsout, technologies, innovations), services (medicine, tourism, etc).
From this it ispossible to draw a conclusion that advertising is the special form ofcommunications. It realises the most general problems, such, for example, how toinform on events and the facts of a public life, to develop contacts betweenpeople, to operate dialogue process. Besides it, advertising solves also theprivate problems: creates the set images, convinces the consumer of necessityand possibilities to get these or those goods, forms at it desire to buy theadvertised goods, unostentatiously and effectively, thereby turning to the toolof the organisation of sale of production of the enterprises and theorganisations.
Ascommunication channels between the advertiser and consumers various audiovisualmeans which represent advertising media act. Advertising media classify on thebasic and additional. All mass media and the outdoor advertising concern thebasic means.
Advertising in(newspaper) press possesses such advantages, as: timeliness, frequentperiodicity, the big coverage of the local market. She allows to make changesto an advertising appeal operatively. At the same time it has such lacks, as: shortduration of existence, poor quality of reproduction, a small audience? Thesecondary? Readers, thus advertising of one firm is in a direct environment ofadvertising of competitors. Advertising on TV unlike advertising in newspaperspossesses high degree of attraction of attention at the expense of a combinationof the image, a sound, movement. However it has high cost, fugacity ofadvertising contact, thus perception of the information of an advertisingappeal is imposed on irritation from an advertising overabundance on TV. Radiois presented only by sound means, advertising contact thus also is very shorton time. However at the given advertising medium coverage of an audience andsmaller cost. Unlike advertising in newspapers, advertising in magazines hassharp selectivity, prestigiousness, better quality of reproduction and the bigcoverage of a secondary audience.
Alsoadvertising here differs duration of existence. At the same time at theadvertising publication in magazine there can be a big rupture in time betweenrepresentation of materials in edition and its exit to the public, i. e. effect?Advertising obsolescence?.. The outdoor advertising has powerful emotionalinfluence, high frequency of repeated contacts, however at its applicationthere is no selectivity of an audience.
Exhibitions andfairs thus that demand heavy expenses and preliminary preparation of stands,give the chance personal contacts to consumers and partners, and alsopossibility to show the goods in operation.
But whatadvertising medium would not be chosen, it is necessary to note followinggeneral negative aspects of advertising [18, с. 20]:
1) theadvertising message is standard, nonflexible, limited in time (advertising onradio, TV) and on the area (advertising in newspapers and magazines);
2) in theadvertising message there is no possibility to emphasise individualrequirements of the client;
3) theadvertising message often is in an environment of advertising of competitors;
4) all kinds ofadvertising demand the big investments;
5) advertisinglays down heavy burden on consumers, increasing the prices for the goods andservices;
6) quotationsfrom year to year increase by advertising placing in a press that leads toreduction of the advertising areas and advertising efficiency decrease;
7) advertisingcauses irritation that too often interrupts translation of telecasts. Nevertheless,at all its lacks, advertising helps to achieve decrease in time spent bytrading workers on purchase and sale of the goods, partially releases them frompersonal participation in advancement of the advertised goods that alsoconducts to decrease in distribution costs. [19, с.91].
Advertisingpromotes constant perfection of let out production. It use as the competitiontool. Without advertising there is no possibility actively to influence themarket, to fix the position on it [25, с.12]. Advertising as the communicationmedium, gives the chance large attendance attraction, thus to use the variousmass media most suitable to the chosen target segment of the market. Thus it ispossible to supervise the maintenance of advertising messages, its registrationand exit time, to correct or change the message depending on reaction of atarget segment. Advertising creates additional workplaces for managers,designers, artists, experts. Besides, advertising positively influences aconsumer society as a whole, forming a powerful information field about the newgoods and services.
There are theaspects explaining the negative relation to advertising:
1.russia it isnot generated the positive relation to commercial activity. In consciousness ofmany people business Fraud.
2. Advertisingis directed till now on the limited circle of people? An average? The consumeris left indifferent by messages on computers, cars, trips abroad. The reason — inlow level of incomes.
3. Aninsufficient social orientation of advertisements at which there is a problemof protection of environment, love, sports.
4. Manyannouncements are given a little reason, persuasive and do not represent thefacts.
5. Previewtrailers are inexpressive, suffer bad aesthetic taste, in them there are noelements of a corporate style of the enterprise.
Advertising isfavourable to any enterprise And, many cases when the manufacturer ofadvertising specially gave negative advertising by means of which became knownalmost more than those who used only an advertising positive side are known. Nevertheless,the author considers, what finally similar advertising does not bring advantageto anybody?
To themanufacturer as on subconsciousness there is an opinion on its firm as aboutsomething pushing away; to the consumer, owing to that after similaradvertising there is an unpleasant deposit. With assistance of advertising themarket becomes clearer and accessible to buyers with different tastes andrequirements, with different level of monetary incomes, with unequal traditionsconcerning consumption. Carrying out contacts to the consumer, the advertisingmessage at first forms awareness at the person — the consumer remembers mark. Thepositive relation to the goods is then formed, that is the consumer remembersthe goods as one of the best in the given category.
The nextportion of contacts moves it to the first purchase [9, s. 20-22]. Unfortunately,not any advertising is perceived positively and consequently not any goods aregot. But advertising is necessary for the consumer, as about existence of manygoods we never would learn, if not advertising activity of manufacturers. Thatis advertising is necessary to all: and that who advertises the goods, wishingit to advance, and that who looks advertising and thus receives the informationon the goods.
Advertising notonly the tool, but also considerable sector of economy. Advertising itself isbusiness sphere where are occupied hundred thousand professional experts, andbrings in the big incomes to the manufacturers. Advertising? A source ofeconomic well-being of commercial mass media. It provides with it financialsupport and mutually advantageous communications with trade and economic andother spheres of a public life. Thus, advertising develops economy, influencesincrease of a standard of living of people and promotes competition development.1.3 The economic indicatorscharacterizing importance of advertising activity
Expenses onadvertising? A powerful part of the budget of foreign industrial firms. Theyshow the tendency of development of advertising activity. In the USA onadvertising in mass media 5% from total expenses on manufacture and realisationof the goods leave approximately. At manufacturers of consumer goods this sharestill above: medicines? 20%; spirits, cosmetics? 13,8%; kitchen accessories? 12,8%;spirits? 11,9% and so on [30, с.332].
According tothe Russian legislation expenses on advertising include following positions [15,s.13-23]:? On working out, manufacturing and distribution of ad publications;? Onworking out, manufacturing and distribution of sketches, labels, samples oforiginal and firm packages, packings, acquisition, manufacturing anddistribution of advertising souvenirs, samples;? On publicity through massmedia;? On illuminated signs;? Manufacturing of stands, models, publicityboards, indexes;? Storage and экспедирование advertising materials;? Participationin exhibitions, fairs, window dressing;? On уценку the goods which in full orin part have lost the quality at exhibiting in show-windows. Expenses join inthe actual cost price of production in full. The limiting sizes of expenses onadvertising are estimated according to the rates from goods turnover volume,including the value-added tax. The account of expenses on advertising helps toestimate productivity of advertising activity of the enterprise.
The generalestimate of expenses for carrying out of marketing researches of the market andcarrying out of the advertising company includes the following articles [1, с.86]:
cost ofmarketing researches;
cost of workingout of a page in the Internet;
costinformation not advertising article; — cost of placing of advertising messagesin mass media.
Absolutely preciselyto define efficiency of separate advertising media, in most cases it is notobviously possible to an advertising campaign. There are two approaches to anestimation of efficiency of advertising activity of the enterprise [28, с.41]: and#61607; quantitative (economic efficiency) which shows degree of increase insales volumes under the influence of advertising; and #61607; qualitative (efficiencyof psychological influence) which allows to estimate degree of popularity,trust and adherence of consumers to the goods or the company. In practice useboth quantitative, and qualitative approaches which allow to obtain theobjective given estimations of advertising activity of the enterprise. Expertsdefine also some kinds of an advertising efficiency, to be exact social,psychological and economic efficiency [19, с.118].
Socialefficiency is defined by degree of satisfaction of inquiries and needs ofconsumers, its ability to formulate certain skills, requirements, tastes toraise the general level of culture, culture of a life, a food. Psychologicalinfluence of advertising is shown in change of public opinion concerning anysubject, the phenomenon, concept. To define the given influence it is possibleonly by means of supervision, interrogation or experiment. Economic efficiencyof advertising is estimated on degree of its influence on goods turnover volume.It shows additional profit as a result of advertising influence. There is nouniform approach to advertising efficiency definition. The most simple way? Thiscomparison of goods turnover before advertising campaign carrying out. Thuscompare goods turnovers for the periods (months, quarters), equal to the periodduring which the goods [19, с.118] were advertised. Some experts offer methodsof an estimation of economic efficiency of advertising. Following methodsconcern them [23, с.402]:
2)? Hidingplaces?, which consists that the present advertisements from which marks, namesof firms-manufacturers are withdrawn are used; the interrogated should specifygoods mark, having read the announcement text.
Besides, thereare also other methods of definition of efficiency of advertisements. To themcarry:
1) a method ofsupervision, experiment (is applied on the published announcement the couponwhich it is required to fill and send to the specified address, or the couponat which presentation at goods purchase, the discount is given; by calculationof the sent or shown coupons it is defined, сколькими the given announcementhas been noticed by people),
2) aninterrogation or questioning method. Economic efficiency is better to judge byresult which has been reached by means of advertising.
The economicresult is defined by a parity between profit on the additional goods turnoverreceived under the influence of advertising, and expenses on it. In this casefrom carrying out of publicity the effect is compared with expenses for itsrealisation.
Followingvariants are possible: — the effect from publicity is equal to expenses for itscarrying out; — the effect from publicity is more than expenses; — the effectfrom publicity is less than expenses. However still it is not enough receiveddata for comparison of economic efficiency of expenses for carrying out ofvarious publicity. More precisely efficiency of publicity expensescharacterises its profitability. Profitability? This relation of the receivedprofit to expenses (in percentage).
In the presentwork we will consider that the concept of an advertising efficiency comprisestwo components: communicative and economic efficiency.communicative efficiencyconcerns quality indicators of an estimation of efficiency of advertisingactivity, economic efficiency? To quantity indicators. Such indicators concernquantity indicators, as an advertising rating, a share of coverage of apotential audience also.
Efficiency of psychologicalinfluence of advertising means is characterised by number of coverage ofconsumers, brightness and depth of the impression, which these means leave inmemory of the person, degree of attraction of attention. For definition ofdegree of attraction of attention of consumers to advertising the number of thepeople who have paid attention to advertising is necessary and remembered itduring the certain period to divide into total number of people which have seenadvertising during this period. In mass media it is possible to estimate degreeof effectiveness of the publication of advertisements with some degree ofconvention, having divided number of purchases during the defined period oftime for total of visitors during the defined period of time.
That it iscorrect to estimate efficiency of the created advertising, it is necessary tospend accurately border between the communication and commercial (trading) purposesof firm (fig.1.6). Advertising as it was marked earlier, is aimed not only atachievement of competitive advantages (a share of the market, profit, a salesvolume), but on achievement of certain results of communications with a targetsegment of the market.
In advertisingpractice distinguish four cores of an indicator of a communicative advertisingefficiency: recognizability; запоминаемость; attractiveness; propaganda force. Recognizabilityof advertising? It is criterion on which recognition symbols or externalattributes of the trade mark are estimated first of all? A trade mark, a logo,the firm name. More highly on this parametre those recognition symbols, whichare estimated: demand less time for recognition; are perceived in wider spatialrange.
By thiscriterion are estimated not only recognition symbols, but also the advertisementas a whole memory. One of the basic criteria both communicative, and a tradingadvertising efficiency. At the heart of use of this criterion the hypothesisformulated by classics of an advertising of R. Rivsom and A. Polittsem anddivided by a number of modern writers lies: the person will choose that mark,which name and data about which it has better remembered. This feature of humanbehaviour of A. Politts (1990) has formulated in the form of a principle? Familiarmark?.. He has established that expansion of knowledge of mark increases trustto it and raises its rank of quality in perception of consumers. Even thesimple knowledge of the name of mark raises trust to it in comparison withabsolutely unfamiliar mark [22, с.72].
Attractivenessof advertising in many respects depends on togas, how much successfully and inan original way creative decision embodied in a real advertising product. Butthe creative decision, more truly, its efficiency, it is the most difficult toestimate. The preference of mark seldom is based only on a rationale. That markwhich advertising causes emotional participation will be seductive. Propagandaforce? It is ability of advertising to force consumer to wish to get the goods.As indicators of propaganda force (on A. Polittsu) the following complex ofproperties can serve: The subjective importance of a theme, plausibility of thebasic statement about the goods, uniqueness of the statement. Not in anyadvertising possessing propaganda force, all three properties, but presence atleast two are presented it is necessary. Thus, it is possible to allocate fourbasic properties, defining propaganda force of an advertising appeal (propertiesare presented in decreasing order of the importance): the subjective importance;plausibility; uniqueness; integrity.
The primarygoal of an estimation of a communicative advertising efficiency consists inindirectly to predict its influence on sale. And though outright to judge atrading advertising efficiency by its communicative efficiency it is difficult,nevertheless correlation between these concepts exists. The modern advertisingand marketing companies aspire to find special formulas (using differentcombinations of indicators of communicative influence) on which it would bepossible to predict a trading advertising efficiency.
The advertisingefficiency is expressed in studying of degree of acquaintance of targetaudience with the information on investigated firm and its goods, and also whatabout them is known, what image of firm and the goods was generated also whatrelation to them. To create representation about the goods and firm, andfurthermore to generate the good relation to them not always easily. It demandstime and certain strategy. Relations in the market? It, first of all, humanrelations. Advertising allows to form the necessary representations aboutinvestigated firm at a wide audience on which basis it is easier to buildrelations. So, in conclusion of the head we will tell the following.
Now the economyof Russia is in a transition state from planned system to the market. And ifearlier the industrial enterprises had not to reflect on production sale, thestate now in the conditions of the market each enterprise at own riskindependently solves was engaged in it what exactly it will make and how tomarket, what will be thus used means. As in present conditions any businessmancan make that considers it necessary also possible the number of manufacturersof similar production becomes very big. And everyone them them to aspire to winthe market. It also induces the organisations to undertake the various actionspromoting realisation of production. To these actions carry improvement ofquality of production and use of various advertising receptions: appeal ofpacking, послепродажное service, the offer of the accompanying goods andservices.
It is necessaryto approach to research and an estimation of efficiency of advertising activityin a complex, thus to use both quantitative, and quality indicators to estimateboth trading, and a communicative advertising efficiency. In conclusion ofchapter 1 we will draw following conclusions.1. Advertising? It is any paidform of impersonal representation and stimulation of sale of ideas, the goodsand services by the certain sponsor.
2. Advertisingis the most significant making system of marketing communications which allowsthe enterprises to achieve long-term competitive advantage, and also serves asthe basic tool of positioning of the enterprise in consciousness of a targetsegment of the market.
3. The essenceof advertising consists in an ohm that it hands over by means of mass media theinformation on consumer properties of the goods for the purpose of creation ofdemand for it.
4. Theadvertising purpose consists in systematic influence on mentality of the personto cause in it desire to get the known blessings.
5. Advertisingbecame the integral and active part of a communication complex of marketing. Andits level of development defines quality and efficiency advertising-informationwork the manufacturer and its conformity to new requirements of the worldmarket.
2. Research of the advertisingcampaign of the new goods in open company nataly2.1 The program of investmentmaintenance of the advertising campaign
Let's considerdevelopment of advertising activity in Open Company «Nataly». Assortmentof production which is let out by Open Company Nataly, constantly extends. Afterthe formation the enterprise made only an aluminium profile. This profile was adifferent configuration, that is the assortment of made production was ratherwide, nevertheless anything except a profile in manufacture was not. Now only abuilding profile it is made over two tens names. Later, having risen on feet,the enterprise has decided to expand assortment of production, and, hence, andcommodity markets. By this time it let out an aluminium profile not only adifferent configuration, but also with a different covering. The enterprise atwill of the customer makes a profile with the anodized covering, with apolymeric covering or without a covering. Then heads have paid attention thatthe profile with a polymeric covering can be used as eaves for curtains. Thenthe enterprise began to let out eaves for curtains. The novelty has involvednot only manufacturers of building branch, but also wholesale buyers who goteaves for sale to retail shops. Sometimes in firm the private personsaddressed, wishing to get eaves for a private use. Such expansion of assortmentof production has helped firm to enter the market of the private consumer. Thoughstill the basic share in gain volume occupied and wholesale consumers, ownersof various manufactures occupy. Then from this an aluminium profile began tocollect the trading-exhibition equipment. It did different colour at will ofthe customer and a different configuration. Now Open Company Nataly. Makes forshops counters, racks, show-windows. Considering that recently there is a setof small little shops and shops where a variety of the goods demands use of thetrading equipment of a various configuration, the sizes and colours, OpenCompany «Nataly» firm has been compelled to develop set of kinds ofan aluminium profile for manufacturing from it the necessary equipment. Furtherthe enterprise assortment has extended at the expense of manufacture of officepartitions and aluminium doors. It has allowed to win one more segment of themarket? Small private businessmen whom, beginning the enterprise activity, theoffices aspire to equip. For today firm Nataly. Makes the certificatedaluminium profile for trading, trading-exhibition and a refrigerating machinery;a building profile for stained-glass windows, doors, office partitions, facing;profiles for manufacturing protective, eaves for curtains and vertical jalousie;For manufacturing of cases-compartments, a special purpose profile. Recentlythe company has developed special designs of a profile for manufacturing ofbalcony and sliding). Besides the company makes installation of the finishedarticles executed at the enterprise. Aluminium windows became the next novelty.To prove an advertising campaign on advancement of these goods, at first it isnecessary to describe the goods. It is necessary to distinguish the goods ofindustrial appointment and consumer goods. The first are intended forindustrial needs or resale, and the second? For individual consumption. Betweenthese kinds of the goods there is a big difference. It is impossible toadvertise the goods of industrial appointment, as the goods of individualconsumption. Business not only in the name, but also in an essence, in thataudience to which the advertising action will be turned. If advertising for thegoods of individual consumption can be based on feelings, emotional perceptionin advertising of the goods of industrial appointment of emotional factors canand not to be. Certainly, there are goods which can be used both privateconsumers, and manufacturers. Aluminium windows can be carried as to the goodsof industrial appointment, and the goods of individual consumption. But whilefor apartment they the expensive. Therefore aluminium windows are used by amanagement of the enterprises. Hence, it is necessary to emphasise inadvertising one segment of the market, on a commodity market of industrialappointment. The competition to aluminium windows is made by plastic windows. Anyproduction has certain merits and demerits. The basic advantage of aluminiumwindows which draws attention of buyers, their ecological compatibility is. Onthe contrary, the relation of many production workers to plastic windows thenegative. This results from the fact that under the influence of the bigdifferences of ambient temperatures of plastic arts starts to evaporate harmfulsubstances. At the same time, the basic lack of aluminium windows in comparisonwith plastic is their price. It a little above, as limits a circle of consumers.But this temporary phenomenon. In the near future the price for aluminiumwindows becomes same, as well as on plastic. For an advertising campaign ofaluminium windows money resources be required on following actions: on placingof advertising messages in printing editions, for creation and outdooradvertising placing, for fee of the photographer. The volume of necessaryinvestments is defined in our case by calculation of the estimate on the basisof quotations on marketing researches, services of the photographer,advertising agencies and duration of advertising of the goods. Before to startworking out and release of the new goods, it is desirable to find out, whetherhas sense it to do. For any industrial enterprise manufacturing something isunderstood as reception of profit on realisation of the given product. And theprofit at realisation will be received in the event that the obtained sum ofmeans will exceed expenses for manufacture and realisation of this production. Toget prospective profit and in general to sell a product to the enterprise itwill be possible only if consumers in the market are ready to buy the goodsthat is if these goods are necessary for them. Therefore, in the beginning itis necessary to find out, whether exists in the market so-called? A niche?,which could? To fill? These goods. Marketing researches are for this purposecarried out. In rare instances the enterprise is engaged in it? Themanufacturer. Usually for it address in specialised agencies.
In our casesuch agency is? Media Soft?.. The estimate of the basic expenses on marketingresearches is resulted in tab.2.3.9547 rbl. will be necessary For agency feeThese means расходованы on the writing goods: pens, a paper, paper clips; oncommunication payment (from calculation of 450 roubles for communication on acity and 1077 roubles for 5 hours of conversations with other cities); attractionfor research of five persons which will be engaged in audience interrogation (potentialconsumers) and miscellaneous costs.
Interrogationof potential consumers? It is a method of gathering of the information. Thereis a version of interrogation which is called deep interrogation. It is appliedto professional consumers, that is to experts of certain area. It consists inlong conversation interrogated and the interviewer in which course it is foundout, the requirement for what goods for today is available at interrogated, andalso the information on knowledge, preferences and belief of people, on degreeof their satisfaction [27, с.150] turns out. But this method, unfortunately, inour case is not present possibility to use. It speaks too a large attendance (presumably,Siberian region, is more exact heads of the various enterprises in Siberianregion) and complexity of carrying out (duration of conversation is supposedtill two o'clock). Naturally, to lead such discussion by phone it is ratherdifficult, and to provide personal meeting of the interviewer and interrogatedit is almost impossible because of their big number. At an advertising campaignestimation simple interrogation of potential consumers will be used. For thispurpose employees of Open Company «Натали» develop the questionnairewhich questions it is offered to answer consumers at «the Siberian Fair»during an exhibition and in specialised shops on sale of window, door blocks,building materials, and also in halls of the trading equipment. Services of thephotographer will manage in the following sum. Cost of one photo in the size 10and #61620; 15см. It is equal 50 roubles,20 and #61620; 30 see — 200 roubles. Departureof the photographer costs 300 roubles. To be necessary 3 photos in the size 10and #61620; 15 see Hence, expenses on services of the photographer make 3 * 50+ 300 = 450 roubles. Advertising messages in printing editions will be executedin colour. Printing editions give quotations on the publication of theadvertising information or counting on one square centimetre, or for one modulewhich comprises some square centimetres. Thus modules happen a differentconfiguration: extended on width (for example, 8 see and #61620; 4 see or 12,8and #61620; 8,1 sm), extended on height (12,8 and #61620; 37,7 see). Eachedition independently defines the size of modules. Magazine? Supply and sale? Forthe colour advertisement offers the module equal of the one eighth strip thatwill make 58,5 sq. This module see there are 1980 rbl. for one exit. Hence,considering, what the magazine leaves twice a month, expenses will make 2* 1980= 3960 rbl. the Newspaper? Offers? Suggests to print the colour advertisingmessage in the form of the module which dimension 33 sq. see, and its cost 920rbl. There is a newspaper four times a month. Thus, on the announcementpublication in the newspaper? Offers? It is necessary to spend 920 rbl. * 4 =3680 rbl. a month. A weekly journal? The Siberian advertising? Suggests toprint the colour announcement of any size. Cost of square centimetre of itsarea / sq. see the second colour page 39 of rbl.; 26 rbl. / sq. see the thirdcolour page (it is penultimate page); 23 rbl. / sq. see the fourth colour page(it is last page) the area of the advertisement and in that, and other editionit is supposed 7*7 = 49 sq. see Hence, for the edition? The Siberianadvertising? In a month 49* 39* 4 =7644 rbl. (on 2 page) are required; 26 *49*4 = 5096 rbl. (on 3 page); 23 *49 *4 = 4508 rbl. (on 4 page). Considering thatnew, it is necessary to force to turn the advertised goods on it as much aspossible potential consumers, that is it is expedient to place the advertisingmessage on the second page.
Formanufacturing of one separate poster with the metal basis in the size of 1,2 mand #61620; 1,8 m are necessary 6000 rbl. It is supposed to use such twoposters. Hence, Except manufacturing, posters it is necessary to place 6000*2=12000 rbl. on city streets. For this purpose it is necessary to conclude thecontract, to issue rent and to obtain the permit in city administration. It theadvertising agency is engaged in all, and these services will cost about 7000rbl. in the first month. The next months it will be necessary to pay only rentof the earth which will make about 200 roubles a month depending on a citydistrict.
The total sumwhich needs to be spent for goods advancement makes more than 45 thousand rbl. theRussian legislation provides reference of advertising expenses on productioncost price, but within certain specifications. For the given enterprise withvolume of goods turnover to 30 million roubles this specification is equal 7,5%that in money terms makes 741,8 thousand roubles. Expenses on our advertisingcampaign do not exceed the given specification.
2.2 The estimation and theanalysis of indicators of efficiency of the advertising campaign
Speaking aboutan advertising efficiency, assume, what profit will be brought by this action,how much a gain will exceed the means spent for its carrying out. In the givenparagraph the question of efficiency of an advertising campaign on advancementof the new goods (aluminium windows) Open Company companies is consideredNataly. Are thus analyzed quantitative and quality indicators of efficiency ofan advertising campaign. How it was already marked, quality indicatorscharacterise mainly communicative advertising efficiency, quantitative? Mainlyeconomic (trading) efficiency.
Calculation ofrequirement for investments for realisation of this advertising campaign isspent for 12 months during which it should pay off. Calculation is madeaccording to technique ЮНИДО. Since 1999 operate? Methodical recommendationsabout estimations of efficiency of investment projects?, confirmed by theMinistry of Finance and Gosstroy of Russia. Some advertising agencies believethat placing of the advertising message can bring to the enterprise increase ina gain at 50%. In our opinion from realisation of publicity the enterpriseexpects gain increase approximately for 20 percent. By the current moment timelevel the gain without the tax to the added cost makes 8242569 roubles. Hence,expected level of a gain will be equal 9891082,8 roubles. The increase in again from production realisation will make 1648513,8 roubles a year. Proceedingfrom former level of industrial expenses, it is supposed that the new volume ofexpenses will be equal 7938067,2 rbl. That is expenses will increase for1323011,2 rbl. a year. For calculation of norm of discount the percent ofinflation at a rate of 14%, bank percent — 15%, a risk level for the new goods- 13% is accepted. As a result of calculation the norm of discount will make 42%a year. In the given technique concepts of capital investments are used, whichwill make for the zero period of 44681 roubles (is the requirement for moneyfor contract and rent registration on the earth; creation of a poster andphotos; carrying out of marketing researches) and 15684 roubles for thefollowing period. Methodical recommendations is provided to estimate efficiencyof the project as a whole and efficiency of participation in the project. Theestimation of efficiency of the project is assumed as a whole by definition ofpotential appeal of the project for possible participants and searches ofsources of financing. Efficiency of participation in the project is defined forcheck of a realizability of the project and interest in it of all itsparticipants. The choice of the investment project is based on calculation ofeconomic indicators of efficiency in which quality it is recommended to define:
1) the netprofit;
2) the purediscounted income;
3) internalnorm of profitableness;
4) requirementfor additional financing;
5) indexes ofprofitableness of expenses and investments;
6) a time ofrecovery of outlay; group of the indicators characterising a financialcondition of the enterprise? The participant of the project. The indicators ofefficiency set forth above pay off on the basis of definition of a monetarystream of the project. Any project represents the operation connected withreception of incomes and of expenses, that is it generates monetary streams. Asmonetary streams understand dependence on time of monetary receipts andpayments at realisation of the project generating it, defined for allsettlement period. The settlement period covers an interval from the beginningof the project before its end. At a project estimation use also the saved upmonetary stream. Its characteristics? The saved up inflow, the saved up outflowand the saved up balance are defined on each step of the settlement period asthe sum for flowing and all previous steps. At definition of efficiency of thegiven project capital investments concern outflows (the expense of moneyresources); expenses for working capital increase. And as inflows receipts ofmoney resources act. We will define the basic indicators of efficiency ofadvertising activity.1. The net profit (ЧД)? It is the saved up effect (balanceof a monetary stream) for all settlement period: ЧД = and #931; фт, (2.1) whereфт? A monetary stream, thousand rbl.2. The pure discounted stream (ЧДД)? Thesaved up discounted effect for the settlement period: ЧДД = and #931; фт * and# 945; т * (), (2.2) where and #945; т? Discounting factor (reduction ofmonetary values of monetary streams occurring at different times to value forthe certain moment of time? The reduction moment), it pays off under theformula 2.3 Е? Norm of discount; it is set by investors or participants of theproject for a year. In this case it includes the amendment on the risk, 13%equal for a new product, also it includes bank percent (15%) and inflationpercent (13%); Е = 41%; and #913; т = 1/[ (1+Е) ^tt-t0], (2.3) where tт? Themoment of the termination or the beginning of t that step; t0? The reductionmoment, gets out any way. ЧД and ЧДД characterise excess of total monetaryreceipts over total expenses for the project. Difference (CHD-CHDD) nameproject discount. For a project recognition effective it is necessary, that ЧДДwas positive.3. Internal to profitableness holes (ВНД)? Eve's this suchpositive number at which equality to norm of discount (Е=Ев) ЧДД it is equal tozero. At Е and #61502; Eves ЧДД it is negative, at Е and # 61500; Eves? It ispositive. Hence, for an estimation of efficiency of the project it is necessaryto compare Eves with norm of discount Е. If Eves> Е, we have positive ЧДДand consequently the project is effective.4. A time of recovery of outlay? Itis duration of the period from the initial moment till the recoupment moment. Therecoupment moment considers that moment of time after which the current netprofit becomes and further remains non-negative.5. A time of recovery of outlaytaking into account discounting? It is duration of the period from the initialmoment till the moment of a recoupment taking into account discounting which isdefined as time moment after which the current net profit becomes and furtherremains non-negative.6. Requirement for additional financing (ПФ)? This maximumvalue of absolute size of negative memory balance from investment activity. SizeПФ shows the minimum volume of external financing of the project, necessary formaintenance of its financial realizability.7. Requirement for additionalfinancing taking into account discount (ДПФ)? The maximum value of absolutesize of the negative memory discounted balance from investment activity. SizeДПФ shows the minimum discounted volume of external financing of the project,necessary for maintenance of its financial realizability.8. Profitablenessindexes characterise? Project return? On the means enclosed in it. At anefficiency estimation are often used:? An index of profitableness of expenses? Therelation of the sum of monetary inflows to the sum of monetary outflows;? Anindex of profitableness of the discounted expenses? The relation of the sum ofthe discounted monetary streams to the sum of the discounted monetary outflows;?An index of profitableness of investments (ИД)? The relation of the sum of elementsof a monetary stream from operational activity to absolute size of the sum ofelements of a monetary stream from investment activity. ИД it is equal torelation ЧД increased by unit to memory volume of investments;? An index ofprofitableness of the discounted investments (ИДД)? The relation of the sum ofthe discounted elements of a monetary stream from operational activity toabsolute size of the discounted sum of elements of a monetary stream frominvestment activity. ИДД it is equal increased by unit relation ЧДД to thememory discounted volume of investments. At calculation ИД and ИДД can beconsidered or all capital investments for the settlement period, or onlyinitial capital investments.
Calculationsshow that the project pays off for three months both taking into accountdiscounting and without it. So small time of recovery of outlay is receivedbecause the volume of financial investments was not great. Project discount isequal to 45,9 thousand rbl. project Discount? It is time aspect. He says thatduring realisation of the project cost of means of the investor has decreasedon this size that in percentage terms from initial cost makes 20%. Indexes ofprofitableness of expenses and profitableness of the discounted expenses thereis more than unit. It speaks about excess of the sums of monetary inflows overthe sums of monetary outflows (taking into account discounting and without it).But their value not much more unit that speaks high norm of discount (42%). Positivevalue of the net profit says what the investment project? The advertisingcampaign — is capable to make profit, but this fact does not answer a question?Whether the project in time taking into account inflation and risk factors iseffective. The answer to this question can give value of the pure discountedincome. Efficiency of the project from the point of view of the investoraccording to a technique is defined, proceeding from positivity of value of thepure discounted income. In this case ЧДД> 0. Hence, the project is economicallyeffective. Estimate communicative efficiency we can only after release of anadvertising campaign of the new goods and after certain time. Thus the primaryinformation on which basis the efficiency analysis will be made is required tous. There are three basic methods of gathering of the primary information: supervision,experiment, interrogation. The supervision method is used, when researchersdirectly trace actions of the studied person. The experimental method servesfor measurement of cause and effect relations. It is used at trial marketing ofnew production in geographically isolated area and for trial carrying out ofadvertising campaigns more often. The most widespread way of gathering of theprimary information is? Interrogation. By interrogation of real or potentialbuyers the researcher receives the information on their relation to purchase,learns their opinion on the goods and motives of carrying out. Specific methodsare applied to an estimation of a communicative advertising efficiency: — studyingthe relation of consumers to the goods; — tests for storing; — psychophysicalmethods; — feedback methods. We will estimate indicators of the communicativeadvertising efficiency which maintenance will be published in printing editions.Developed by employees of Open Company «Натали» advertising also ispresented in the appendix 4. The primary information for the advertisinganalysis is necessary for receiving from results of the spent trial advertisingcampaign with use of psychometric methods. The trial advertising campaign isinformative enough method of advertising researches, does not require unlikeother methods extrapolation on a real life. Its lack consists that it does notestablish the reason of tearing away of advertising by the buyer. Forliquidation of this lack, results of a trial advertising campaign are necessaryfor combining with psychometric research. Psychometric research is one of themost widespread and effective ways of testing of static advertising when thetotal impression of the seen advertising material is exposed to the analysis. Itis based on drawing up of «perception cards». Answering specialquestionnaires, people estimate the seen message. Such testing of advertisingis spent to two stages: to its exit on the market and after (in the course ofcarrying out of an advertising campaign and on its results). At the first stagetentative estimations of quality of advertising and its ability to executetasks in view are given. By results of the first stage of testing it ispossible to predict efficiency of influence of advertising on the consumer, toreveal its strong and weak places and if it is necessary, to correct theadvertising message. At the second stage when the advertising message is letalready out on the market and has passed certain time, sufficient foracquaintance with target audience advertising, testing allows to bringintermediate or an adjusted total. Testing held by us is aimed at forecastingof efficiency of influence of advertising for the consumer. It is the firststage of testing of advertising. In the third chapter we will define ways ofincrease of efficiency of an advertising campaign. They will be necessary forus to raise indicators of economic and communicative efficiency in the presentparagraph. At carrying out of a trial advertising campaign in Open Company«Натали» the special advertising leaflets containing variousadvertisements, and also the questionnaire for an advertising estimation havebeen prepared. The questionnaire developed by employees of Open Company «Натали»for interrogations, is presented in the appendix 5. Interrogation was made: — at«the Siberian Fair» during exhibitions; — in specialised shops onsale of window, door blocks, building materials, and also in halls of thetrading equipment. In total 350 respondents have been interrogated. From themnearby 300? Employees of the various companies of Novosibirsk, the others? Visitorsof shops of the building materials, getting production for a private use. Interrogationwas made as follows. The interrogated person was offered to see the booklet,and then to answer questionnaire questions.
The answer ofrespondents to the first question has shown that they in the majoritypositively concern a print advertising if the advertiser bears a maintenanceresponsibility of advertising and if it is executed qualitatively. Answers toquestions 2, 3 show level of awareness the consumer about Open Company «Натали»firm. The answer to a question 4 characterises Open Company «Натали» advertisement.As we see, 28% (98 of 350 persons) have remembered advertising of aluminiumwindows. This indicator is at high enough level, i. e. advertising of newproduction of the enterprise is remembered. On the basis of it it is alreadypossible to tell that advertising possesses certain level of efficiency as eventhe simple knowledge of mark of a product raises trust to it in comparison withabsolutely unfamiliar mark. The answer to a question 5 characterisesattractiveness of advertising of Open Company «Натали», and theanswer to a question 6? Its recognizability. More than 40% of respondents havepaid attention to advertising of aluminium windows, have noticed in it someunique lines. It once again proves, what Open Company advertising? Натали? Isattractive for consumers. However from paid attention to the given advertising,only 15% have remembered a firm trade mark. It means, what Open Companyadvertising? Натали? Has low level of recognizability. Low level ofrecognizability means, in turn, that the advertisement demands considerabletime for recognition and is perceived in less wide spatial range. Answers tothe remained questions of 7-11 questionnaires characterise propaganda force ofthe advertisement of Open Company «Натали». We have receivedfollowing results on components of the given indicator:
1) thesubjective importance of production? Have positively answered 154 of 350persons (44%);
2) uniquenessof advertising? 35 from 98 persons (35,7%);
3) integrity? 28from 98 persons (28,6%);
4) plausibility?25 from 98 persons (25,5%). By these results of interrogation it is possible todraw a conclusion what though Open Company production? Натали? Has the highsubjective importance for consumers and it is unique enough, it is not for themenough complete and plausible. Nevertheless, at 12% of the interrogated,aluminium windows which have paid attention to advertising of Open Company? Натали?,there was a desire get given production. On this indicator it is possible tojudge enough high communicative advertising efficiency of Open Company? Натали?..Thus, it is possible to predict a high economic and communicative advertisingefficiency of Open Company? Натали?.. However she demands some completions in communicativesphere for increase of its efficiency. In conclusion of the second chapter wewill draw following conclusions.1. In carrying out of an advertising campaignof the new goods in Open Company «Натали» is engaged has dressed sale.For advertising of the new goods it has been decided to use printing and theoutdoor advertising.2. For outdoor advertising placing advertising agency«Agama», for a print advertising has been chosen? Agency «Duet»and «Region a press», for marketing researches? Agency «MediaSoft».3. For an estimation of economic efficiency of an advertisingcampaign the comparison method at which the effect from publicity carrying outhas been compared with expenses for its realisation was used. The estimationhas shown that expenses for goods advancement will pay off within three monthsand as a whole the project is economically effective, that is is profitable.4. Theestimation of communicative efficiency of an advertising campaign, that is anestimation of its quality indicators, was made on an example of a printadvertising of the new goods with use of a method of testing. Advertisingleaflets, and also the questionnaire for an estimation of advertising have beenprepared by consumers. Results of testing of advertising have shown thatadvertising is remembered and attractive for consumers, however it isinsufficiently distinguished. Advertising has the high subjective importancefor consumers and is unique enough, but it is not for them enough complete andplausible.5. At 12% of the interrogated respondents who have paid attention toadvertising of aluminium windows of Open Company? Натали?, there was a desireget given production. Therefore it is possible to predict high economic andcommunicative efficiency of the given advertising campaign.
3. Ways of increase of efficiencyof advertising activity to open company nataly3.1 Methods of rational use ofpossibilities of advertising agencies
Advertising canbe developed for clients or the people who are not employees of agency, orclients. The space and time in mass media are usually got through the specialcompanies by directly clients, and market research is carried out by thespecial research companies. So advertising agencies what for are necessary? Agenciesare necessary for planning and carrying out in a life of advertising efforts ofthe client [29, with.127]. The world of advertising agencies is so wide that,most likely not any advertiser (especially beginning) knows what kinds ofadvertising agencies there are also what services they give. Therefore rationaluse of possibilities of advertising agencies acts on the foreground.
In advertising?Agency of a full cycle? Is the organisation which is carrying out four basicfunctions:
1) managementof the account;
3) planning andarea acquisition in mass media;
4) researches. Suchadvertising agency usually has own service on conducting the account of theclient, the department of movement performing work on internal tracing ofrealisation of projects, division for working out broadcasting both a printedmatter and a staff department. As a rule, the contract between? Agency of afull cycle? And the client defines that the agency for commission fee or otherco-ordinated fee makes the analysis of the data of the market, offers strategy,prepares recommendations, develops advertising, places it in in advanceco-ordinated mass media, checks advertising on conformity to requirements ofthe customer, exposes the invoice to the client within the limits of the votedbudget, receives money resources of the client into the accounts and paysservices of mass-media and suppliers. Besides, the agency can incur thefunctions which are not included in the contract and not paid separately: it iswork on public relations, research projects, direct marketing, marketing ofactions and stimulation of sales. Some agencies offer specific services throughthe divisions or branches. Clients can use specialised agencies also.? Agenciesof a full cycle? In Novosibirsk while is not present. It most likely isconnected with that, for the effective organisation of works of such agency thebig material inputs and coverage of great volume of manufacture and theinformation are required. Work of specialised agencies differs works of «agencyof a full cycle». They specialise or in performance of certain functions,or in certain branches (public health services, computers, agriculture), or ina certain kind of works (for example, marketing researches, placing ofadvertising messages in mass-media, TV advertising placing, outdoor advertisingplacing and so on). Specialised agencies work in different areas of marketing: directmarketing, stimulation of sale, public relation, marketing through public andsports actions, design of packing, design of corporate symbolics and so on. Existsuch business of agency which specialise in trading communications. Along withbusiness? Such agencies are engaged in advertising in trade advancement,trading exhibitions and presentations. Such agencies in Novosibirsk the set andappears every day more and more. Specialised agencies need to be used in allcases when the enterprise has no possibility to take advantage of services of«agency of a full cycle» and independently spends an advertisingcampaign. In the present state of affairs services various specialised agencieswill be necessary for it: for carrying out of marketing researches, forcreation external, a print advertising, advertising on radio and TV. In ourcase of Open Company «Натали» addresses in specialised agencies(«Media the Software», «Agama», «Duet», «Regiona press»). But when there is a choice? To address in «agency of afull cycle» or in specialised agency, it is more rational to address inthe last when the advertised goods or service demand the special approach, and«the agency of a full cycle» cannot provide such approach. Inspecialised agency it is necessary to address and when the enterprise cannottake advantage of services of «agency of a full cycle» owing tolimitation of incomes. Virtual agencies? It is recently arisen phenomenon ofthe agency working like group of people of liberal professions. The tendency ofoccurrence of virtual agencies sees as well that there is no necessity forhabitual office. Many managing directors of advertising agencies assert thatfrom third to half of offices of any agency are empty, as experts work on acall of clients or are on office affairs. In virtual agency employees have noconstant office, they work at home, in cars or offices of the clients. Moderncomputer technologies provide members of such command with all necessary forwork out of office. Their meetings will be organised by a principle ofvideoconferences or by means of an exchange of e-mail. When it is necessary formembers of team to gather at office, they can to include the computer in asuitable place.compact multipurpose racks with things necessary for work can beresulted on a current workplace. Within the limits of the virtual concept thespace divided into parts, is replaced with free space for employees, computers,faxes, phones and all that members of team bring with themselves. Now virtualagencies are the most rational for using for carrying out of marketingresearches, the analysis of the market, carrying out of interrogations, that isfor reception of information services, and also for advertising placing in theInternet. Agencies take the incomes from two main sources? Commission fee andfees [29, с.163].commission system. Right at the beginning advertising agentsoperated more likely on behalf of mass-media, instead of in interests of theclient. In the nineteenth century advertising agents represented itself asrepresentatives of newspapers, magazines and printers of posters. If the agentbrought advertising to the publisher, that paid to it commission fee which weredefined, proceeding from volume of the work executed by the agent for theblessing of business of the publisher and by preparation of advertising to thepublication. The agent could write the advertising text, think up a breadboardmodel, type the text and mark a place for drawings and the photos which were apart of advertising. These efforts of the agent saved to the publisher time andreduced volume of its basic work. In process of growth of the importance ofadvertising advertisers aspired to employ as less as possible people. In 1901Klarens Kurtis from Curtis Publishing has established 15% of commission fee foradvertising agencies? 10% for preparation of materials and 5% for maintenanceof immediate payment [29, с.163]. Introduction of such practice has changed alladvertising industry. Instead of granting one mass-media to many advertisersnow the agent operated in interests of one client, placing its advertising inmany mass-media. However the commission system remained hardly probable not theunique form of compensation.commission fee at a rate of 15% long time wereconsidered as a certain absolute standard though the great number of exceptionsof this practice is already observed.
The note: thesum of figures can be below 100 percent as answers of some advertisers do notget under one of these systems of compensation or answers have not beenreceived. The rate is defined in the course of negotiations between the clientand agency. As a result of these negotiations it is established, what work willbe carried out by agency under the contractual rate of commission fee and thatshould be paid separately. The alternative form of commission fee is гонорарнаяthe system. This system is equivalent that for which advertisers pay work ofthe lawyers. Clients of agency agree on the hourly fee or the tariff. This feecan change depending on employed divisions and level of wages in each division.The uniform hourly fee for all work, irrespective of level of actual earningsof executors is in certain cases co-ordinated. These payments also join expenseaccounts, payment of moving and all articles which are usually paid atcommission system. Payment is made in the pure state without any extra chargesor commission percent. Mass-media also expose accounts to clients in the purestate without increase at the size of commission fee. A solving element inгонорарной to system is the trust. The client should be assured that eachemployee of agency conducts the strict account of working hours and correctlydistributes its expenses on concrete commodity marks or projects. Besides, theclient should know that the hourly tariff of agency fairly reflects wages, anoverhead charge and the established rate of return [29, with.169]. How theagency estimates the fee? It defines expenses on a wages, rent, telephoneconversations, mail, internal operations, equipment rent, taxes and othercosts, and then establishes, what hour tariff in a condition to cover all thesecosts, and also to provide to agency profit. Widespread practice is the feeestablishment as private from division of the trebled mid-annual wages of theworker of agency into average quantity of working hours in a year [29, with.169].In any case for the enterprise which spends an advertising campaign andaddresses to advertising agency services, it is more rational to use commissionsystem of payment. The matter is that at use of commission system, reducingexpenses on advertising, the client really achieves economy, in whatever volumethe advertising budget was reduced. In case of application гонорарной systemsthe same client will receive economy on reduction of schedules of anadvertising campaign, but will continue to pay to agency the working hours connectedwith contact to mass-media, revision of plans of use of mass-media andalteration of exposed accounts? Invoices [29, с.170]. From the aforesaid theconclusion arises what easier to deal with the advertising agency usingcommission system of payment. As to an advertising agency kind the advertisersolves this question independently. Arguments in favour of this or that kind ofadvertising agency should develop depending on what amount of works should beexecuted to the agency, what advertising purposes are pursued by theadvertiser, it has what volume of means. It is obvious that services of «agencyof a full cycle» will manage to the client expensively. In our case weadvertise the new goods, therefore it is more expedient to employ agency of afull cycle that it has carried out market research, has offered strategy, hasexecuted advertising and has placed it in mass media. But, consideringimpossibility of use of that kind of agency (in the absence of them in themarket of advertising services of Novosibirsk), it is necessary to address toservices of specialised agency, is more true even to several. They are alreadylisted: — «Media the Software» (for carrying out of marketingresearches); — «Agama» (for outdoor advertising working out); — «Duet», «Region a press» (for print advertising working out).Thus, the given agencies have been chosen because «agencies of a fullcycle» in Novosibirsk while are not present. Besides, advertisedproduction of Open Company «Натали»? The goods-novelty, — demand thespecial approach at advertising campaign carrying out. As payment system thecommission system of fee of agency as it is to more flexible and adequateresults from an advertising campaign is chosen.3.2 Methods of increase of efficiencyof advertising activity
Advertising notonly gives the information on the goods, but also forms its image, gives it thesocially-psychological importance, defines its position among the competinggoods. At the heart of any competent advertising two components lie: thethought over concept (strategy) of advertising and the interesting creativedecision. The most difficult in advertising? To find the base concept ofadvertising inducing to purchase, allocating the goods from a number of thecompeting goods or a commodity category. The creative decision should beinseparable from the chosen concept. Any creative decision which strengthensthe concept, helps to apprehend it, does more evident, clear or more convincing,strengthens effect of advertising. Therefore it is necessary to developadvertising idea and strategy of advertising of the goods (service) forincrease of efficiency of an advertising campaign. Advertising strategy answersa question how to construct an advertising campaign, to realise marketingproblems. In wider plan value of advertising strategy consists in, that: — todefine, what sense advertising should give to the given goods that thepotential buyer has given it preference; — to inform to the consumer concretebenefit, the permission of a problem or other advantage of material orpsychological property which gives goods acquisition. Thus it is necessary totake into consideration that there are only two base reasons on which peoplebuy the goods:
1) the goodscan solve any existing problem or a problem which can arise;
2) thepossession the goods allows the person to join psychologically something thatit is pleasant to it or he considers for itself (himself) important. At achoice of strategy of advertising a number of factors should be considered:
1. Specificityof a commodity category (there are such commodity categories where the consumergives a great attention to utilitarian properties, and such where for it theemotional background is more important).2. Specificity of the goods andpossibility to allocate and inform on its significant properties for theconsumer.3. Actions (advertising) of competitors. Often the market isoverflowed by advertising of one type and it irritates people. Then it isnecessary for it to oppose advertising of other type.4. Moods of targetaudience.
1. Specificityof a commodity category (there are such commodity categories where the consumergives a great attention to utilitarian properties, and such where for it theemotional background is more important).2. Specificity of the goods andpossibility to allocate and inform on its significant properties for theconsumer.3. Actions (advertising) of competitors. Often the market isoverflowed by advertising of one type and it irritates people. Then it isnecessary for it to oppose advertising of other type.4. Moods of targetaudience.
Advertisingidea? An art way of an embodiment of advertising strategy. It can be asuccessful image, the character, a slogan, helping to present the advertisinginformation which has been generated at a stage of development of creativestrategy. Creative advertising strategy sets an essence of the advertisingmessage, and the advertising idea invests it with the interesting, attractiveform. So, result of marketing researches and communication diagnostics isformation of idea of an advertising campaign, the media plan working out, whichcomponents? The initial and additional data.
The media planfinally should contain the following data:
1) the list ofcarriers of the advertising information;
2) the list ofparametres of each kind of carriers: for the press? The areas occupied withadvertising, for rollers? Activity, for a dummy? Type of graphic or texteditors etc.;
3) the calendarplan-schedule of an exit of advertising messages (the table with instructionsof general time of hire, quantity of rollers, the transfer name, day, time, forthe press? Quantity of exhibitions etc);
4) theplan-estimate on everyone рекламоносителю and the general budget of the mediaplan;
5) quantityindicators of efficiency of an advertising campaign;
6) analyticalcomments to results of each stage of campaign;
7) alternativevariants of media plans.
Thus, a basisof an effective advertising campaign make: the interesting creative decision (advertisingidea) and the thought over strategy of advertising. Thus it cannot be effectiveif there is no one of these elements: whatever was successful the advertisingidea, it will not give results without realisation of competent strategy ofadvertising, and at the same time, whatever was thought over the strategy ofadvertising without the successful creative decision, i. e. without its basicmaintenance, advertising too will be inefficient. In our case as has shown researchof an advertising campaign of aluminium windows of Open Company «Натали»,the project is effective. The advertising idea is defined. Advertising strategyis however insufficiently clearly stated. We will take advantage of the givenreserve for increase of efficiency of an advertising campaign of Open Company«Натали», i. e. we will develop advertising strategy.
3.3 Use of methods of optimizationin advertising activity
One ofoptimisation methods in advertising activity is use of various channels formass communications, information transfers and advertising distributions. Informationtransmission media, or carriers, the TV, radio, newspapers, magazines, cinema,the Internet, the outdoor advertising are. The list of means of media showsthat it is the powerful tool of an advertising campaign. Media channels differfrom each other duration of contact, periodicity, in circulations, geography ofdistribution and popularity, and cost of one advertising message in theconcrete media channel depends on a format, colour, a place, the program, timeand other factors. But in any case it will be the price not for a picture or afilm hank, and for contact to an audience, more precisely, with target group (targetgroup) [1, с.69]. In an advertising campaign some carriers are used, as a rule.It allows to optimise quantity indicators of efficiency of the reference. Estimationsof audiences concern efficiency quantity indicators. Estimations of audiencesof edition Audience? An estimation of number of readers of the target groupreading given release of the given edition. Rating? The relation of an audienceof the edition to the target audience aggregate number, expressed in%. Conversion?This relation of the sum of ratings in target group to the sum of ratings ofcontrol group or in all general totality of readers. Reach frequencydistribution? Distribution of achievements on frequency, that is distributionof an audience of the edition on number of the read releases of the edition. Estimationsof an audience of advertising campaign GRP? A cumulative rating, that is thesum of ratings of all editions making the given advertising campaign. Effectivereach? Effective achievement, that is the coverage of the target group countedwith application of weighing on number of read editions. Cover? Coverage orestimation of number of the general totality, satisfying to selectionconditions in target group and reading at least one edition during advertisingcampaign passage. Average frequency? Average frequency (repeatability), that isan average on an audience of campaign number of the read editions or averagepossibility to see the advertising message. Reach frequency distribution? Distributionof an audience of an advertising campaign on number of the read editions (disorder).Affinity? An index of coincidence on reach? This relation of coverage of targetgroup to coverage of control group of the general totality, increased byhundred. Estimation of cost of advertising campaign CPRP (cost-per-rating-point)?Cost of point of a rating: / where Cost? Cost of one advertising area of theedition or one roller. CPT (Cost-per-tausend)? Cost of 1000 captured recipients(those who has received advertising) in target group (plan-forecast):
CPT Reach? Costof 1000 reached recipients in target group (postanalysis):
Estimations ofaudiences and advertising campaign cost allow to pick up an optimum variant ofa parity of quantity of editions and publications for target groups. Othermethod of optimisation of advertising activity at the enterprise is definitionof the budget of an advertising campaign. Budget working out promotes the mostfavourable distribution of resources, and it helps to hold expenses in inadvance certain frameworks. The complex budget on the advancement programassumes decision-making on two questions [28, с.116]: — total of the meansallocated for all complex of advancement, including advertising, salestimulation, паблик рилейшинз, personal sales; — definition of a share of eachelement of a complex of marketing communications in the general program ofadvancement. Budget size on advancement define in several ways. In practiceusually do not rely entirely on any one, and use a combination of severalmethods:? In percentage to a sales volume (last period or assumed);? Takinginto account the purposes and problems;? On the basis of dependence modellingbetween level of communications and behaviour of the consumer;? On the basis ofcosts planning;? On the basis of expenses of competitors. Most often use anindicator of a percentage parity of the sum of expenses for advancement to atotal cost of sales: where And? Assignments for the general program ofadvancement, rbl.; Оп? The total cost of sales, rbl. Preservation invariablethe same indicator assumes that the optimum parity between the sum of expensesand total cost of sales is found. After the statement of the given indicatorthe most important thing? To give the forecast of sale of the goods forforthcoming year. Also the forecast of sales on branch as a whole for thispurpose is required. For coordination in uniform indicators of expenses ofcompetitors, expenses for advancement and a total cost of sales use size ofexpenses for unit of a share of the market. This indicator is useful atcomparison of an advertising efficiency of separate firms. It is consideredthat the firm which spends for advertising counting on unit of one share of themarket the smaller sum, achieves efficiency. However the support on theseindicators can prevent to see dynamics of the market, those changes which occurfrom year to year in the different markets to different marks. At the approach takinginto account the purposes and problems the attention is focused on the purposeswhich are necessary for reaching at realisation of the program of advancement:- what sales volumes and profit it is necessary to reach; — what share of themarket which should be won; — what groups and market areas should be processed;- what should be response of consumers. Then problems are formulated, that isdefine strategy and tactics of marketing communications of the enterprise whichare capable to lead to achievement of objects in view. And after that deduce anestimated cost of the full program of advancement which becomes a basis fordefinition of the size of the budget. Some companies establish the budget onadvancement, being guided by expenses of competitors. Thus the basic accentbecomes on advertising expenses in mass media, after all advertising inmass-media serves as the basic means of positioning of the company in creationof a target segment of the market. Thus it is important to remember that budgetorientation should correspond to the strategic group of the companies operatingin branch if the company aspires to keep the share of the market. Foroptimisation of advertising activity of Open Company? Натали? It is necessaryto recommend use of various channels of distribution of advertising: except aprint advertising in newspapers and the outdoor advertising to use variousmagazines, the Internet, radio. For definition of the budget of advertising ofaluminium windows for Open Company? Натали? In the first year it is necessaryto use a method on the basis of costs planning as goods deducing on the marketdemands the big initial expenses for advancement. In the first months strongenough push is necessary whenever possible quickly to reach a sales volume providingprofitability. For formation of awareness and prompting to test the goods it isrequired much more efforts in sphere of advertising and sale stimulation, thanfor maintenance of a high break-even sales level to constants of consumers. Thebig initial expenses when sale starts to grow with zero, can turn back in thefirst year losses following the results of primary activity. Similar intensiveexpenses? In the advance payment? Are called as investment expenses. Howeverthey assume that like capital investments in means of production will bring inthe income the next years. The next years for drawing up of the budget ofadvertising for Open Company? Натали? It is recommended to use the approachuniting a method, a method on the basis of expenses of competitors and a method?Percent to a sales volume?.. By this moment the certain size will be generated? Ratherinvariable indicator? Advancement / sale? Also it will be possible to considerthat the optimal parity between the sum of expenses and total cost of sales onwhich to be guided further at drawing up of the budget of advertising activityis found.
The purpose ofthe given degree work consisted in research of an advertising campaign of thenew goods in Open Company Nataly. And definition of ways of increase ofefficiency of advertising activity for the enterprise as a whole. By thereceived results it is possible to tell that the work purpose is reached. Inwork a number of problems which have been solved as follows also has beenplanned. The first problem — research of theoretical aspects of efficiency ofdevelopment of advertising activity. The decision of the given problem hasallowed to draw following conclusions. Advertising? It is any paid form ofimpersonal representation and stimulation of sale of ideas, the goods andservices by the certain sponsor. Advertising is the most significant makingsystem of marketing communications which allows the enterprises to achievelong-term competitive advantage, and also serves as the basic tool ofpositioning of the enterprise in consciousness of a target segment of themarket. The essence of advertising consists that it hands over by means of massmedia the information on consumer properties of the goods for the purpose ofcreation of demand for it. The advertising purpose consists in systematicinfluence on mentality of the person to cause in it desire to get the knownblessings. Advertising became the integral and active part of a communicationcomplex of marketing. And its level of development defines quality andefficiency advertising-information work the manufacturer and its conformity tonew requirements of the world market. The second problem — a substantiation ofan advertising campaign of the new goods in Open Company Nataly. We havereceived following results. In carrying out of an advertising campaign of thenew goods in Open Company «Nataly» is engaged has dressed sale. Foradvertising of the new goods it has been decided to use printing and theoutdoor advertising. For outdoor advertising placing advertising agency «Agama»,for a print advertising has been chosen? Agency «Duet» and «Regiona press», for marketing researches? Agency «Media Soft». For anestimation of economic efficiency of an advertising campaign the comparisonmethod at which the effect from publicity carrying out has been compared withexpenses for its realisation was used. The estimation has shown that expensesfor goods advancement will pay off within three months and as a whole theproject is economically effective, that is is profitable. The estimation ofcommunicative efficiency of an advertising campaign, that is an estimation ofits quality indicators, was made on an example of a print advertising of thenew goods with use of a method of testing. Advertising leaflets, and also thequestionnaire for an estimation of advertising have been prepared by consumers.Results of testing of advertising have shown that advertising is remembered andattractive for consumers, however it is insufficiently distinguished. Advertisinghas the high subjective importance for consumers and is unique enough, but itis not for them enough complete and plausible. At 12% of the interrogatedrespondents who have paid attention to advertising of aluminium windows of OpenCompany Nataly, there was a desire get given production. Therefore it ispossible to predict high economic and communicative efficiency of the givenadvertising campaign. The third problem — definition of ways of increase ofefficiency of advertising activity. As has shown research of an advertisingcampaign of aluminium windows of Open Company «Nataly», the projectis effective. The advertising idea is defined. Advertising strategy has beenhowever insufficiently clearly stated. Advertising strategy has been developedfor increase of efficiency of an advertising campaign of Open Company «Nataly».For optimisation of advertising activity of Open Company Nataly. It wasrecommended: First, use of various channels of distribution of advertising (excepta print advertising in newspapers and the outdoor advertising to use variousmagazines, the Internet, radio); secondly, to practise planning of the budgetof advertising activity. For definition of the budget of advertising ofaluminium windows for Open Company Nataly. In the first year it is necessary touse a method on the basis of costs planning as goods deducing on the marketdemands the big initial expenses for advancement. In the first months strongenough push is necessary whenever possible quickly to reach a sales volumeproviding profitability. For formation of awareness and prompting to test thegoods it is required much more efforts in sphere of advertising and salestimulation, than for maintenance of a high break-even sales level to constantsof consumers. The big initial expenses when sale starts to grow with zero, canturn back in the first year losses following the results of primary activity. Similarintensive expenses? In the advance payment? Are called as investment expenses. Howeverthey assume that like capital investments in means of production will bring inthe income the next years. The next years for drawing up of the budget ofadvertising for Open Company? Натали? It is recommended to use the approachuniting a method целеполагания, a method on the basis of expenses ofcompetitors and a method? Percent to a sales volume?.. By this moment theoptimum parity between the sum of expenses and total cost of sales by which itwill be possible to be guided further at drawing up of the budget ofadvertising activity will be found.
The bibliographic list
1. Ананич М.И. Основы рекламной деятельности/ М.И. Ананич. — Новосибирск: СибУПК,2001 — 92 с.
2. Асеева Е.Н. Организация рекламной кампании/ Е.Н. Асеева, П.В. Асеев. — М.:ПРИОР, 1997. — 112с.
3. Виноградова С.Н. Коммерческая деятельность: Учебное пособие/ С.Н. Виноградова.- Минск: Высшая школа, 1998. — 176с.
4. Герасименко В.В. Основы маркетинга/ В.В. Герасименко. — М.: ТЕИС, 1999. — 142с.
5. Гермогенова Л.Ю. Эффективная реклама в России: Практика и рекомендации/Л.Ю. Гермогенова. — М.: «РусПартнер Лтд», 1994. -252 с.
6. Гражданский кодекс Российской Федерации: Полный текст: официальныйтекст, действующая редакция. — М.: Экзамен, 2001. — 304с.
7. Делл Д. Учебник по рекламе/ Д. Делл, Т. Линда — Минск: ООО«СЛК»,1996. — 320с.
8. Завъялов П.С. Формула успеха: Маркетинг (сто вопросов — сто ответов отом, как эффективно действовать на внешнем рынке) / П.С. Завьялов, В.С. Демидов.- М.: Международные отношения, 1991. — 380с.
9. Качалов И. Семь причин падения эффективности рекламы / И. Качалов // Реклама.- 2000. — №1. — С. 20-22.
10. Кейлер В.А. Экономика предприятия: Курс лекций / В.А. Кейлер. — М.: ИНФРА- М, Новосибирск: НГАЭиУ, 1999. — 132с.
11. Кисмерешкин В.Г. Реклама в продвижении российских товаров/ В.Г. Кисмерешкин.- М.: ОАО НПО «Экономика», 2000. — 192с.
12. Коломиец В.П. Рынок телевизионной рекламы: тенденции и перспективы/ В.П.Коломиец // Вест. Моск. ун-та. Серия 18. Социология и политология. — 1999. — №4.- С.98 — 106.
13. Котлер Ф. Основы маркетинга: Пер. с англ. / Ф. Котлер. — М.: Бизнес — книга,1995. — 702с.
14. Крылов И. Почему исследователи разошлись во мнениях? / И. Крылов // Реклама.- 2000. — №1. — С.4-5.
15. Лытнева Н.А. Учет и налогообложение расходов на рекламу/ Н.А. Лытнева, Л.А.Лытнева // Бухгалтерский учет. — № 14. — 2001. — С.13-23.
16. Музыкант В.Л. Реклама: международный опыт и российские традиции/ В.Л. Музыкант.- М.: Право и Закон, 1996. — 222с.
17. Музыкант В.Л. Теория и практика современной рекламы/ В.Л. Музыкант. — М.:Евразийский регион, 1998. — 400с.
18. Наумова А.В. Рекламная деятельность: Учебное пособие. — Новосибирск: СибУПК,2001. — 140с.
19. Памбухчиянц О.В. Организация и технология коммерческой деятельности: Учебникдля вузов / О.В. Памбухчиянц. — М.: Маркетинг, 2001. — 450с.
20. Панкратов Ф.Г. Рекламная деятельность: Учебник для вузов/ Ф.Г. Панкратов,Ю.К. Баженов, Т.К. Серегина. — М.: Маркетинг, 2001. — 346с.
21. Перепелица В. Как рекламу сделать эффективной или как стать известным/ В.Перепелица. — Ростов-на-Дону: Феникс, М.: Зевс, 1997. — 168с.
22. Полукаров В.Л., Головлева Е.Л. Реклама: Учебное пособие. — М.: Изд-воУРАО, 2003. — 192с.
23. Ромат Е.В. Реклама: Учебник для вузов / Е.В. Ромат. — Киев; Харьков: НВФ«Студенческий центр», 2000. — 480с.
24. Российский статистический ежегодник: Статистический сборник. — М.: ГоскомстатРоссии, 2001. — 679с.
25. Серегина Т.К. Реклама в бизнесе/ Т.К. Серегина, Л.М. Титкова. — М.: Маркетинг,1996. — 112с.
26. Синецкий Б.И. Основы коммерческой деятельности: Учебник/ Б.И. Синецкий. М.:Юрист, 1998. — 659с.
27. Титова В.А. Маркетинг: Учебное пособие / В.А. Титова. — Ростов — на — Дону: Феникс, 2001. — 448с.
28. Тюнюкова Е.В., Наумова А.В. Маркетинговые коммуникации: Учебное пособие.- Новосибирск: СибУПК, 2001. — 132с.