Реферат: Корни персонажей Д.Р.Р.Толкиена


Theroots of some Tolkien’s characters.

Tolkien’sview on some events from the Bible

andarchaic history.

Name: Yanov Andrey

Teacher: Mordasova L.M.

Voronezh 2004

<span Arial",«sans-serif»;mso-ansi-language: EN-US">CONTENTS

I. Introduction3
II. Body

1. J.R.R.Tolkien: Abiographical sketch

a) Tolkien’s birth4
b) Tolkien’s childhood in South Africa 4
c) Tolkien's childhood in England 4
d) Tolkien's childhood fears 4
e) Tolkien's education at home 5
f) Tolkien's childhood books 5
g) Tolkien in elementary school 6
h) Tolkien learns some philology 6
i) Tolkien's mother dies 6
j) Tolkien in high school 7
k) Tolkien in Oxford 7
l) Tolkien after World War II 9
m) Tolkien now 10

2. The roots of some Tolkien characters11
3. Tolkiens view on some events from

The Bible and archaic history     15

III. Conclusion19
IV. List of used literature 20
V. Appendix 21


I have many hobbies and one of them is reading. Ilike to read. Books liberalize us, and it is just very interesting. My favoritekinds of literature are fantasy, science fiction, myths and historical books.But when I saw the film “The Lord Of The Rings” for the first time, I liked itvery much. I realized that there was something unusual in it that attracted me.One day someone told me, that this film is a screen version of the book,written by Tolkien. Then I decided to read the book. And when I read its lastpage, I realized, that the world, that was described there is very close to me.That is how my keening of Tolkien’s works started. I’ve read the whole “TheLord Of The Rings”, “The Silmarillion”, “The Hobbit Or There And Back Again”,some Tolkien’s poems, such as “Namarie” (which means “farewell” in the “QuenyaLambe” (The Elvish Language)), “Oh, queen beyond the western sees…” and otherworks. Besides I’ve read “The Biography Of J.R.R.Tolkien”, written by H.Carpenter and  many works of differentfamous critics devoted to Tolkien. While reading such literature, I understandand realize very interesting ideas of Tolkien, his philosophy, and it is veryinteresting to know, what things influenced the creation of his characters andhis own world that he developed in “The Silmarillion”. And in my work I’mtrying to show you just some of those things.

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J.R.R.Tolkien: A biographicalsketch

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image002.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1026">Tolkien's birth

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien wasborn to Mabel Suffield and Arthur Tolkien in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>South Africa</st1:place></st1:country-region> on <st1:date Year=«1892» Day=«3» Month=«1» w:st=«on»>January 3, 1892</st1:date>.

On <st1:date Year=«1894» Day=«17» Month=«2» w:st=«on»>February 17,1894</st1:date>, Mabel gave birth toHilary Arthur Reuel Tolkien, J.R.R's only brother.

When Ronald (J.R.R)'s healthworsened in 1895, the Tolkiens (except for Arthur, who had to stay in order towrap up business) left to <st1:place w:st=«on»>Southampton</st1:place>.

On <st1:date Month=«2» Day=«15» Year=«1896» w:st=«on»>February 15, 1896</st1:date>, Arthur Tolkien, in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>South Africa</st1:place></st1:country-region>,died due to a severe hemorrhage.

Tolkien'schildhood in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>South Africa</st1:place></st1:country-region>

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image004.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1108">"... manymonths later, when Ronald was beginning to walk, he stumbled on a tarantula. Itbit him, and he ran in terror across the garden until the nurse snatched him upand sucked out the poison... Nevertheless, in his stories he writes morethan once of monstrous spiders with venomous bites" (Carpenter 14)

Ronald with his family in South Africa

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image005.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1109">«During thefirst year of the boy's life Arthur Tolkien made a small grove of cypresses,firs and cedars. Perhaps this had something to do with the deep love of treesthat wood that would develop in Ronald» (Carpenter 14)

Tolkien'schildhood in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>England</st1:place></st1:country-region>

Since his father (the solesource of money) was dead, J.R.R. and his family went to live with theSuffields (his maternal grandparents).

In the summer of 1896, theTolkiens moved out of <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Birmingham</st1:place></st1:City>to the hamlet of Sarehole (located in the English countryside).

Tolkien'schildhood fears

«An old farmer who oncechased Ronald for picking mushrooms was given the nickname 'The Black Ogre' bythe boys... they began to pick up something of the local vocabulary, adoptingdialect words into their own speech: 'chawl' for a cheek of pork, 'miskin' fordustbin, 'pickelet' for crumpet, and 'gamgee' for cotton wool. (Carpenter 21)

Tolkien'seducation at home

<img src=»/cache/referats/18445/image007.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1113">«Mabel soonbegan to educate her sons, and they could have had no better teacher — nor shean apter pupil than Ronald, who could read by the time he was four and had soonlearnt to write proficiently.» (Carpenter 21).

Ronald and Hilary

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image008.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1110">"... hisfavorite lessons were those that concerned languages. Early in his Sareholedays, his mother introduced him to the rudiments of Latin, and this delightedhim. He was just as interested in the sounds of the words as their meanings,and she began to realize that he had a special aptitude for language.(Carpenter 22).

«His mother taught him agreat deal of botany, and he responded to this and soon became veryknowledgeable. But again he was more interested in the shape and feel of aplant than in its botanical details. This was especially true of trees. Andthough he liked drawing trees he liked most of all to be with trees. He wouldclimb them, lean against them, even talk to them.» (Carpenter 22)

Tolkien'schildhood books

«He was amused by <st1:City w:st=»on"><st1:place w:st=«on»>Alice</st1:place></st1:City> in Wonderland,though he had no desire to have adventures like <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Alice</st1:place></st1:City>. He did not enjoy <st1:place w:st=«on»>Treasure Island</st1:place>, nor the stories of Hans Anderson, nor The Pied Piper. Buthe liked Red Indian stories and longed to shoot with a bow and arrow. He waseven more pleased by the 'Curdie' books of George Macdonald, which were set ina remote kingdom where misshapen and malevolent goblins lurked beneath themountains. The Arthurian legends also excited him. But most of all he founddelight in the Fairy Books of Andrew Lang, especially the Red Fairy Book, fortucked away in its closing pages was the best story he had ever read. This wasthe tale of Sigurd who slew the dragon Fafnir: a strange and powerful tale setin the nameless North." (Carpenter 22)

Tolkien's first experiencewith grammer

"'I desired dragons witha profound desire,', he said long afterwards.... When he was about seven hebegan to compose his own story about a dragon. 'I remember nothing about itexcept a philological fact,' he recalled. 'My mother said nothing about thedragon, but pointed out that one could not say 'a green great dragon', but hadto say 'a great green dragon'. I wondered why, and still do. The fact that Iremember this is possibly significant, as I do not think I ever tried to writea story again for many years, and was taken up with language.'" (Carpenter24)

Tolkien inelementary school

In September of 1900, J.R.R.Tolkien entered into King Edward's School.

In order to prevent Ronaldfrom walking several miles between the countryside home and school, theTolkiens moved from Sarehole to <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Birmingham</st1:place></st1:City>.

Due to school conflicts,Ronald Tolkien was transferred to King Phillip's Academy for a short period.

Tolkienlearns some philology

"... he especiallyremembered 'the bitter disappointment and disgust from schooldays with theshabby use made in Shakespeare of the coming of 'Great Birnam Wood to highDunisiane hill'; 'I longed to devise a setting by which the trees might reallymarch to war" (Carpenter 28)

«By inclination, hisform-master Brewerton was a medievalist... if a boy employed the term'manure' Brewerton would roar out: 'Manure? Call it muck! Say it three times!Muck, muck muck!'. He encouraged his students to read Chaucer, and he recitedthe Canterbury Tales to them in the original Middle English. To RonaldTolkien's ears, this was a revelation, and he determined to learn more aboutthe history of the language.» (Carpenter 28)

Tolkien'smother dies

«The New Year [1904] didnot begin well. Ronald and Hilary were confined to bed with measles followed bywhooping-cough, and in Hilary's case by pneumonia. The addition strain ofnursing them proved too much for their mother, and as she feard it proved'impossible to go on'. By April 1904 she was in hospital, and her condition wasdiagnosed as diabetes.» (Carpenter 29)

«At the beginning ofNovember 1904, she sank into a diabetic coma, and six days later, on November14, she died.» (Carpenter 30)

"... Perhaps hismother's death also had a cementing effect on his study of languages. It wasshe, after all, who had been his first teacher and who had encouraged him to takean interest in words. Now that she was gone he would pursue that pathrelentlessly. And certainly the loss of his mother had a profound effect on hispersonality. It made him into a pessimist... Nothing was safe. Nothing wouldlast. No battle would be won for ever." (Carpenter 31)

Related to philosophy of THELORD OF THE RINGS: Middle-Earth is never, ever free from evil. The Simillirionstates that Middle-Earth is destroyed and all live in Valinor (quasiMiddle-Earth) after the death of Morgroth (by <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Turin</st1:place></st1:City>, son of Thor).

Tolkien lives with hismother's aunt-in-law (in urban Edgbaston) along with his brother Hillary.

«His feelings towards therural landscape, already sharp from the earlier severance that had taken himfrom Sarehole, now become emotionally charged with personal bereavement. Thislove for the memory of the countryside of his youth was later to become acentral part of his writing, and it was intimately bound up with his love forthe memory of his mother.» (Carpenter 32-3)

Tolkien inhigh school

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image010.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1112">«HeadmasterGilson also encouraged his pupils to make a detailed study of classicallinguistics. This was entirely in keeping with Tolkien's inclinations; and,partly as a result in the general principles of language» (Carpenter 34)

Ronald in student years

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image011.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1114">«It was onething to know Latin, Greek, French, and German; it was another to understandwhy they were what they were. Tolkien had started to look for the bones, theelements that were common to them all: he had begun, in fact, to studyphilology, the science of words.» (Carpenter 34)

Tolkien studies all languages(Studies Chaucer, Beowulf, Old Norse, Gothic)

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image013.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1046">«He continuedhis search for the 'bones' behind all these languages, rummaging in the schoollibrary and exploring the remoter shelves of Cornish's bookshop down the road.Eventually he began to find — and to scrape enough money to buy — German bookson philology that were 'dry-as-dust' but which could provide the answers to hisquestions. Philology: 'the love of words'. For that was what motivated him. It wasnot an arid interest in the scientific principles of language; it was a deeplove for the look and sound of words, springing from the days when his motherhad given him his first Latin lessons... And as a result of this love ofwords, he had started to invent his own words» (Carpenter 35) Tolkienbegins to (at age 14) to create his own languages, namely 'Nevbosh', a languagefilled with Gothic and Norse words.

Edith Bratt

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image014.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1111">1908 — Tolkien falls inlove with Edith Bratt

1911 -Tolkien starts the Tea Cluband goes to <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Switzerland</st1:place></st1:country-region>

Tolkien in<st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Oxford</st1:place></st1:City>

In 1911 Tolkien entered ExeterCollege of Oxford. There he started writing (poem 'Wood-sunshine'), modeledafter several different authors.

«In 'Wood-sunshine' thereis a distinct resemblance to an episode in the first part of Thompson's 'SisterSongs' where the poet sees first a single elf and then a swarm of woodlandsprites in the glade; when he moves, they vanish.. .» (Carpenter 48)

«Being taught by JoeWright, Tolkien managed to find books of medieval Welsh, and he began to readthe language that had fascinated him since he saw a few words of it oncoal-trucks. He was not disappointed; indeed he was confirmed in all hisexpectations of beauty. Beauty: that was what pleased him in Welsh; theappearance and sound of the words almost irrespective of their meaning. He oncesaid: 'Most English-speaking people, for instance, will admit that cellar dooris 'beautiful', especially if disassociated from its sense (and its spelling).More beautiful than, say sky, and far more beautiful than beautiful'.» (Carpenter56-7)

Tolkien starts advancedlanguages (new): «He abandoned neo-Gothic and began to create a privatelanguage that was heavily influenced by Finnish. This was the language thatwould eventually emerge in his stories as 'Quenya' or High-elven. That wouldnot happen for many years; yet already a seed of what was to come was germinatingin his mind» (Carpenter 59)

1913 — Tolkien graduates fromthree-year program with second-class honors and proceeds to study philology ingraduate school.

At the same period Tolkienreads Cynewulf — "'I felt a curious thrill,' he wrote long afterwards, 'asif something had stirred in me, half wakened from sleep. There was somethingvery remote and strange and beautiful behind those words, if I could grasp it,far beyond ancient English'." (Carpenter 64) Tolkien reads theVöluspa — «The most remarkable of all Germanic-mythological poems, itdates from the very end of Norse heathendom, when Christianity was taking theplace of the old gods; yet it imparts a sense of living myth, a feeling of aweand mystery, in its representation of a pagan cosmos. It had a profound appealto Tolkien's imagination» (Carpenter 65) Tolkien sees Edith again (he waspreviously banned to see him by Father Francis, his guardian)

Tolkien reads Morris (NOTE:Mirkwood is the name of the great Necromancer's forest in The Hobbit and theLord of the Rings trilogy) «Written partly in prose and partly in verse,[Morris's book] centers on a House or family-tribe that dwells by a great riverin a clearing of the forest named Mirkwood, a name taken from ancient Germanicgeography and legend. Many elements in the story seem to have impressedTolkien. It's style is highly idiosyncratic, heavily laden with archaisms andpoetic inversions in an attempt to recreate the aura of ancient legend. ClearlyTolkien took not of this, and it would seem that he also appreciated anotherfacet of the writing: Morris' aptitude, despite the vagueness of time and placein which the story is set, for describing with great precision the details ofhis imagined landscape. Tolkien himself was to follow Morris' example in lateryear.» [Carpenter 70]

In the same year Tolkienvisits <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Cornwall</st1:place></st1:City>[NOTE: This is the location for the Sea in The Hobbit and LOTR] " 'NothingI could say... could describe it to you. The sun beats down on you and ahuge <st1:place w:st=«on»>Atlantic</st1:place> swell smashes and spouts overthe snags and reefs. The sea has carved weird wind-holes and spouts into thecliffs which blow with trumpety noises or spout foam like a whale, andeverywhere you see black and red rock and white foam against violet andtransparent seagreen.'." [Carpenter 70]

Tolkien begins to create workswith Quentya (language of the high-elves): «He had been working for sometime at the language that was influenced by Finish, and by 1915 he haddeveloped it to a degree of some complexity. He felt that it was 'a mad hobby',and he scarcely expected to find an audience for it. But he sometimes wrotepoems n it, and the more he worked at it the more he felt that it needed a'history' to support it. In other words, you cannot have a language without arace of people to speak it. He was perfecting the language; now he had todecide to whom it belonged.» [Carpenter 75]

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image016.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1049">Tolkien createsValinor [Land of the Gods in the Silmarillion] «This, he decided, was thelanguage by the fairies or elves whom Earendel saw during his strange voyage.He began work on a 'Lay of Earendel' that described the mariner's journeyingacross the world before his ship became a star. The Lay was to be divided intoseveral poems, and the first of these, 'The shores of Faery', tells of themysterious <st1:place w:st=»on"><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>land</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Valinor</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>, where TwoTrees grow, one bearing golden sun-apples and the other silvermoon-apples." [Carpenter 76]

Ronald in army

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image017.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1115">1916 — Tolkienmarries Edith, continues war, and gets to know soldiers [Tolkien is anofficer]. All of Tolkien's friends die [except C.S. Lewis]

Tolkienafter World War II

Continuing the last wishes ofthe T.B.C.S (the society he had founded with his friends at St. Edwards),Tolkien decides to create a whole society.

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image019.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1121">[Founding preceptsof the LOTR] " 'I [Tolkien] had a mind to make a body of more or lessconnected legend, ranging from the large and cosmogonic to the level ofromantic fairy-story — the larger founded on the lesser in contact with theearth, the lesser drawing splendor from the vast backcloths — which I coulddedicate simply: to England; to my country. It could possess the tone andquality that I desired, somewhat cool and clear, be redolent of our 'air' (theclime and soil of the North West, meaning Britain and the hither parts ofEurope; not Italy or the Aegean, still less the East), and, while possessing(if I could achieve it) the fair elusive beauty that some call Celtic (thoughit is rarely found in genuine ancient Celtic things), it should be 'high',purged of the gross, and fit for the more adult mind of a land long steeped inpoetry, I would draw some of the great tales in fullness, and leave many onlyplaced in the scheme, and sketched. The cycles should be linked to a majesticwhole, and yet leave scope for other minds and hands, wielding paint and musicand drama" [Carpenter 90] [Researching, not inventing] «When he wroteThe Silmarillion Tolkien believed that in one sense he was writing the truth.He did not suppose that precisely such peoples as he described, 'elves','dwarves', and malevolent 'orcs', had walked the earth and done the deeds thathe recorded. But he did feel, or hope, that his stories were in some sense anembodiment of a profound truth... Tolkien believed that he was doing morethan inventing a story. He wrote of the tales that make up the book: 'Theyarose in my mind as 'given' things, and as they came, separately, so too thelinks grew... yet always I had the sense of recording what was already'there', somewhere: not of 'inventing'.» [Carpenter 91-2]

Prosessor J.R.R.Tolkien

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image020.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1120">Influences fromlanguage: «As to the names of persons and places in 'The Fall of Gondolin'and the other stories in The Silmarillion, they were constructed from Tolkien'sinvented languages. Since the existence of these languages was a raisond'être for the whole mythology, it is not surprising that he devoted agood deal of attention to the business of making up names from them»

Tolkien creates Sindarin,precursor to Quentya

[Development of 'what isreal?'] «As the years went by he came more and more to regard his owninvented languages and stories as 'real' languages and historical chroniclesthat needed to be elucidated. In other words, when in this mood he did not sayof an apparent contradiction in the narrative or an unsatisfactory name: 'Thisis not as I wish it to be; I must change it.' Instead he would approach theproblem with the attitude: 'What does this mean? I must find about.»[Carpenter 94]

On the 16 of November 1917Tolkien gets a son and writes story of Luthien & Beren

1918 — Tolkien gets job in theOED (Oxford English Dictionary)

1920 — Tolkien gets aprofessorship at <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Leeds</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>University</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>

In October of 1920 Tolkiengets second son.

Tolkien writes poems:«Another, 'The Dragon's Visits', describes the ravages of a dragon whoarrives at <st1:place w:st=»on"><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Bimble</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Bay</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> and encounters 'MissBiggins'. A third, 'Glip', tells of a strange slimy creature who lives beneaththe floor of a cave and has pale luminous eyes" [Carpenter 106]: Dragon ~Smaug, Miss Biggins ~ Bilbo Baggins, Glip ~ Gollum

1924 — Tolkien gets a thirdson Christopher.

1925 — Tolkien becomes aprofessor of Anglo-Saxon at <st1:City w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Oxford</st1:place></st1:City>

1929 — Tolkien gets a daughter


<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image022.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1122"><img src="/cache/referats/18445/image024.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1033"> [Tolkien's Workplace]«The shelves are crammed with dictionaries, works on etymology andphilology, and editions of texts in many languages, predominant among which areOld and Middle English and Old Norse; but there is also a section devoted totranslations of The Lord of the Rings into Polish, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, andJapanese; and the map of his invented 'Middle-Earth' is pinned to the window — ledge.» (Carpenter 4) [Tolkien's view of The Lord of the Rings] «Heexplains it all in great detail, talking about his book not as a work offiction but as a chronicle of actual events; he seems to see himself not as anauthor who has made a slight error that must now be corrected or explainedaway, but as a historian who must cast light on an obscurity in an historicaldocument.» [Tolkien's Voice] «He has a strange voice, deep butwithout resonance, entirely English but with some quality in it I cannotdefine, as if he had come from another age or civilization» (Carpenter 5)

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The roots of some Tolkiencharacters


Gandalf the Grey

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image025.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1107"><img src="/cache/referats/18445/image026.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1082">While reading “TheHobbit” and “The Lord Of The Rings” you will meat such character as Gandalf. Heis a magician (or Istary in the “TheSilmarillion”). And like all magicians he wears a long, thick, grey (or white)beard, a big cone-shaped hat with wide fields and a wide grey raincoat. Thischaracter owes with his existence to Tolkien’s trip to <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>Switzerland</st1:place></st1:country-region>,where in the shop among the mountans he bought a postcard. It was a reproductionof a picture of a german painter Madlenner, which was called “Der Berggeist”(it could be translated as “The spirit of the mountans”). There was an old manwith white long beard and cone-shaped hat with wide fields, who was seatingunder the tree. Many years later Tolkien wrote on the other side of thispostcard the following: “The prototype ofGandalf”…


Sam Gamgee

Sam Gamgee is ahobbit (It tells us many things). He is the best friend of Frodo and besidesthat, he is Frodo’s gardener. He is very brave, bonhomous, kind, but carelessand light-hearted, and, as all hobbits, he likes to eat very much. It is veryinteresting, that the word “gamgee” can be translated from one of the Englishdialects as cotton wool and besides that, it was a surname of a doctor, who hadinvented 'gamgee-tissue', a surgical dressing made from cotton wool. But thereal character of  Sam was copied fromthe character of  the mere englishsoldier of the war of 1914. You already now from the biographical sketch thatTolkien took part in that war. He battled on the front line in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>France</st1:place></st1:country-region>. And he knows, what the waris. Later in one of his letters he wrote: “MySam Gamgee is indeed a reflection of the English soldier, of the privates andbatmen I knew in the 1914 war, and recognized as so far superior to myself”.


<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image028.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1088">Hobbits is a peopleof Halflings. They live in holes. They are very short, practical, strait-laced and they like tasty food most of all things inthe world.<span Arial CYR",«sans-serif»;color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

 These creatures were created by J.R.R.Tolkien.He was the first, who used them in his books. There are two versions about theorigin of the word “hobbit”. V.A. Muravjov keeps one of them. He wrote in his entrance to “The Lord Of The Rings”, that the world“hobbit” is a mixture of latin word “homo”, which means “human” and englishword “rabbit”. But Humphrey Carpenter explained the origin of this word in adifferent way. In his “The biography of J.R.R.Tolkien” he wrote, that in his youthTolkien read the book “Babbit” by Sincler Luis and it influensed him very much.Carpenter shows us the resemblance of the personalityof Babbit and Bilbo Baggins, the main character of Tolkien’s book “The hobbitor there and back again”. Tolkien himself told in one of his interview, thathis hobbits have no even a hint on rabbits. That is why I can say, that thesecond version about the origin of the word “hobbit” is more correct.<span Arial CYR",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

The Shire

Hobbits hole inside

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image029.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1106">

The Shire

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image030.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1105"><img src="/cache/referats/18445/image032.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1085"><img src="/cache/referats/18445/image034.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1084">The Shire is acountry of hobbits. But it also has its roots. From the biographical sketch weknow, that four best years of his childhood Tolkien spent in the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>village</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Sarehole</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>. And wile reading Tolkien’sdescription of the Shire I realized, that it is very close to the Carpenter’sdescription of Sarehole. The same water-mill, the same pretty flower-beds, theroads paved with stones of different colors. We can see the festive tree, whichwas decorated by hobbits every holiday. And we know, that in Sarehole there wasa tree, that Tolkien remembered all his life. The first his wise tree. Inhobbits-halflings we can see the same efficient, plain and stiff english peasantsso much loved by Tolkien.

Trees and ents

Ent Treebeard

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image035.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1104"><img src="/cache/referats/18445/image036.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1091">All his life Tolkienloved trees. In his childhood he dreamed, they could have  mind, speak to each other and even move. Andhis dream came true as we can see it in his works (mostly in “The Silmarillion”and “The Lord Of The Rings”). When professor created reasonabletrees, he desided to creat someone, who will look after them. That is how entsappeared. Ents look like trees, but they more reasonable, more movable and ofcourse they are immortal. They are not fidgety, but very wise. Their speech isvery slow and calm. Its manner (“Hrum, Hoom”) was copied with the deep bass of Luis,the best friend of J.R.R.Tolkien.


The elven virgo Galadriel

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image037.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1103"><img src="/cache/referats/18445/image039.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1093">Theelves in their appearance, whom we can see in the books of Tolkien were alsomostly created by him. The roots of these characters are very ramified.Professor read a lot of information about all kinds of elves and findingsomething general tried to create something new. Finally he got immortalcreatures, who can be killed only with a sword or they can pine away to death.They are tall, have perfect eyesight, bright hair and brave harts. They arewise, because of the memory they keep in their immortal mind. But elvesthemselves estimate their immortality as end-around infinity of analogicalevents, which exhaust and oppress them. But they have a dream to return toValinor, country, where their immortality wont be so hard and difficult. <span Arial CYR",«sans-serif»; color:black;mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

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Lutien Tinuviel(“Tinuviel” could be translated from Quenya as “nightingale”) is the mostbeautiful elven virgo in the whole Arda (The Earth). One day she was singingthe hymn to Varda in the forest:

IrIthil ammen Eruchin               (When the Moon is for us, the childrenof Eru,

Menel-virsila diriel                     Like sky precious stone shines andsaves,

Siloth a galadh lasto din!           Let theflower and the tree listen in silence!

A hirAnnun gilthoniel                 Oh,queen of the West, which light the stars,

Lelinnon im Tinuviel!                  Ising to you, it’s me, Tinuviel.)

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image041.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1095"> Beren, the bravest warrior herd this soundsand loved Lutirn in a moment. But he was mortal and she was an elf. That is whythey could not be together. But their love was so strong, that Lutien managedto ask the goddess Varda to help them. And Varda helped them, so Lutien becamemortal and shared the destiny of her sweetheart.

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Beren and Lutien

         Lutien is a copy of EdithBratt, the wife of Tolkien. Like Lutien Edith had hair of the color of raven’swing, satin skin, shining eyes. She danced and sang very well. And like theelven virgo, she danced for him in the forest. And there is a inscription onher tomb: “Edith Mary Tolkien (Lutien)”


Shelob is a brainchildof Ungoliant, a jumbo spider with a beak, pincers and bottomless stomach.Ungoliant is the evil and concentrated darkness. She terminated the Two GreatTrees Telperion and Laurelin and deprived the world fromethe light that give life.

Shelob is smallerthen her mother, but she is even more cruel and always hungry. This creaturelives in a lair on the border of Mordor(the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Dark</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Land</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>). She has a poison in her stinger,using which she kills and devours her victims.

In his earlychildhood, being in <st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>South Africa</st1:place></st1:country-region>, Tolkien stumbled on a tarantula. Itbit him, and he ran in terror across the garden until the nurse snatched him upand sucked out the poison. Since that time he began to afraid spiders. Maybethis made him to create such a creature.

“She”+”lob” is aquite wide-spread model of forming words, like female animals. For example“she-goat” or “she-wolf”. In this case words should be written with hyphen. Tolkientook hyphen away and used the received word as the name of his creature. Itlooks rather horribly, isn’t it?

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Tolkiens view on some events from

The Bible and archaic history

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image043.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1126">The crash of the Lamps

The spring of Arda

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image044.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1127">In the beginning of ages in “The spring of Arda” (“Arda” means “The Earth”) there was nolight at all. The Earth was bare: no trees, no plants, no animals. The Valar saw, that there was a need ofthe light. And then “Aule at the prayerof Yavanna wrought two mighty lamps for the lighting of the Middle-earth whichhe had built amid the encircling seas. Then Varda filled the lamps and Manwehallowed them, and the Valar set them upon high pillars, more lofty far thanare any mountains of the later days. One lamp they raised near to the north ofMiddle-earth, and it was named Illuin; and the other was raised in the south,and it was named Ormal; and the light of the Lamps of the Valar flowed out overthe Earth, so that all was lit as it were in a changeless day.” And thenplants and trees began to grow. And Arda filled with different animals andcreatures. But when Morgoth (the lordof darkness and evil) saw the fragrance of Arda inhis anger he decided to destroy this all. He built an unshakable citadel in Utumnoand concentrated all his dark forces there. His power grew and he started thewar. He made his stroke when the Valar where not prepared. “He assailed thelights of Illuin and Ormal, and cast down their pillars and broke their lamps.In the overthrow of the mighty pillars lands were broken and seas arose intumult; and when the lamps were spilled destroying flame was poured out overthe Earth. And the shape of Arda and the symmetry of its waters and its landswas marred in that time, so that the first designs of the Valar were neverafter restored.”

See,how gracefully professor Tolkien handled the legend of the ruin of dinosaursand the fall of a giant asteroid which destroyed everything on earth! Isn’t hea genius?

The fall of Beleriand

It was the end ofthe first age of Arda. The forth battle of Beleriand against Morgoth and Sauron (the “right arm” ofMorgoth) finished with a defeat of the forces of the light, the armies of men,elves and dwarves. And the only hope of the light was Earendel, the man, who dared to try to find Valinor and ask the Valarfor help (men never were in Valinor and they where forbidden to go there). Hesailed so <img src="/cache/referats/18445/image046.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1097">long, and he was sotired, that he thought to turn back. But suddenly he saw a big white bird likea white cloud under the see. There was a shining silmarill on her bosom. The bird flew on Earendels ship and he saw,that it was his wife, Elwing. Togetherthey continued their sail and the silmarill lighted their way to

The map of Beleriand

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image047.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1101">Valinor. When theValar saw the bravery of this man and his wife (by the way, she was an elf),the understood, there is something in Middle-Earth, they must save. That is howthe fifth and the final battle for Beleriand started.

This battle wasnamed The War of Wrath. The Valar, with the power of their fire of angerterminated Angband (the citadel of Morgoth),they knocked Morgoth down and numbed him with the chain of Angoinor. Sauron was forgiven and turned into light, he became Majar again, as he was before Morgothtempted him.

But in their<span Arial",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

destructiveanger, the Valar didn’t even noticed,that they had destroyed the Beleriand. Many of Elves where save and settled in Imladrise, Lothlorien and Mirkwood.But Beleriand was swallowed by the See and no one could ever see its beauty: “Thus an end was made of the power ofAngband in the North, and' the evil realm was brought to naught; and out of thedeep prisons a multitude of slaves came forth beyond all hope into the light ofday, and they looked upon a world that was changed. For so great was the furyof those adversaries that the northern regions of the western world were rentasunder, and the sea roared in through many chasms, and there was confusion andgreat noise; and rivers perished or found new paths, and the valleys wereupheaved and the hills trod down…”

Critics say, thatthis story is the Tolkiens view on the legend about Atlantis. Who knows, maybeit was really so…

The fall of Numenor

In the end of thesecond age of Arda after the War of Wrath and the fall of Beleriand the Valaropened a new land for elected genders of men. It was an island. And it didn’tbelong neither to Middle-Earth nor to Valinor (the country of the Valar). The Valardecorated it with gardens, fountains and flowers from Valinor. And this landwas named Numenor (The Western Land).

The life of theinhabitants of Numenor was very long – near 300 years. But they still stayedmortal men. Hundreds of years passed and their discontent about their mortalitygrew. They began to murmur on the Valar: “Why didn’t they give us eternity, ifthey love us so much? They told us, they could not. Maybe, they just don’t wantto?” But the Valar really couldn’t deprive men from death, the Eru’s gift (Eru – the one, who create the Valar and Arda, elves and men andeverything), just because they couldn’t understand it.

The map of Numenor

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image048.gif" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1100"><img src="/cache/referats/18445/image050.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1131">And exactly in thismoment, when the faith of men staggered, Sauron, who betrayed the Valar andturned in the Darkness again, made his stroke. He tempted men and directed themagainst the Valar. Finally the king of men concentrated all his forces andthrew his giant army against the Valar. Eru saw this and made abyss to swallow thisarmy and the isle of Numenor and men and Sauron: “But Iluvatar (the other name of Eru) showed forth his power, and he changed the fashion of the world; and agreat chasm opened in the sea between Numenor and the Deathless Lands, and thewaters flowed down into it, and the noise and smoke of the cataracts went up toheaven, and the world was shaken. And all the fleets of the Numenoreans weredrawn down into the abyss, and they were drowned and swallowed up for ever.”

“There came a mighty wind and a tumult of the earth,and the sky reeled, and the hills slid, and Numenor went down into the sea,with all its children and its wives and its maidens and its ladies proud; andall its gardens and its balls and its towers, its tombs and its riches, and itsjewels and its webs and its things painted and carven, and its lore: theyvanished for ever. And last of all the mounting wave, green and cold and plumedwith foam, climbing over the land…”And the world has changed.

Only those whostayed faithful to the Valar was reminded about forthcomingcataclysm. They sailed to Middle-earth on ships and founded several kingdomstheir: Gondor, Arnor and Eriador…

This legend intertwines with the Bible Great Flood. As in the Bible wecan see the sin of men and retribution for it. As inthe Bible water swallowed the sinners. And as in the bible there are somepeople, who stayed faithful and who was saved and prized for theirfaith.  <span Arial CYR",«sans-serif»;color:black; mso-ansi-language:EN-US">

How the world changed

When Eru punished men in Numenor and destroyed the island, he changedthe whole world as well: “Butthe <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>land</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Aman</st1:PlaceName></st1:place> and Eressëa (the islands of Valinor) of the Eldar were taken away and removedbeyond the reach of Men for ever. And Andor, the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Land</st1:PlaceType> of <st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Gift</st1:PlaceName></st1:place>,Numenor of the Kings, Elenna of the Star of Eärendil, was utterlydestroyed. For it was nigh to the east of the great rift, and its foundationswere overturned, and it fell and went down into darkness, and is no more. Andthere is not now upon Earth any place abiding where the memory of a time withoutevil is preserved. For Iluvatar cast back the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Great</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Seas</st1:PlaceType></st1:place>west of Middle-earth, and the <st1:place w:st=«on»><st1:PlaceName w:st=«on»>Empty</st1:PlaceName> <st1:PlaceType w:st=«on»>Lands</st1:PlaceType></st1:place> east of it, and newlands and new seas were made; and the world was diminished, for Valinor andEressëa were taken from it into the realm of hidden things.”

<img src="/cache/referats/18445/image052.jpg" align=«left» hspace=«12» v:shapes="_x0000_s1134">Before the fall ofNumenor the Earth was flat, but Eru changed her:

“Thus in after days, what by the voyages of ships,what by lore and star-craft, the kings of Men knew that the world was indeedmade round”

By this episode Tolkien managed to conciliatetwo archaictheories about the form of ourplanet. He intended that at first the Earth was flat and then changed its form.Of course it is just a myth, but who knows, maybe it was really so…

The Change of the world

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About wars

In “TheSilmarillion”, in “The Lord Of The Rings” and even in “The Hobbit” we can seewars. In his works Tolkien shows us real war with its blood, pain and cruelty.Why does he pay so much attention to War? The answer is simple. In 1916 he wasin army and took part in the battle of the <st1:place w:st=«on»>Somme</st1:place>(<st1:country-region w:st=«on»><st1:place w:st=«on»>France</st1:place></st1:country-region>).Many of his friends fell in this battle. There Tolkien saw all sides of thewar. This period of his life influenced on his creative work very much. That iswhy we can see so many wars in the books of the professor.

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Well,I think, that now, when I have studied many reasons and roots of differentcharacters of “The Silmarillion”, “The Hobbit” and “The Lord Of The Rings”, Iunderstood Tolkiens philosophy and his views on things a little bit deeper. Butthe views of the Professor on such events, as I have mentioned in my work,can’t be named allegory, because Tolkien himself always declined the presenceof any kind of allegory in his books. But the method of his viewing can becalled “myth-poetical method”. In his “The Silmarillion” and “The Lord Of TheRings” we can see all sings of myth-poetical space, which makes the bookfantastic, historical, mythable, poetical and very informative. Besides, “TheLord Of The Rings” is very real and vital. And there is no such question forme, on which I couldn’t find an answer in it.

         Well, to my mind, my own experience in the sphere ofliterature, tolkienism and just life experience is enough to advise you to readthis book. I think, after such reading, you wouldn’t forget it!
List of usedliterature

1.<span Times New Roman"">    

J.R.R.Tolkien “TheSilmarillion”

2.<span Times New Roman"">    

J.R.R.Tolkien “TheLord Of The Rings”

3.<span Times New Roman"">    

J.R.R.Tolkien “TheHobbit or There And Back Again”

4.<span Times New Roman"">    

J.R.R.Tolkien  “The appendix to “The Lord Of The Rings”

5.<span Times New Roman"">    

V. Muraviov   an introductory article to “The Hobbit”

6.<span Times New Roman"">    

H. Carpenter  “The biography of J.R.R. Tolkien”

7.<span Times New Roman"">    

Pictures byJ.R.R.Tolkien, Karen Wynn Fonstad, Patrick Wynne and frames from the film “The Lord OfThe Rings” by Peter Jackson.<span Times New Roman",«serif»; mso-fareast-font-family:«Times New Roman»;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language: RU;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA">


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“The door of Moria”

by J.R.R.Tolkien

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Elvish and runic scripts made by J.R.R.Tolkien

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The Monogram of


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Ronald and Edith


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Professor Tolkien

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The last photo of


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The tomb of Edith Mary Tolkien (Lutien)  and John Ronald Ruel Tolkien (Beren)

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